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The goals of communicative approach are asfollows: (Sunga, et.al, 1994)1.To become communicatively competent.2.To use the language appropriate for agiven social context.3.To manage the process of relatingmeaning with interlocutors.
LEARNER ROLE Breen and Candlin in Richards & Rodgers(2001:166) describe the learner’s role withinCLT is as negotiator between the self, thelearning process, and the object oflearning, emerges from and interacts with therole of joint negotiator within the group andwithin the classroom procedure and activitieswhich the group undertakes.
TEACHER ROLE According to Breen and Candlin inRichards & Rodgers (2001:167) thatteacher has two main roles in CLT. 1. Facilitator 2. Independent Participant
Other roles assumed forteachers are: • Need analyst • Counselor • Group process manager
TYPES OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES The range of exercise types andactivities compatible with acommunicative approach isunlimited, provided that such exercisesenable learners to attain thecommunicative objectives of thecurriculum.
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES Information-Gap Activities Jigsaw activities Pair and Group Work
Emphasis on Pair and Group Work• They can learn from hearing the language used by other members of the group.• They will produce a greater amount of language than they would use in teacher- fronted activities.• Their motivational level is likely to increase.• They will have the chance to develop fluency.• Teaching and classroom materials today consequently make use of a wide variety of small-group activities.
Other Activity Types in CLT • Task-completion activities • Information-gathering activities • Opinion-sharing activities • Information-transfer activities • Reasoning-gap activities • Role plays
Because communicative principlescan be applied to the teaching of anyskill, at any level, and because of thewide variety of classroom activitiesand exercise types discussed in theliterature on communicative LanguageTeaching, description of typicalclassroom procedures used in a lessonbased on CLT principles is no feasible.
Finocchiaro and Brumfit offer a lessonoutline for teaching the function “making asuggestion” for the learner in the beginning levelof secondary school program.1.Presentation of a brief dialog or several mini-dialogs.2.Oral practice of each utterance of the dialogsegment to be presented that day.3.Question and answer based on the dialog topic.4.Question and answer related to the student’spersonal experience.
5.Study one of the basic communicative expression indialog.6.Learner discovery of generalizations or rulesunderlying the functional expression.7.Oral recognition, interpretative activities.8.Oral production activities-proceeding from guided tofreer communication activities.9.Copying of the dialog or modules if they are not inthe class text.10.Sampling of the written homework assignment.
ADVANTAGES The interaction between students and teachers. Teacher-student relationship is an interactive, harmonious relationship, rather than the traditional education, the kind of master-servant relationship.
Greatly enhanced the student’s interest.Communicative language teaching encouragestudents to participate in, sometimesaccompanied by scenes or simulatedscenarios, so that students more close tolife, the students became the maincharacter, naturally they were interested inthe English language, to learn English as apleasure.
DISADVANTAGES Often, there is no text, grammar rules are not presented, and classroom arrangement is nonstandard. Students are expected to interact primarily with each other rather than with the teacher, and correction of errors may be absent or infrequent.
DISADVANTAGES Students with low levels of proficiency in the target language may find it difficult to participate in oral communicative activities and, if the exams used by an institution are grammar based, communicative fluency may not be appropriate.
References:Brown, Douglas H. 1994. Teaching by Principles: An Integrative Approach to Language Pedagogy. USA: Prentice Hall Regents.Celce-Murcia, M. 2006. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. 3rd Edition. Cengage Learning.Richards, J.C. & Rodgers T.S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. 2nd Edition. United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press.Richards, Jack C. 2006. Communicative Language Teaching Today.USA. Cambridge University Press.Sunga, et. al . 1994. Innovative Strategies in Communication Arts. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing.