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Labelling

  1. 1. LABELLING D E P A R T M E N T O F M A N A G E M E N T S T U D I E S C E N T R A L U N I V E R S I T Y O F H A R Y A N A , S E S S I O N : 2 0 1 9 - 2 0 2 1 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING PRESENTATION ON J O Y D E E P S I N G H 1 9 1 1 0 3 L AT I K A M I T TA L 1 9 1 1 0 9
  2. 2. LABELING • It is the act of attaching or tagging labels. • A label is anything that may be a piece of paper, printed statemen, imprinted metal, which either an art of package or attached to it, indicating the value of contents of price of product, name and place of producers or any other necessary information.
  3. 3. NEED OF LABELING Identify the product Labelling helps in identification of product or brand easily. It prevents substitution of competitive product. For example – Maggi noodles or Horlicks are identified by label even by uneducated people.
  4. 4. NEED OF LABELING Description Labelling helps in describing the product, size, quality, quantity and method of use.
  5. 5. NEED OF LABELING Grading or product differentiation Labelling is helpful in grading or differentiating the product according to quality and features. It can be used for differentiating products among competitors or among own products.
  6. 6. NEED OF LABELING Product promotions The graphic design which is used in label helps in attracting the customer to buy the product.
  7. 7. NEED OF LABELING Legal Compliance In many countries the guidelines as well some labelling laws are to be complied to launch or market product. For example – in India food items should comply the FSSAI standards as well as labelling regulations.
  8. 8. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL INTERNATIONAL LABEL Accurate translation The words on the label must be accurately translated because the insignificant errors can cause compliance issues.
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL INTERNATIONAL LABEL Cultural Appropriateness Even if a label is accurately translated and compliant with local regulations, the should take care of cultural appropriateness of the label. The label should also be culturally acceptable and appropriate according to norms, values and beliefs of the cultural where the product is to be marketed. Appealing to the target customer The product labelling should also take care of the target customer and should be appealing the right customer.
  10. 10. INTERNATIONAL LABELLING REQUIREMENTS Country of Origin Many countries mandatorily require product to provide country of origin labelling on product
  11. 11. LANGUAGE
  12. 12. NUTRITION INFORMATION
  13. 13. INGREDIENTS, ALLERGENS AND WARNINGS
  14. 14. COMPLIANCE MARKS
  15. 15. COMPLIANCE FOR ELECTRICAL PRODUCTS
  16. 16. LABEL FORMAT • Issued by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, it indicates the energy efficiency of the product and its power- saving potential. Higher the rating; higher the efficiency, and lower energy consumption. • Mandatory appliances that require this certification include – AC, TV, refrigerator, electric geysers, LED lamps. • Those products for which this certification is voluntary include – ceiling fans, washing machines, DG sets, LPG stoves etc.
  17. 17. INFORMATIVE SYMBOLS
  18. 18. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS IN LABELING Consumers’ perception of symbols and health claims as health-related label messages. A cross-cultural study, E. Carrillo, S. Fiszman, Liisa Lähteenmäki, P . Varela, Food Research International • Symbols on the package are more important than verbal phrases. • Symbols without words in the package produce health connotations. • Verbal claims should be presented in the package as a benefit Consumer perceptions of nutrition and health claims, Hans C.M. van Trijp, Ivo A. van der Lans, Appetite • results indicate that consumer perceptions differ substantially by country and benefit being claimed but much less by the claim type.
  19. 19. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS IN LABELING Influence of front-of-pack labelling and regulated nutrition claims on consumers’ perceptions of product healthfulness and purchase intentions: A randomized controlled trial, Beatriz Franco-Arellano, Lana Vanderlee, Mavra Ahmed, Angela Oh, Mary L'Abbé, Appetite • FOP labelling had significantly stronger influence than nutrition claims on consumers' perceptions • In healthier drinks, health star rating and traffic light labelling created a ‘halo’ effect, which was not observed with warning labels. • Drinks displaying a disease risk reduction claim were perceived as healthier than without claim regardless of product's healthfulness
  20. 20. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS IN LABELING Consumer preferences for the marketing of ethically labelled coffee, De Pelsmacker, P ., Janssens, W., Sterckx, E. and Mielants, C. (2005), International Marketing Review • European government labels, or labels issued by non‐governmental organizations, preferred over national government endorsed labels. • Consumers prefer extra information on the package, in addition to a label.
  21. 21. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS IN LABELING • In a paper by Hustvedt, G. and Bernard, J.C. (2008), Consumer willingness to pay for sustainable apparel: the influence of labelling for fiber origin and production methods. International Journal of Consumer Studies. • Authors found that consumers value information about the local origin of fibers. • results show that participants were willing to pay a premium for socks with fibres produced in Texas, but not for those produced in the US • Fiber type mattered, with participants requiring a discount once they learned that socks were made with PLA fiber
  22. 22. THANK YOU

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