Anzeige

C1 sb assassins creed iii liberation

Teacher of Media
13. Feb 2020
Anzeige

Más contenido relacionado

Anzeige
Anzeige

C1 sb assassins creed iii liberation

  1. A level Component 1: Section B Media Products, Industries and Audiences Video Games/Assassin’s Creed III: Liberation
  2. Name the Game Platform by Controller
  3. A Brief History of Video Games
  4. What’s this?
  5. What’s this? The very first home video game console. Released in 1972, the Odyssey was a simple and crude device that generated shapes on the television that could be controlled and interacted with.
  6. 1st Gen consoles 1972-1980 2nd Gen Consoles 1975-1992 “Golden age of arcade video games” 1978–1982
  7. 2nd Gen Consoles 1975-1992 ATARI 2600, ATARI 5200 1982 saw launch of ZX spectrum (Sinclair) and the Commodore 64; two popular 8-bit home computers that were also used for games.
  8. 3rd Gen Consoles 1983-2003 AKA “8 bit era” Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), SEGA Master System Atari 7800, Atari XEGS. Games on cartridges
  9. 4th Gen Consoles 1987-2004 AKA “16bit era” SEGA Mega drive, Super NES (SNES) Game boy (Nintendo) Game gear (SEGA) 5th Gen Consoles 1993-2005 AKA “32bit era”, “64 bit era” and/or “3D era” Atari Jaguar, Sega Saturn, Nintendo 64, Sony Playstation, Apple Pippin. Games on ‘optical discs (DVD/CD rom) 6th Gen Consoles 1998-2013 AKA “128bit era”, “64 bit era” and/or “3D era” Sony Playstation 2, Sega Dreamcast, Nintendo Gamecube, X-box (Microsoft) Gameboy Advance
  10. 6th Gen Consoles 1998-2013 AKA “128bit era”, “64 bit era” and/or “3D era” Sony Playstation 2, Sega Dreamcast, Nintendo Gamecube X-box (Microsoft), Gameboy Advance
  11. Mobile gaming (on phones) took off in ‘97 with Snake on the Nokia. Since then, as phones have been more sophisticated, so have the games you can play on them 7th Gen Consoles 2005-2017 X Box 360, Playstation 3, Wii (Nintendo), Nintendo DS, Playstaion Portable (PSP) Touch screen, motion sensing, HD video (blu-ray) 8th Gen Consoles 2012-present X-Box One, Playstation 4, Wii U, Nintendo 3DS, Nintendo Switch, Playstation Vita Focus on connectivity – ‘sharing’, Augmented Reality
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 https://www.preceden.com/t imelines/191578-history-of- video-game-consoles https://www.did.ie/content/ blog/history-of-video-game- consoles
  14. In recent years there has been a major growth in “mobile gaming” and “casual gamers”
  15. In recent years there has been a major growth in “mobile gaming” and “casual gamers”
  16. Quick Quiz Biggest selling Video Games Console ever? Biggest selling video game of all time? Most played video game of all-time (by player count)? Highest Grossing Video Game Franchise?
