Many factors may affect the output of the cultivation
- Environmental conditions
- Soil characteristics
- Local and Global Market
The seed is the first determinant of the future plant
The seed is the master key to success with the cultivation.
•A seed is a miracle of life.
•It is a tiny plant embryo combined with enough
stored energy to bring it to life.
• The main requirements are moisture, air and
warmth for its germination.
•The moisture softens the seed coat and allows
the seed to swell.
• Air or oxygen can then enter and the seed
begins respiration (to breathe)
• A process that releases the stored food
energy of the seed and makes it available to
the plant embryo.
• No fertilizer or light is necessary at this early
stage for most seeds.
• The plant embryo has limited food available.
• It has enough to break through the soil surface,
open its leaves and begin photosynthesis.
• It then immediately needs light.
• Fungal diseases may attack it, particularly if the
soil mix is too wet or heavy.
• Air is vitally necessary in the root zone for
successful germination and it occupies the
spaces between soil particles.
• If the growing medium is too wet all the air
spaces are occupied by water instead, if it is too
heavy there is little or no air space available.
• Seed quality is determined by germination and
• By law, all crop seeds must be labeled for
germination percent, crop seed and the date of
• Purchase seed stock from a reputable seed dealer
who has proper cleaning, handling and storage
• Seeds are one of the least expensive but most
important factors influencing yield potential.
• Crop seeds contain all the genetic information to
determine yield potential, adaptation to
environmental conditions, and resistance to insect
pests and disease.
• One of a farmer's most critical management
decisions is the selection of seed source and
• Seed selection – choose the best
adapted hybrid for your area and
• Plant population – ensure proper
planting distance; each hybrid you
choose has specific recommended
planting distance or seeding rate.
• Balanced fertilization – follow the
recommended fertilization rate for
your field; even better would be
soil analysis for your field.
• Pest control – timely and effective
control or management of
diseases, insect pests, and weeds
• Water management – take note
of the critical stages where your
needs the most water and where
it is most sensitive to water stress.
Quality of seed
• Improved variety
• Genetic purity
• Physical purity
• Seed germination and vigor
• Pure seed Germination (80-
• Seed health
• Seed moisture
• Seed quality results from genetic, physical,
physiological and phytosanitary characteristics
of the seed
• Capacity to produce normal seedlings.
• Expected field emergence and uniformity
• Potential storability
• Seed lots that have low germination also are less
vigorous due to seed deterioration.
• Varietal purity indicates genetic purity of the
• Germination and seed size often are good
indicators of seed vigor.
• However, in the case of hybrid varieties, seed size
is sometimes not related to seed vigor.
• Seed quality is determined by many
factors, principally seed purity and
• However, many other factors, such as
the variety, presence of seed-borne
disease, vigor of the seed
is determined by the amount of unwanted
material present in the pure seed.
• Contaminants such as noxious weed seed, unwanted
Seed germination tests
• It assess the ability of the seed to produce a healthy pla
when placed under favorable environmental conditions.
• Germination tests are conducted under laboratory
conditions that assure optimum moisture, temperature a
• Unfortunately, these conditions are seldom encountere
the field, and field emergence may be overestimated by
standard germination tests.
• If the seed has been treated a label must state
the seed has been treated.
• If the substance in the amount present is
harmful to human or other animals, a caution
statement such as
“Do not use for food, feed, or oil purposes”
• Toxic substances shall be labeled with a poison
Terms that must appear on the label are:
• Varietal name and kind of seed.
• Lot number.
• Percentage by weight of pure seed.
• Percentage by weight of all weed seeds.
• Percentage by weight of all crop seeds.
• Percentage by weight of inert matter.
• Name and number per pound of restricted noxious
• The date of the germination test.
Open Pollinated Seed:
Open pollinated seeds
come from plants that have been consistently
raised from same type of plant year after year
• Hybrid Seed:
Hybrid seeds are seeds grown
from the crossing of 2 parent plants to
produce a new offspring.
• Most hybrids are an F1 variety, meaning that
they are a first generation hybrid.
Standards of seed
• True to its kind or variety
• Contain a minimum of
• Have high establishment
rates in the field
• The high good quality seeds are
those which have genetic purity,
physical purity, health standards,
germiniability and moisture
• The farmer can increase
approximately 20% production
while he uses good high quality
availability of the appropriate variety at the right
place and time, in sufficient quantity and quality
may be aimed to identify the variety, to discriminate different varieties,
to check the genetic purity (SEED TRADE, CERTIFICATION SCHEMES)
or to provide a characterization of the variety (NEW VARIETIES)
Seed storability depends
- storage conditions
- moisture content of the
- initial quality of the seed
Poor storage conditions:
- the seed loses the ability
Low moisture content of
the seed: quicker the loss