2. • The Chalukya dynasty was a
classical Indian royal
dynasty that ruled larger
parts of Southern and
Central India between the
6th and 12th centuries.
• During this period they
ruled as three related yet
• The earliest dynasty known
as the Badami chalukyas
ruled from Vatapi (modern
day Badami)from the
middle of 6th century.
4. • The Badami Chalukyas began to assert their independence at the decline of
Kadamba dynasty of Banvasi and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of
• After the death of Pulakeshin second the Eastern Chalukyas (chalukyas of
Vengi) became an independent kingdom in the easternDeccan.
• They ruled from Vengi until about the 11th century.In the Western Deccan the
rise of Rashtrakudas in the middle of 8th century eclipsed the Chalukyas of
Badami before being revived by their descendants ,the Western Chalukyas ,in
the late 10th century. These Western Chalukyas ruled from Kalyani (modern
Basavakalyan )until the end of the 12th century.
• The rule of Chalukya marks an important milestone in the history of South India
and a golden age in the history of Karnataka.
• The political atmosphere in South India shifted from smaller kingdoms to larger
empires with the ascendency of Badami Chalukyas.
• A south India based kingdom took control and consolidated the entire region
between Kaveri and Narmada rivers.
5. • The rise of this empire saw the birth of :
Overseas trade and commerce
Development of Chalukyan Architecture.
• Kannada Literature which had enjoyed royal support in 9th
century Rashtrakuda court found patronage from the Western
Chalukyas in the Jain and Veerashaiva traditions .The 11th century
saw the patronage of Telegu literature under the Eastern
Old Kannada inscriptions of Chalukya King Mangalesha dated 578 ce at
Badami cave temple no.3
7. • The rule of Chalukya of Badami
constitutes a brilliant epoch in the
history of Karnataka in particular
and Indian history in general.
• It was the first Karnataka dynasty
to establish name and fame
throughout India.Their fame had
spread as far as Persia.
• They were Dharmic monarch who
always ruled bearing in mind the
welfare and happiness of the
• Architecture reached its highest
watermark under the Chalukyas
and the monuments that stand to
this day at Aihole,Badami and
Pattadakal speak the volume for
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND
• From the 6th century to the 8th century A.D the Chalukyas were the
dominant power in the Deccan .The Chalukya inscriptions provide valuable
material for the reconstruction of a continous history of the Deccan
together with its contact with South India for about 200 years.There is a lot
of controversy with regard to the origin of Chalukyas. (note:The legendary
• According to Dr.VA Smith the Chalukyas was connected with the Chapas
and the foreign Gurjaras of the North.
• But Dr. DC Sircar pines that the Chalukyas were the local Kanarese people
,who improvised the ruling varna under the Brahmanical influence .
9. • Chalukya power had its rise in the west with its capital at Vatapi
(Badami).It ultimately established a kingdom corresponding to the
modern Bombay state with some additions to the south and east but
without Kathiawad and Gujarat .
• The Chalukya of Badami claimed to have been Haripuras .They contended
that they belong to the Manavya Gotra .
• This kingdom of Chalukyas ruled from the middle of the sixth century to
the middle of eighth century A.D,when they were supplanted by the
• The later Western Chalukya of Kalyani overthrew the Rashtrakudas in the
second half of the 10th century and continued to rule till the end of the
• An offshoot of the Western Chalukyas known as the eastern Chalukyas
established its power at Vengi from the 7th century to 12th century.
10. – R RULERS
• The founder of the Western Chalukyas
were unknown chiefs named Jayasimha
and Vallabha and his son Rangara.
• It was Rangara ‘s son Pulakesin first who
was the real founder as well as the first
sovereign ruler of the dynasty .
• He established his capital at Vatapi about
A.D 543 .
• He was succeded by his own son
Kirthivarman first in about 567AD .He
further extended his territory by defeating
Nalas of south,the Mauryas of Konkan and
the Kadambas of Banvasi.
11. • Kirtivarman first succeded in about AD 598 by his brother Mangalesa
Ranavikrant who began to rule as a regent as Pulakeshin second son of
Kirthivarman was a minor
• His great achievements include his victory over the Kalachuris and the
conquest of Revatidivipa .He died about 608 AD in acivil war between
himself nd his nephew Pualkeshin 2.
