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Algae Presentation

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Algae Presentation

  1. 1. Fresh Pond Reservation: Eyes on Algae Julie Coffey Watershed Management Assistant
  2. 2. Tonight’s objectives: • Understand the importance of algae • Learn how the Cambridge Water Department is monitoring algae • Discover some common genera of algae and learn identifying features
  3. 3. What are algae? Algae is a BROAD term, from diatoms to kelp: Some resemble plants… Others bacteria… Still others protists…
  4. 4. Algae, A Brief History: 3.5 Billion Years Ago
  5. 5. A group of aquatic, photosynthetic, eukaryotic organisms ranging from unicellular to multicellular and generally possessing chlorophyll but lacking true roots, stems, or leaves. Algae, Defined:
  6. 6. Classification: • Cell wall composition • Motile or non-motile • Colonial or individual • Pigmentation
  7. 7. Plankton “Plankton” from the Greek word planktos Haloplankton-always present as plankton Meroplankton-have resting stages in the sediment
  8. 8. Habitat • Freshwater ecosystems • Saltwater ecosystems • Soils • Hot springs • Moss/Lichens • Turtle carapaces, fur of the 3-toed sloth
  9. 9. Epibionts: Gomphonema
  10. 10. •Size as defense •Resource sharing •Cell differentiation: reproduction •Improved mobility/reduced sinking Colonial Algae:
  11. 11. Importance of Algae: Oxygen Oxygen Chlorophyll
  12. 12. Importance of Algae: Fisheries In 2011: $200 billion generated $433 million in Massachusetts 1.7 million jobs Phytoplankton as primary producers!
  13. 13. Importance of Algae: Fossil Fuels Oceanic oil deposits Biofuel potential
  14. 14. Diatoms • Golden-brown algae • Cell walls made up of Silica – Strong influence on function • 25% Global Net Primary Productivity
  15. 15. Diatomite Silica deposits from diatoms used in: • Filtration for beer/wine, pools • Industrial absorbents • Grit in toothpaste • Road paint
  16. 16. Blue-green Algae (Cyanobacteria) Photosynthesizing bacteria • Pioneered photosynthesis, sexual reproduction, urea cycles • Vertical regulation: gas vacuoles and metabolism (stratification)
  17. 17. Why We Care About Algae:  Water Quality  Indication of watershed health  Community baseline ( and they’re really fun to look at...)
  18. 18. Preventing Algal Blooms Causes: Nutrient loading (N,P) Eutrophication Temperature (growth rate) Effects: Shading/competition Oxygen depletion Presence of Cyanotoxins
  19. 19. CWD Algae Monitoring Program • Volunteer monitoring in Black’s Nook and Little Fresh Pond since 2003 • Chl-a samples from reservoirs 12/18/2004, LFP Phytoplankton Zooplankton Asterionella Copepods Pediastrum Cladocerans Dinobryon Ostracods Staurastrum
  20. 20. CWD Algae Program Goals Weekly reservoir monitoring –Identify and quantify populations Continue reservation monitoring –Analyze historical data for trends
  21. 21. Algae of Little Fresh Pond Pediastrum, LFP, 1/12/15 Synura, LFP, 1/12/15 Staurastrum, 12/22/2014
  22. 22. Staurastrum, LFP 1/12/15 Crucigenia, LFP 1/12/15 Algae of Little Fresh Pond
  23. 23. Black’s Nook 11/17/2014 Scenedesmus Mallomonas
  24. 24. Black’s Nook 11/24/2014 Ceratium: golden algae, dinoflagellate, protozoan Closterium, green algae Centronella: Diatom Dinobryon: golden- algae, diatom
  25. 25. Black’s Nook 12/29/2014 Fragilaria
  26. 26. Black’s Nook Pediastrum Species Note: Pediastrum are most often found in quiet waters
  27. 27. Now on to the fun part…
  28. 28. Additional Resources Glossary of algal terms: http://westerndiatoms.colorado.edu/glossary Algae pictures for ID: http://www.keweenawalgae.mtu.edu/ Detailed species descriptions: http://algaebase.org/search/genus/ Credits: Kelp-http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/events/department-news/983/paper-by-libe-washburn-selected-as-an-agu-research-spotlight/ Sloth-https://animalartsdesignstudio.wordpress.com/2013/09/19/biomimicry-and-the-sloth/ Diatomite-http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3044/fs-2006-3044.pdf, http://elkorose.schopine.com/vivian.html Black duck-http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/481/galleries/photos/RNB_American-Black-Duck-0007 Coyote-http://featheredphotography.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/coyote-8829-ron-dudley.jpg O2 production-https://scripps.ucsd.edu/biblio/algae-worlds-most-important-plants-introduction Tree of life http://www.encognitive.com/node/10795 Cycle-Microbial control of the dark end of the biological pump, Herndl, G; Reinthaler,T Herring: "Clupea harengus Gervais.flipped" by Gervais et Boulart, 1877 - flipped version of File:Clupea harengus Gervais.jpg - Les poissons Gervais, H.. Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Clupea_harengus_Gervais.flipped.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Clupea_harengus_Gervais.flipped.jpg Bloom-http://www.clf.org/blog/tag/nutrient-pollution/ Algae age-http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/bacteria/cyanofr.html Algal maps:http://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/plankton, world ocean atlas via wikipedia

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