  17. Quiz Biggest selling Video Games Console ever? Playstation 2
  18. Quiz Biggest selling video game of all time? Minecraft
  19. Quiz Most played video game of all-time (by player count)? Crossfire
  20. Quiz Highest Grossing Video Game Franchise?
  21. Biggest Video Game territories are UK/Europe, USA & Japan
  22. https://ukie.org.uk/researchhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=5&v=Renyr3vt7Is&feature=emb_logo
  23. The Video Games Industry Today
  24. The Video Games Industry Today
  25. The Video Games Industry Today
  26. UK - Industry • In 2012 two physical games sold over 1 million units: Call of Duty Black Ops II and FIFA 13. • In 2013 the chart was dominated by The Last of Us, a zombie survival game for the PS3. In its opening weekend it sold more than 1.3 million copies and made more money than the new superman film. • Its critically acclaimed for its narrative, its themes that are seen as more mature and emotional than those usually seen in this genre. • This game is sound evidence that the computer games industry is developing in response to the demands of an audience who want to be both surprised and challenged. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQWD5W3fpPM
  27. Industry Facts: USA in 2013 • In 2013: 58% of Americans play video games. • Consumers spent $20.77 billion on video games, hardware, and accessories in 2012. • Purchase of digital content, including games, add-on content, mobile apps, subscriptions, and social networking games, accounted for 40% of game sales in 2012. • The average game player is 30 years old and has been playing for 13 years. • The average age of the most frequent game purchaser is 35 years old. • 45% of game players are women. Women over the age of 18 represent a significantly greater portion of the game-playing population (31%) than boys age 17 or younger (19%) • 51% of US households own a dedicated game console, and those that do own an average of two. • 36% of gamers play on their smartphone, and 25% play games on their wireless device. • Parents are present when games are purchased or rented 89% of the time.
  28. Gaming future? • https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-51400135
  29. Game terminology Define the following Games Industry terms • AAA • AR • Cloud gaming • Cutscene • DLC • Engine • FPS • Franchise • In-app purchase • Microtransaction • MMORPG • PEGI • Sand box • Skin • VR
  30. Ubisoft is a French video game company headquartered in Montreuil(Paris) with several development studios across the world. Founded in March 1986 by the Guillemot brothers Since its establishment, Ubisoft has become one of the largest video game publishers, and it has the largest in-house development team, with more than 14,000 employees working in over 40 studios. Revenue (2018): €1.732 billion (approx. £1.46 billion) As of March 2018, Ubisoft is the fourth largest publicly traded game company in the Americas and Europe in terms of revenue and market capitalization, after Activision Blizzard, Electronic Arts, and Take-Two Interactive (Rockstar)
  31. As a publisher and developer of video games (vertical integration), Ubisoft is able to release and sell (publish) its own games that it has created (developed) ‘in house’. It has numerous in house developing studios around the world: Ubisoft Montreal, Toronto, Quebec, Paris, Halifax (UK), San Francisco. It has also acquired several other studios such as Massive Entertainment (Sweden), Red Storm Entertainment (USA), Reflections Interactive (Newcastle, UK) and FreeStyleGames (Leamington Spa, UK – since rebranded as Ubisoft Leamington) These are now subsidiaries of Ubisoft (horizontal integration).
  32. https://ubistatic- a.akamaihd.net/0090/PROD/ubigroup/PressKit/20180 611/2019_06_Press_Kit_Facts_Figures-EN.pdf
  33. What other Ubisoft titles/franchises have you heard of?
  34. What other Ubisoft titles/franchises have you heard of?
  35. What other Ubisoft titles/franchises have you heard of? Titles include • FarCry (13) • Tom Clancy’s Rainbow Six (22), Ghost Recon (16), Splinter Cell (7) • Watchdogs (3) • Just Dance (26) • Hungry Shark (6) • Rayman
  36. Assassin’s Creed Franchise • One of Ubisoft’s longest lasting and most successful titles. • An action-adventure stealth video game franchise • Uses the game engine Anvil and its more advanced derivatives. • Depicts a centuries-old struggle, now and then, between the Assassins, who fight for peace with free will, and the Templars, who desire peace through control. • The series features historical fiction, science fiction and characters, intertwined with real-world historical events and figures. • For the majority of time players would control an Assassin in the past history, while they also play as Desmond Miles or an Assassin Initiate in the present day, who hunt down their Templar targets. • A new story and time period are introduced in each entry, and gameplay elements evolve from the previous one. There are three story arcs in the series. • For the first five main games, the framing story is set in 2012 and features series protagonist Desmond Miles who uses a machine called the Animus and relives the memories of his ancestors to find a way to avert the 2012 apocalypse.
  37. Assassin’s Creed Franchise • As of start of 2020* ranked 32nd highest grossing video game. • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_video_game_franchises • Below: Mario, Pokemon, Call of Duty, Pac man, Fifa, Final Fantasy, GTA, Candy Crush, Dragon Quest, Clas of Clans, Donkey Kong. Sonic The Hedgehog Star Wars, Halo, The Sims and Fortnite • Above Need foir Speed, Gran Turismo, Resident Evil, Legend of Zerlda, Super Smash Bros, Minexraft, Metal Gear, Guitar Hero, Tetris, Harry Potter, The Elder Scrolls, Gears of War • * Not all data on list appears up to date!
  38. (This is the one we will be studying)
  39. Between 2007-18, 22 editions have been released. 8 were before AC3: Liberation’s release in 2012
  40. Franchise extensions • Film • Comics • Merchandise • Soundtrack Album • Anime TV series (in production/Netflix)
  41. Assassin’s Creed III Liberation Focuses on the life of African-French Assassin Aveline de Grandpré. She is the series' first female (and black) protagonist This may be seen as an attempt to broaden the audience beyond typical white males. Also may be seen as a response to feminist critics who have complained about the underrepresentation and misrepresentation of women in the Video Game Industry. What other female protagonists can you think of from video games?
  42. Assassin’s Creed III Liberation Focuses on the life of African-French Assassin Aveline de Grandpré. She is the series' first female (and black) protagonist This may be seen as an attempt to broaden the audience beyond typical white males. Also may be seen as a response to feminist critics who have complained about the underrepresentation and misrepresentation of women in the Video Game Industry. What other female protagonists can you think of from video games? https://www.gamesradar.com/20-most-inspirational-female-characters-games/
  43. Assassin’s Creed III Liberation Aveline de Grandpré frees slaves while attempting to stop the Templars gaining control over 18th century New Orleans towards the end of the French and Indian War. The game takes place within an open world and is presented from the third- person perspective with a primary focus on using combat and stealth abilities to complete missions and optional tasks Set between 1765 and 1777 (Colonial era)
  44. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A1rizB4vF18&list=PLUPxD OG-YGRDm4aLdvqYavfH4wn5Rz-fV&index=1
  45. Assassin’s Creed III Liberation: Platform The game was released on the PSVita, Sony’s handheld games console
  46. Assassin’s Creed III Liberation: Platform The game was released on the PSVita, Sony’s 8th Generation handheld games console. In recent years there has been a growing trend for mobile gaming spurred by Smartphones, Tablets, and Apple’s iPad/Touch. Console makers have sought to combat this trend releasing their own mobile gaming devices (e.g. Nintendo DS/3DS and Switch.) These allow for ‘going on the go’ and attract more ‘casual’ gamers.
  47. Watch this 2011 PSvita advert and make notes on the handheld console’s features https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RIaJHh60hQY&list=PLUPxDOG-YGRDm4aLdvqYavfH4wn5Rz-fV&index=24
  48. Watch this 2017 PSvita video and make notes on the ‘5 reasons’ for owning one https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_YXjl6vcQs&list=PLUPxDOG-YGRDm4aLdvqYavfH4wn5Rz-fV&index=25
  49. Portability – on the go – for casual gamers Link to PS3/PS4 – use Vita as an additional gamepad group chat and messaging apps Take photos and download content from PS Store Fans of original title will be enticed to play the game as well as the casual gamers Features (video 1) • Dual analogue sticks • OLED Screen • Microphone • Wifi/3G • Motion Sensor (gyroscope) • Front & Rear cameras • Front & Rear Multitouch screens 5 Reasons to own (Video 2) • Affordability • Remote Play • Playstation Plus • Community • The Games
  50. Assassin's Creed III: Liberation retains the "franchise's trademark open world and gameplay", while making use of the PlayStation Vita’s exclusive features such as: • Touchscreen • rear touch pad, • cameras and • Gyroscope (motion sensor). These include Chain Kill combat, and the ability to pickpocket people. The multiplayer, exclusive to the original Vita version, consists of players tapping nodes on a map, using characters (represented with static portraits) to capture bases and collect supplies, among other things. This differs from the series usual competitive multiplayer which had players assassinating each other for sport
  51. Assassin's Creed III: Liberation: Release • Assassin's Creed III: Liberation was released on October 30, 2012, the same day as Assassin's Creed III (separate game with different characters available on consoles like Playstation 3).
