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Syllabi in English Language Teaching

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Syllabi in English Language Teaching

  1. 1. SYLLABI IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING Presented by Julie Howell
  2. 2. FUNCTION OF A SYLLABUS <ul><li>“… A language teaching syllabus involves the combination of subject matter (what to teach) and linguistic matter (how to teach). It actually performs as a guide for both teacher and learner by providing some goals to be accomplished. Syllabus, in fact, deals with linguistic theory and theories of language learning and how they are utilized in the classroom” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul>
  3. 3. TYPES OF SYLLABI <ul><li>Procedural Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on meaning will lead to structure being learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Course is arranged around tasks helping the learner subconsciously perceive the language while consciously focusing on solving the meaning behind the tasks (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of tasks: information and opinion-gap activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The aim of this syllabus is to teach the following about culture. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A research-minded outlook </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The learner’s own country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge about the target culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affective goals; interest, intellectual curiosity, and empathy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of its characteristics and of differences between the target culture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the understanding socio-cultural implications of language and language use (Mohseni, 2008) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. TYPES OF SYLLABI <ul><li>Situational Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Skill-based Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Use situations to guide language teaching because “language is related to the situational contexts in which it occurs” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>The main principle of a situational language teaching syllabus is to teach the language that occurs in the situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Language skills are acquired for the purpose of situational or use in context. </li></ul><ul><li>Merges pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar with listening to language with a purpose: writing and speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this syllabus is for the ELL to develop language skills </li></ul>
  5. 5. TYPES OF SYLLABI <ul><li>Structural or Formal Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>A Multi-Dimensional Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional syllabus that focuses on language form. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural steps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural complexity, difficulty, regularity, utility, and frequency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The learner is expected to master each structural step and add it to his/her grammar collection” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>This is done through “highly controlled, tightly structured, and sequenced pattern practice drills” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>A flexible syllabus designed to incorporate all types of focuses: i.e. structure and situational can be taught. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The underlying principle is that there should be flexibility to change the central point of the teaching material as the course unfolds. This will lead to a syllabus design which is flexible, less rigid and more responsive to the various student language needs” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF SYLLABI <ul><li>Task-based Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Process Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks and activities are used to promote language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Application and practice of language. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Tasks are best defined as activities with a purpose other than language learning so as to develop second language ability” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>“ The most important point is that tasks must be relevant to the real world language needs of the learner. It should be a meaningful task so as to enhance learning” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Designed and reorganized according to students wants or designed in an ongoing way. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunities for alternative procedures and activities for the classroom group. </li></ul><ul><li>“ It explicitly attends to teaching and learning and particularly the possible interrelationships between subject matter, learning and the potential contributions of a classroom” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul>
  7. 7. TYPES OF SYLLABI <ul><li>Learner-led Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>The instructor uses a pre-arranged syllabus as a guide, but the learners create and modify the syllabus increasing interest and motivation to develop language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to fail due to lack of structure. (I.e. , how are students capable of designing a syllabus when they don’t know what is important to learn?) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes what will be taught rather than what will be learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Use themes within a unit, chosen by the learner, to emphasize language form and then shift to language interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to develop overall competence. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Appropriate and applicable for learners who lack exposure to the target language beyond the classroom” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul>
  8. 8. TYPES OF SYLLABI <ul><li>Content-based Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Notional/Functional Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Teach content using the TL. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter is of primary importance, but language learning occurs along with content. </li></ul><ul><li>Students of language and content. </li></ul><ul><li>Some linguistic adjustments may need to be made to make content understandable. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on purpose of communication and meaning of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs analysis is needed in order to create the syllabus. </li></ul>
  9. 9. TYPES OF SYLLABI <ul><li>Lexical Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>Even though there are a number of types of syllabi: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on vocabulary; specific words and phrases that frequently appear in books and conversation. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from examining corpus of language or sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>“ By exposing learners to carefully selected language, and by arming them with analyzing that language for themselves, the syllabus helps the learners successfully achieve their goals” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>“… it is uncommon for one type of syllabus to be utilized fully in actual teaching settings”(Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHAT TYPE OF SYLLABUS SHOULD YOU USE? <ul><li>It depends on how you teach. Choose one that fits your teaching procedures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“… The way in which the instructional content is employed in the real teaching procedure is the determining element in choosing a syllabus” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But don’t forget to use multiple types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ it should be kept in mind that the question is not which type to choose but which types and how to connect them with each other” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. IDEAS TO KEEP IN MIND WHEN CHOOSING A SYLLABUS DESIGN <ul><li>“ No single type of syllabus is appropriate for all teaching settings” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>When choosing a syllabus design “take into account all the potential factors that may affect the teachability of a specific syllabus” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul>
  12. 12. QUESTIONS <ul><li>Question 1: </li></ul><ul><li>What combination of types would you use in creating a syllabus? Which type would be dominant? Justify how your choice fits with your teaching procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>“ it should be kept in mind that the question is not which type to choose but which types and how to connect them with each other” (Mohseni, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>Question 2: </li></ul><ul><li>How would you connect the two types you chose together into your syllabus? </li></ul>
  13. 13. WORKS CITED <ul><li>Mohseni, M. (2008) An overview of syllabuses in English language teaching. Retrieved from Karen’s Linguistics Issues. http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/ </li></ul>

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