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Role of Seed in Vegetable
Production
VEGETABLES CROP PRODUCTIVITY
Satisfactory results are reflected in a high yield of valuable products
resulting in economical profits
Many factors may affect the output of the cultivation
- Environmental conditions
- Soil characteristics
- Watering
- Fertilization
- Tillage
- Farmer
- Local and Global Market
- Others
The seed is the first determinant of the future plant
development.
The seed is the master key to success with the cultivation.
SEED
•A seed is a miracle of life.
•It is a tiny plant embryo combined with enough
stored energy to bring it to life.
• The main requirements are moisture, air and
warmth for its germination.
•The moisture softens the seed coat and allows
the seed to swell.
• Air or oxygen can then enter and the seed
begins respiration (to breathe)
• A process that releases the stored food
energy of the seed and makes it available to
the plant embryo.
• No fertilizer or light is necessary at this early
stage for most seeds.
• The plant embryo has limited food available.
• It has enough to break through the soil surface,
open its leaves and begin photosynthesis.
• It then immediately needs light.
• Fungal diseases may attack it, particularly if the
soil mix is too wet or heavy.
• Air is vitally necessary in the root zone for
successful germination and it occupies the
spaces between soil particles.
• If the growing medium is too wet all the air
spaces are occupied by water instead, if it is too
heavy there is little or no air space available.
• Seed quality is determined by germination and
purity analysis.
• By law, all crop seeds must be labeled for
germination percent, crop seed and the date of
germination test.
• Purchase seed stock from a reputable seed dealer
who has proper cleaning, handling and storage
facilities.
• Seeds are one of the least expensive but most
important factors influencing yield potential.
• Crop seeds contain all the genetic information to
determine yield potential, adaptation to
environmental conditions, and resistance to insect
pests and disease.
• One of a farmer's most critical management
decisions is the selection of seed source and
variety.
Importance
• Seed selection – choose the best
adapted hybrid for your area and
your needs.
• Plant population – ensure proper
planting distance; each hybrid you
choose has specific recommended
planting distance or seeding rate.
• Balanced fertilization – follow the
recommended fertilization rate for
your field; even better would be
soil analysis for your field.
• Pest control – timely and effective
control or management of
diseases, insect pests, and weeds
• Water management – take note
of the critical stages where your
needs the most water and where
it is most sensitive to water stress.
Quality of seed
• Improved variety
• Genetic purity
• Physical purity
• Seed germination and vigor
• Pure seed Germination (80-
85 %)
• Seed health
• Seed moisture
• Seed quality results from genetic, physical,
physiological and phytosanitary characteristics
of the seed
• Capacity to produce normal seedlings.
• Expected field emergence and uniformity
• Potential storability
• Seed lots that have low germination also are less
vigorous due to seed deterioration.
• Varietal purity indicates genetic purity of the
seed.
• Germination and seed size often are good
indicators of seed vigor.
• However, in the case of hybrid varieties, seed size
is sometimes not related to seed vigor.
Seed Quality
• Seed quality is determined by many
factors, principally seed purity and
germination.
• However, many other factors, such as
the variety, presence of seed-borne
disease, vigor of the seed
Seed purity
is determined by the amount of unwanted
material present in the pure seed.
• Contaminants such as noxious weed seed, unwanted
crop seeds.
Seed germination tests
• It assess the ability of the seed to produce a healthy pla
when placed under favorable environmental conditions.
• Germination tests are conducted under laboratory
conditions that assure optimum moisture, temperature a
light.
• Unfortunately, these conditions are seldom encountere
the field, and field emergence may be overestimated by
standard germination tests.
Seed Labeling
• If the seed has been treated a label must state
the seed has been treated.
• If the substance in the amount present is
harmful to human or other animals, a caution
statement such as
“Do not use for food, feed, or oil purposes”
• Toxic substances shall be labeled with a poison
symbol.
Terms that must appear on the label are:
• Varietal name and kind of seed.
• Lot number.
• Percentage by weight of pure seed.
• Percentage by weight of all weed seeds.
• Percentage by weight of all crop seeds.
• Percentage by weight of inert matter.
• Name and number per pound of restricted noxious
weed seeds
• The date of the germination test.
Seed types
Open Pollinated Seed:
Open pollinated seeds
come from plants that have been consistently
raised from same type of plant year after year
• Hybrid Seed:
Hybrid seeds are seeds grown
from the crossing of 2 parent plants to
produce a new offspring.
• Most hybrids are an F1 variety, meaning that
they are a first generation hybrid.
Standards of seed
• True to its kind or variety
• Contain a minimum of
impurities
• Have high establishment
rates in the field
• The high good quality seeds are
those which have genetic purity,
physical purity, health standards,
germiniability and moisture
percentage
• The farmer can increase
approximately 20% production
while he uses good high quality
of seed.
Farmer’s expectations can
only be achieved if the seed
is true to the selected variety
SEED SECURITY:
availability of the appropriate variety at the right
place and time, in sufficient quantity and quality
VARIETY TESTING:
may be aimed to identify the variety, to discriminate different varieties,
to check the genetic purity (SEED TRADE, CERTIFICATION SCHEMES)
or to provide a characterization of the variety (NEW VARIETIES)
Seed storability depends
on:
- storage conditions
(humidity, temperature)
- moisture content of the
seed
- initial quality of the seed
Poor storage conditions:
- the seed loses the ability
to germinate
Low moisture content of
the seed: quicker the loss
of viability
Moisture content
is one of the
parameters taken
into account
to determine the
market value
of seeds
A noxious weed infestation reduces
the yield (Beans)
Black rot in pepper
Role of-seed-in-vegetable-production

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Role of-seed-in-vegetable-production

  • 1. Role of Seed in Vegetable Production
  • 2. VEGETABLES CROP PRODUCTIVITY Satisfactory results are reflected in a high yield of valuable products resulting in economical profits
  • 3. Many factors may affect the output of the cultivation - Environmental conditions - Soil characteristics - Watering - Fertilization - Tillage - Farmer - Local and Global Market - Others
  • 4. The seed is the first determinant of the future plant development. The seed is the master key to success with the cultivation.