• The cause of the trouble was the attempt of Manglesa to secure
succession for his own son and by this Pulakeshin 2 became the king.
• Pulakeshin 2 ruled from 610- 611AD to 642AD .
• In the south he had to reconquer the Kadamba sof Banavasi ,the Gangas
of South Mysore and the Maurya sof Konkana with their capital Puri.
• Further north he subdued the Latas,Malvas and the Gurjaras over whom
he appointed his viceroy. These conquest thus made him master of three
Maharashtras. Maharashtra ,KONKAN and Karnataka . The army of
Pulakeshin2 cheched the forces of Harshavardhana on the banks of the
12. • The Aihole inscription wrote by the Ravikirti a jain poet gives a detailed
description about this.
• While the Pulakeshin’s 2 second expedition against the Pallava kingdom
which was then ruled by the Mahendravarman 1 was a complete success ,the
second invasion of the Pallava territory ended in failure. He was defeated by
the pallava king Narasimhavarman1 in a series of campaigns.
• At the zeneith of his power Pulakeshin cultivated foreign relations even with
the distant state of Persia .
• The fallen fortunes of the Chalukyas were restored by Vikramadithya1 ,a son
of Pulakeshin who defeated tree supposed Pallavakings
• Vikramaditya was succeeded by his son Vikramadithyan2 who took after him
both in war and peace .He was great builder and patron of learning . He
destroyed power of Kanchi, chola Kerela ,Pandya ,Kalabhra and other kings .
13. • He was succeed by his son Kirtivaraman2. He helped his father in his Pallava
campaign . But he was the last glorious of the Chalukya race.
• After 50 years later Chalukya power was completely eclipsed by the
Rashtrakudas.He was defeated by one of his feudatories Dantidurga,the
founder of the Rashtrakuda dynasty.
• The chalukya were the followers of the Brahminical religion .But they also
followed a policy of religious toleration .During their reign Jainism prosperd
in the Deccan. Many Chalukyan kings granted villages to well known Jaun
scholars .Tere is not much information regarding the Buddhism.
• As regards to Brahmanism there arrived the Bhagavata and Pashupati cults
the cults of devotion to Vishnu and Shiva respectively. Superb structures were
set up at Vatapi and Pattadakal in honour of Vishnu , Brahma and Shiva.
• The sacrificial forms of worship were composed .Of the Shaivite saints the
most popular were Appar<sambandar,Mnikkavasagarand Sundarar. THE
hymns dedicated to shivaand Vishnu have been preserved in two separate
collections the Tirumurari and the Nalyira Prabandham.
17. • Jainism and Buddhism gradually gave way to a new form of religious worship
the devotional cults of the Tamil saints which later came to be known as the
• Tamil devotionalism achieved a great wave of popularity and was continued
in the hymns and the sermons of the Nayanars and the Alvars
• A movement was started to clear the Vedic philosophy of its obscurities in
order to make it both comprehensible and acceptable to people at large.
• Sanskrit was recognized in this Mathas,and was also the official language at
• Two outstanding sanskriy work of this age wereBharavi’s kiratarjunia and
• Apart from the University at Kanchi,there were number of other Sanskrit
• Apart from Sanskrit other regional languages also prospered(prakrit,kannada
19. CHALUKYAN ARCHITECTURE
• Art made great progress under the Chalukya dynasty.A new style of
architecture known as the Chalukya style which was different from the Gupta
• The chalukyan architecture is known as the cradle of the Indian temple
• This dynasty is attributed with having introduced its own style of temple
architecture called Chalukyan Architecture
• This architecture blends the finer aspects of the Dravidan and Nagara temple
architecture.Henceit is also referred as Vesara.
20. CHALUKYAN TEMPLES
• They built number of rock cut templesand structural temples at brick
dedicated to Shiva,Vishnu and Brahma.
• Some exquisite monuments have been excavated at
Badami,Aihole,Pattadakal and Mahakuta
• Badami architectural style is called as the Vesara style and chalukyan style.
• The famous temples at Aihole are Ladh kahan temple , The Durga temple
Hucchimalligudi temple, Gaudura Gudi and Ravana Phadi.
• The movement of the rock cut halls was initiated during this period .There are
many as 10 temples at Pattadakal belonging to this priod.