  52. The game is available in a PS Vita bundle pack with a new crystal white Wi-Fi Vita and a 4GB memory card. In Japan it was released under the title Assassin's Creed III: Lady Liberty.
  53. Assassin's Creed III: Liberation HD • It was announced on September 10, 2013, that the game would be re-released as Assassin's Creed: Liberation HD for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows via the PlayStation Network, Xbox Live Arcade and Steam, respectively, in 2014. • The game features visuals closer to ACIII as well as updated audio, AI and facial animations. • Additional missions have been added and some of the Vita- specific touch screen missions have been removed, as well as the nodes multiplayer and a minor Quick Time Event minigame. • The game was released on the PlayStation 3 on January 14, 2014 in North America and January 15, 2014 in Europe. The Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 versions were released worldwide on January 15, 2014.
  54. Assassin's Creed III: Liberation HD • In March 2019 Assassin’s Creed III Remastered was released. • Assassin's Creed III Remastered was announced to include all of its original DLC and a remastered version of Assassin's Creed III Liberation. • It was also included in the Assassin's Creed: Odyssey ‘season pass’.
  55. • The game on PSvita can also link to Assassin’s Creed III (separate game) on the Playstation 3 or 4. • By linking the game to Assassin's Creed III, the player receives an in-game version of Connor's tomahawk, an exclusive character skin, a character and a complete upgrade of all ammunition pouches. • The game uses the same engine that runs Assassin's Creed III, allowing for the same gameplay experience as a console release. Also minimising production costs.
  56. Purchasing Assassin's Creed III for the PlayStation 3 gives the player the ability to connect Liberation and receive an exclusive mission to play in Liberation as Connor or Aveline, a Multiplayer Skin and an Ammunition Pouch. There was also a promotional DLC, titled Mysteries of the Bayou pack, that came with pre-orders of the game in PAL regions. It included an exclusive weapon, an alligator hunting hat, a Multiplayer Skin and Ammunition Pouches for smoke bombs and poison darts. These all feature in the HD remaster, save for the multiplayer skin, as that feature was removed.
  57. AC3L Product Context: Summary • Released 2012 by Ubisoft, global games conglomerate – vertically and horizontally integrated (developer/publisher with subsidaries in bot areas) • Part of long running successful Assassin’s Creed franchise • Initially released only on PSvita in response to growth in mobile gaming • Featured exclusive content using PSvita features and could also link with AC3 on PS3/PS4 via “Remote Play” • Multiple further editions released including AC3L HD (2014) on PS3 and as part of “AC3 remastered” bundle (2019).
  58. Product Context: Summary • Assassin’s Creed III: Liberation, part of the very successful games franchise, was developed by Ubisoft and released on October 30 2012, along with Assassin’s Creed III. • The game was originally exclusive to the PS Vita but was later (2014) released in a modified HD version across a large range of consoles and platforms (including PS3, Xbox 360 and Microsoft Windows). • Assassin’s Creed III: Liberation offers familiar pleasures to existing fans (narrative situation of the Assassins v the Templars, open world gameplay etc.) along with new elements to target a wider audience (e.g. the use of a strong female protagonist).
  59. Video Game Regulation • Video Game regulation differs around the world but is becoming standardised across many European countries. In the UK until July 2012 video games had been regulated by the BBFC. • Today they are largely regulated by the Video Standards Council (VSC) • The VSC apply the PEGI system (Pan European Game Information). • Why do video games need regulation? What are the reasons for regulating video games?
  60. Media Regulation: Rationale • Protect the public from harmful or offensive content: sex, violence, etc • Protect the public from harmful or offensive media practices: invasion of privacy, libel, etc • Ensure fair competition between media producers: copyright infringement • Ensure fair market for media consumers: fair prices, range of products, etc
  61. Video Game Regulation: Process • VSC use the PEGI standards to award video games age ratings, based upon their perceived suitability for different age audiences. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJDhP0YjzH8
  62. BBC Bitesize Video Games and regulation task • Go to https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/guides/z2g7p39 • Read through the notes, watch the video and answer the questions in the test at the end. • Copy the questions and answers into your notebook.
  63. Video Game Regulation: Effectiveness? Read through the following articles, making notes on the arguments in support of and the opposing articles criticising current regulation of video games. • What evidence is there that current regulation methods are working? • What evidence is there that current regulation methods need improving? • What are the main areas of concern for critics? • http://www.digitaljournal.com/tech-and-science/technology/evidence-that-video-game-ratings-really- work/article/486872 • https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2019/10/09/a-new-public-body-is-necessary-to-effectively-regulate-the- uk-video-game-industry/
  64. Assassin’s Creed III Liberation: Regulation • Go onto the VSC website and look up Assassin’s Creed III Liberation to find out what age rating it was awarded and why.
  65. Assassin’s Creed III Liberation: Regulation • Go onto the VSC website and look up Assassin’s Creed Liberation to find out what age rating it was awarded and why.
  66. Power and media industries - Curran and Seaton • The media is controlled by a small number of companies primarily driven by the logic of profit and power • Media concentration generally limits or inhibits variety, creativity and quality • More socially diverse patterns of ownership help to create the conditions for more varied and adventurous media productions. Consider • Is AC3L produced by a major or indie media production company? • What other media properties do they own/are they linked to? • Look at their portfolio of media productions. Is there any indication of limited variety/creativity?
  67. Video Games & Audience Who plays video games? • Gender? • Age? • Ethnicity? • Nationality? • Psychographics – personality types, Y&R
  68. VideoGames&Audience
  69. VideoGames&Audience
  70. Audience: Target Audience Who plays video games? • Consider demographics (age, gender, social economic status, ethnicity,etc) • Consider psychographics (VALs, Y&R’s 4Cs) Who would play AC3:L? • Consider demographics (age, gender, social economic status, ethnicity,etc) • Consider psychographics (VALs, Y&R’s 4Cs), Types of gamer
  71. • https://medium.com/the-nerd-castle/debunked-the-gamer-stereotype-69be0e4ee0d7
  72. Women and Video Games • Despite their increasing proportion among video gamers, women are still often in video games themselves. • Most characters are male. underrepresented And when they are female they are often objectified for ‘the male gaze’ and/or lack narrative agency. • Feminist critic and vlogger Anita Sarkeesian has made many videos about this issue on her channel Feminist Frequency under the theme of “Tropes vs Women in Video Games”
  73. Tropes vs Women in Video Games
  74. • https://www.dailydot.com/parsec/gaming/lack-of-women-assassins-creed/ • https://www.digitalspy.com/videogames/assassins-creed/a576942/assassins-creed-unity-explains-lack-of-female-assassins/ • https://www.pcgamer.com/ac-op-ed/ • https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/assassins-creed-unity-in-trouble-over-excluding-female-killers-ubisoft-responds-9531623.html
  75. Audience: how producers target, attract, reach, address and potentially construct audiences: The game is for a hand held device. • This may imply it is aimed at a more casual or mobile gamer (a discussion here about “on the go” gamers playing mobile games versus traditional console and PC gamers may be useful). The game features a female protagonist. • This is unusual in the franchise and may be considered in terms of appealing to a different demographic (possibly linked to the “on the go” gamers discussion above). The existence of a female protagonist may also be discussed in terms of constructing audiences by asking whether this game might offer a platform for female gamer identification.
  76. The interrelationship between media technologies and patterns of consumption and response: • The game is linked to a more traditional console version and which was simultaneously released with this game. This might be considered as an attempt to draw gamers from different platforms to purchase additional hardware and adopt new gaming habits. • The two versions of the game are also linked in terms of downloadable content and special features. This relates to changing patterns of consumption. • Gamers might be being encouraged to have a more complete or satisfying experience by using a range of interlinked products that offer exclusive downloadable content. This is only made possible through convergent technology and gamer “buy- in” to the value of the exclusive content.
  77. Audience Media Effects & Albert Bandura • The media can implant ideas in the mind of the audience directly • Audiences acquire attitudes, emotional responses and new styles of conduct through modelling • Media representations of transgressive behaviour, such as violence or physical aggression, can lead audience members to imitate those forms of behaviour. Is there any "transgressive behaviour" that could be imitated through modelling? Is there any evidence that audiences for this game have modelled their behaviour on the game? If transgressive behaviour is a problem, what has been/could be done about it?
  78. Audience Media Effects & Albert Bandura • The game received an 18 rating from • PEGI due largely to violent content. • Consider audience response to violent video games in terms of Bandura’s arguments about observation and imitation and vicarious consequences. Explore the “Bobo Doll Experiment” and discuss how relevant this is to the audiences targeted by the game. • Are audiences likely to imitate the behaviours portrayed in the game? • What might be imitated? • A useful discussion might be had in relation to the active role adopted by a player of video games. • Question whether Bandura’s conclusions are invalidated or made more relevant if audiences are choosing to commit acts of violence in a video game rather than watching/imitating violent acts.
  79. Audience Media Effects & Albert Bandura • How is (the consumption of) transgressive behaviour in a video game different to in a film or on TV? • How might this make a difference to its ability to impact upon the audience? “Video games make their audiences more likely to be violent” • Consider the arguments for and against this idea.
  80. Assassin’s Creed & Gerbner’s Cultivation Theory • Exposure to repeated patterns of representation over long periods of time can shape and influence the way in which people perceive the world around them (i.e. cultivating particular views and opinions) • Cultivation reinforces mainstream values (dominant ideologies). • What repeated patterns of representation might AC3L contribute to? • What mainstream values could be cultivated/subverted?
  81. Assassin’s Creed & Hall’s Reception Theory • Communication is a process involving encoding by producers and decoding by audiences • There are three hypothetical positions from which messages and meanings may be decoded: • the dominant-hegemonic position: the encoder’s intended meaning (the preferred reading) is fully understood and accepted • the negotiated position: the legitimacy of the encoder’s message is acknowledged in general terms, although the message is adapted or negotiated to better fit the decoder’s own individual experiences or context • the oppositional position: the encoder’s message is understood, but the decoder disagrees with it, reading it in a contrary or oppositional way. • Explain how and why people might respond to this product in different ways
  82. A2 Media only from here…
  83. A2 Only – Regulation – Livingstone & Lunt • There is an underlying struggle in recent UK regulation policy between the need to further the interests of citizens (by offering protection from harmful or offensive material), and the need to further the interests of consumers (by ensuring choice, value for money, and market competition) • The increasing power of global media corporations, together with the rise of convergent media technologies and transformations in the production, distribution and marketing of digital media, have placed traditional approaches to media regulation at risk CONSIDER: How might these ideas apply to AC3L?
  84. A2 Only – Regulation – Livingstone & Lunt • There is an underlying struggle in recent UK regulation policy between the need to further the interests of citizens (by offering protection from harmful or offensive material), and the need to further the interests of consumers (by ensuring choice, value for money, and market competition) • The increasing power of global media corporations, together with the rise of convergent media technologies and transformations in the production, distribution and marketing of digital media, have placed traditional approaches to media regulation at risk CONSIDER: How might these ideas apply to AC3L?
  85. (A2 Only) – Regulation – Livingstone & Lunt • Questions that might be discussed in relation to Livingstone and Lunt include: • Is current Video game regulation effective/successful? • Should regulation be more flexible? • Should industries self-regulate? • Should individuals be empowered to make their own decisions? • Should individuals be expected to develop ‘media literacy’ and make informed decisions for themselves?
  86. (A2 Only) The Culture Industries & David Hesmondhalgh • Cultural industry companies try to minimise risk and maximise audiences through vertical and horizontal integration, and by formatting their cultural products (e.g. through the use of stars, genres, franchises and serials) • The largest companies or conglomerates now operate across a number of different cultural industries • The radical potential of the internet has been contained to some extent by its partial incorporation into a large, profit-orientated set of cultural industries • CONSIDER: How might these ideas apply to AC3L?