  • 5. SEED •A seed is a miracle of life. •It is a tiny plant embryo combined with enough stored energy to bring it to life. • The main requirements are moisture, air and warmth for its germination. •The moisture softens the seed coat and allows the seed to swell.
  • 6.
  • 7. • Air or oxygen can then enter and the seed begins respiration (to breathe) • A process that releases the stored food energy of the seed and makes it available to the plant embryo. • No fertilizer or light is necessary at this early stage for most seeds.
  • 8. • The plant embryo has limited food available. • It has enough to break through the soil surface, open its leaves and begin photosynthesis. • It then immediately needs light. • Fungal diseases may attack it, particularly if the soil mix is too wet or heavy.
  • 9. • Air is vitally necessary in the root zone for successful germination and it occupies the spaces between soil particles. • If the growing medium is too wet all the air spaces are occupied by water instead, if it is too heavy there is little or no air space available.
  • 10. • Seed quality is determined by germination and purity analysis. • By law, all crop seeds must be labeled for germination percent, crop seed and the date of germination test. • Purchase seed stock from a reputable seed dealer who has proper cleaning, handling and storage facilities.
  • 11. • Seeds are one of the least expensive but most important factors influencing yield potential. • Crop seeds contain all the genetic information to determine yield potential, adaptation to environmental conditions, and resistance to insect pests and disease. • One of a farmer's most critical management decisions is the selection of seed source and variety.
  • 12. Importance • Seed selection – choose the best adapted hybrid for your area and your needs. • Plant population – ensure proper planting distance; each hybrid you choose has specific recommended planting distance or seeding rate. • Balanced fertilization – follow the recommended fertilization rate for your field; even better would be soil analysis for your field.
  • 13. • Pest control – timely and effective control or management of diseases, insect pests, and weeds • Water management – take note of the critical stages where your needs the most water and where it is most sensitive to water stress.
  • 14. Quality of seed • Improved variety • Genetic purity • Physical purity • Seed germination and vigor • Pure seed Germination (80- 85 %) • Seed health • Seed moisture
  • 15. • Seed quality results from genetic, physical, physiological and phytosanitary characteristics of the seed • Capacity to produce normal seedlings. • Expected field emergence and uniformity • Potential storability
  • 16. • Seed lots that have low germination also are less vigorous due to seed deterioration. • Varietal purity indicates genetic purity of the seed. • Germination and seed size often are good indicators of seed vigor. • However, in the case of hybrid varieties, seed size is sometimes not related to seed vigor.
  • 17. Seed Quality • Seed quality is determined by many factors, principally seed purity and germination. • However, many other factors, such as the variety, presence of seed-borne disease, vigor of the seed Seed purity is determined by the amount of unwanted material present in the pure seed. • Contaminants such as noxious weed seed, unwanted crop seeds.
  • 18. Seed germination tests • It assess the ability of the seed to produce a healthy pla when placed under favorable environmental conditions. • Germination tests are conducted under laboratory conditions that assure optimum moisture, temperature a light. • Unfortunately, these conditions are seldom encountere the field, and field emergence may be overestimated by standard germination tests.
  • 19. Seed Labeling • If the seed has been treated a label must state the seed has been treated. • If the substance in the amount present is harmful to human or other animals, a caution statement such as “Do not use for food, feed, or oil purposes” • Toxic substances shall be labeled with a poison symbol.
  • 20. Terms that must appear on the label are: • Varietal name and kind of seed. • Lot number. • Percentage by weight of pure seed. • Percentage by weight of all weed seeds. • Percentage by weight of all crop seeds. • Percentage by weight of inert matter. • Name and number per pound of restricted noxious weed seeds • The date of the germination test.
  • 21. Seed types Open Pollinated Seed: Open pollinated seeds come from plants that have been consistently raised from same type of plant year after year
  • 22. • Hybrid Seed: Hybrid seeds are seeds grown from the crossing of 2 parent plants to produce a new offspring. • Most hybrids are an F1 variety, meaning that they are a first generation hybrid.
  • 23. Standards of seed • True to its kind or variety • Contain a minimum of impurities • Have high establishment rates in the field
  • 24.
  • 25. • The high good quality seeds are those which have genetic purity, physical purity, health standards, germiniability and moisture percentage • The farmer can increase approximately 20% production while he uses good high quality of seed.
  • 26. Farmer’s expectations can only be achieved if the seed is true to the selected variety
  • 27. SEED SECURITY: availability of the appropriate variety at the right place and time, in sufficient quantity and quality VARIETY TESTING: may be aimed to identify the variety, to discriminate different varieties, to check the genetic purity (SEED TRADE, CERTIFICATION SCHEMES) or to provide a characterization of the variety (NEW VARIETIES)
  • 28. Seed storability depends on: - storage conditions (humidity, temperature) - moisture content of the seed - initial quality of the seed Poor storage conditions: - the seed loses the ability to germinate Low moisture content of the seed: quicker the loss of viability
  • 29. Moisture content is one of the parameters taken into account to determine the market value of seeds
  • 30. A noxious weed infestation reduces the yield (Beans)
  • 31. Black rot in pepper