• There are 4 temples in the Northern styla and 6 of them following the
Dravidan style .Among them the Virupaksaha temple is the most important
• Another important achievement of the Chalukyan art was the building of
excavated cave temple of Hindu gods . The Melgaiti sivalaya at Badami is a
small but finely proportioned and magnificiently located temple.
30. VIRUPAKSHA TEMPLE
There are 4 temples in the Northern styla and 6 of them following the Dravidan style .Among
them the Virupaksaha temple is the most important one.It is a direct intiation of the
Kaliasantha temple of Kanchiand was built by one of the queens of Vikramadithya 2.
Kailasanatha temple Virupaksha temple
33. • The Vengi Chalukya dynasty is chronologically juxtaposed between the
powerful dynasties of Badami and Kalyani. This branch of the Chalukyas is
also referred to as the Eastern Chalukyas.
• . These kings were based at Vengi a town in present day Andhrapradesh and
ruled for almost five centuries from the seventh century to 1130 A.D. They
were subjugated by the Chola kings and were their feudatories till 1189 A.D.
After that they were amalgamated with the Hoysalas and the Yadavas.
(sEvuNa) Their capital was later shifted from Vengi in the West Godavari
district to Rajamahendravaram (rajamunDri)
• Eastern Chalukyas came to power after the invasion of Pulikeshi-2 on
the Deccan region which consisted of the coastal districts of Andhrapradesh.
The VishnukunDina kingdom which was in the last leg of its glory was
34. • Pulikeshi appointed his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana as the Viceroy before his
• However, gradually the successors of Kubja Vishnuvardhana severed their relations
with the Chalukyas of Badami and became autonomous. Chalukyas of Vengi continued
their tenure even after the Badami dynasty became extinct. They consolidated their
kingdom over a period of time and that was an important period in the history of
Andhrapradesh or the Telugu speaking community. This dynasty extended from Kubja
Vishnuvardhana (624-641 A.D.) up to Vijayaditya-7 who ruled in two stints (1063-68,
• Jayasimha-1, (641-673 A.D.) Mangi Yuvaraja, (682-706A.D.) Vishnuvardhana-3,
(719-755 A.D.) Vishnuvardhana-4, (772-808 A.D.) Vijayaditya-2, (806-847 A.D.) Gunaga
Vijayaditya-3 (848-892 A.D.) Amma-2 (947-970 A.D.) Jata Choda Bhima (973-1000
A.D.) and Rajaraja Narendra (1018-1061 A.D.) are among the more important kings of
this dynasty at least in terms of longevity. Most of their rule was spent in altercations
with more powerful kingdoms such as Rashtrakutas, Chalukyas of Kalyani and Cholas.
Gunaga Vijayaditya-3 was treated as a friend and supporter by the Rashtrakuta king
35. • The Eastern Chalukya kingdom was a typical Hindu state. They did follow the
administrative patterns of the Badami Chalukyas. However they developed
some unique characteristics later. Raja, Mantri, Purohita, Senapati, Yuvaraja,
Pradhana and Adhyaksha were among the persons who wielded a lot of
• The state was divided in to Vishayas and kottams. Inscriptions provide some
information about the modes of administration. “The society was based on
hereditary caste system. Even the Buddhists and Jains who originally
disregarded caste, adopted it. Besides the four traditional castes, minor
communities like Boyas and Savaras (Tribal groups) also existed.
• However one witnesses the gradual decline of Buddhism and the rise of
Jainism and Hinduism in that chronological order. This period witnessed the
birth of Telugu literature.
• Some important inscriptions with literary qualities made their appearance.
Nanayya the first major poet of Telugu was the poet laureate in the court of
36. • Some important inscriptions with literary qualities made their appearance.
Nanayya the first major poet of Telugu was the poet laureate in the court of
• There was a distinct effort by these kings to develop a unique style of
architecture. This is visible in the shrines at ‘draksharama’ and ‘biccavolu’.
• Throughout their history the Eastern Chalukyas were the cause of many wars
between the more powerful Cholas and Western Chalukyas over the control
of the strategic Vengi country.
• The five centuries of the Eastern Chalukya rule of Vengi saw not only the
consolidation of this region into a unified whole, but also saw the
efflorescence of Telugu culture, literature, poetry and art during the later half
of their rule.