  87. (A2 Only) The Culture Industries & David Hesmondhalgh • Cultural industry companies try to minimise risk and maximise audiences through vertical and horizontal integration, and by formatting their cultural products (e.g. through the use of stars, genres, franchises and serials) • The largest companies or conglomerates now operate across a number of different cultural industries • The radical potential of the internet has been contained to some extent by its partial incorporation into a large, profit-orientated set of cultural industries • CONSIDER: How might these ideas apply to AC3L?
  88. (A2 Only) The Culture Industries & David Hesmondhalgh • Cultural industry companies try to minimise risk and maximise audiences through vertical and horizontal integration, and by formatting their cultural products (e.g. through the use of stars, genres, and serials) • The largest companies or conglomerates now operate across a number of different cultural industries Is there any evidence of horizontal/vertical integration by the companies involved in the game's production and distribution? Is there any evidence of synergy or convergence within the companies involved in the game's production and distribution? Is there any evidence the companies involved in the game's production and distribution operate across a number of cultural industries? Is there any evidence that the companies involved try to minimise risk/maximise audiences by formatting their cultural products?
  89. (A2 Only) The Culture Industries & David Hesmondhalgh • The game is part of an established franchise with a large fan-base. Producers are clearly attempting to harness the popularity of this franchise to encourage sales both of the game itself and the hand- held device the PS Vita. • The video game industry offers many comparable examples of attempts to use software (games) to sell hardware (games systems and platforms).
  90. (A2 Only) The Culture Industries & David Hesmondhalgh • Producers of video games actively seek to cater for new groups of users in order to expand their market and ensure financial success, for example Assassin's Creed III: Liberation features the series' first female protagonist to appeal to female gamers • The graphics, sound, interactive and gameplay features are designed to provide an immersive and engaging experience, which players are willing to pay for.
  91. (A2 Only) The Culture Industries & David Hesmondhalgh • The development of a successful franchise by Ubisoft: Assassin’s Creed as a hugely successful brand with an existing, pre-sold audience for new products. • The franchise is known for high production values and the new game reflects this to fulfil expectations. • As with any genre product, Liberation combined familiar elements relating to character, narrative and action with new features and a female protagonist. This provides existing viewers with expected pleasures and gratifications but also attracts new audiences, increasing the chance of financial success • The release on the PS Vita, a handheld device, to tap into the trend towards mobile gaming and offer features familiar from smartphones and tablets, • The release alongside Assassin’s Creed III on the PlayStation 3 creating a ‘buzz’ for new products and allowing the company to market and potentially sell different products together • Release of the soundtrack album of the game at the same time creating cross-promotional possibilities to support both products. The later release of Liberation on different platforms potentially allowed the product to reach a wider audience.
  92. (A2 Only) Assassin’s Creed & Shirky’s ‘End of Audience’ Theory The Internet and digital technologies have had a profound effect on the relations between media and individuals The conceptualisation of audience members as passive consumers of mass media content is no longer tenable in the age of the Internet, as media consumers have now become producers who ‘speak back to’ the media in various ways, as well as creating and sharing content with one another. Related ideas/terms: Active vs passive audiences Video games are an examples of an interactive media product. Explain 4 ways in which audiences can interact with or "speak back to" the product. 1 2 3 4 How else might users of this product create and share content?
  93. Assassin’s Creed & Fandoms (A2 Only) • Henry Jenkins: Fandom • Fans are active participants in the construction and circulation of textual meanings • Fans appropriate texts and read them in ways that are not fully authorised by the media producers (‘textual poaching’) • Fans construct their social and cultural identities through borrowing and inflecting mass culture images, and are part of a participatory culture that has a vital social dimension • What examples of fan culture associated with AC3L can you find? • Are there any examples of "textual poaching"?
  94. Fan Art
  95. Cosplay & Conventions
  96. Fan websites & forums https://assassinscreed.fandom.com/wiki/Assassin%27s_Creed_III:_Liberation https://forums.ubi soft.com/forumdis play.php/27- Assassin-s-Creed https://assassinscreedfanon.fandom.com/wiki/Blog:Recent_posts
  97. Fan Fiction https://www.fanfiction.net/game/Assassin-s-Creed/
  98. Fan Fiction https://www.fanfiction.net/game/Assassin-s-Creed/
  99. (A2 Only) Audience: Fandom & Henry Jenkins • Discuss the significance of fan culture (and in particular online fan communities) when exploring the success of video games. This discussion may focus on the way video games have evolved closely alongside the internet. Video games offer social experiences (online multiplayer options) as well as communities outside of the core game experience. Fans may be passionate exponents of a game or the harshest critics and can often impact the development of games directly. • The Assassin’s Creed franchise has a strong, well developed fan-base that could be researched and discussed in relation to Jenkins’ ideas.
  100. (A2 Only) Audience: Fandom & Henry Jenkins • The Assassin’s Creed franchise has a strong, well developed fan-base. • Fans discuss the franchise online and share their own AC-related creations, forming a community of like minded individuals they can bond with. • These creati9ons are usually ‘unofficial’ and not made with permission of the IP owner – textual poaching, often changing the original intended meaning of a text • Fan culture (and in particular online fan communities) are a significant part of the success of video games because video games have evolved closely alongside the internet. • The games offer social experiences (online multiplayer options) as well as communities outside of the core game experience. Fans may be passionate exponents of a game or the harshest critics and can often impact the development of games directly.
  101. Example questions: Industry (Section B) 3 (a) Briefly explain what is meant by MMORPG [2] 3 (b) Why is regulation important in the video games industry? [8] In Question 3(c), you will be rewarded for drawing together knowledge and understanding from across your full course of study, including different areas of the theoretical framework and media contexts. 3 (c) In the video game industry, discuss the strategies companies use to maximise economic success in their production, distribution and circulation of their products to audiences. You should make reference to your case study, Assassin’s Creed III: Liberation. [15]
  102. Example questions: Industry (Section B) 3 (a) Briefly explain what is meant by MMORPG [2] (b) How have technological changes had an impact upon the production and distribution of video games? [8] In Question 3(c), you will be rewarded for drawing together knowledge and understanding from across your full course of study, including different areas of the theoretical framework and media contexts. (c) Explain how ownership shapes media products. You should make reference to your case study, Assassin’s Creed III: Liberation. [15] (c) Evaluate the effectiveness of regulation in the video games industry. You should make reference to your case study, Assassin’s Creed III: Liberation. [15]
  103. Example questions: Industry (Section B) 3. (a) Briefly explain what is meant by diversification in media industries. [2] (b) Explain the impact of recent technological changes on the video games industry. Refer to Assassin's Creed III: Liberation to support your points. [8] In Question 3(c), you will be rewarded for drawing together knowledge and understanding from across your full course of study, including different areas of the theoretical framework and media contexts. (c) Explain how the producers of video games ensure their financial success. Refer to Assassin's Creed III: Liberation to support your points. [15]
  104. Example questions: Audience 4 (a) Explain how technology has changed the way audiences play video games in recent years [8] b) Explain how media industries target audiences. Refer to Assassin’s Creed III Liberation in your response. (12) 4 (a) Explain how audiences can interact with media products. Refer to Assassin’s Creed III Liberation in your response. [8] 4 (a) Explain how media products may effect audiences. Refer to Assassin’s Creed III Liberation in your response (12) b) Explain how fans shape the media products they consume media products. Refer to Assassin’s Creed III Liberation in your response (12) (A2)
  105. Sources/Useful links/further reading https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assassin%27s_Creed_III:_Liberation https://www.technobezz.com/best/20-best-selling-video-games-of-all-time/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_best-selling_video_games https://www.marketwatch.com/story/this-violent-videogame-has-made-more-money- than-any-movie-ever-2018-04-06 https://culturedvultures.com/uplay-plus-launched-today-already-has-issues/ https://ukie.org.uk/research https://www.statista.com/topics/868/video-games/
Anzeige