A disaster is a sudden, calamitous event that
seriously disrupts the functioning of a community
or society and causes human, material, and
economic or environmental losses which is more
than the ability of the community or society to use
A hazard is any object, situation, or behavior that
has the potential to cause injury, ill health, or
damage to property or the environment.
An emergency is a situation that poses an
immediate risk to health, life, property, or
environment. Most emergencies require urgent
actions to prevent a worsening of the situation,
although in some situations, mitigation may not
be possible and agencies may only be able to offer
palliative care for the aftermath.
Risk is the potential of gaining or losing
something of value. Values (such as physical
health, social status, emotional well-being, or
financial wealth) can be gained or lost when
taking risk resulting from a given action or
inaction, foreseen or unforeseen (planned or not
Vulnerability describes the characteristic and
circumstances of a community, system or asset
that makes it susceptible to the damaging effects
of a hazard. There are many aspects of
Vulnerability , arising from various physical,
social, economic, and environmental factors.
Principles of disaster
Disaster management is the responsibility of all
spheres of government.
Disaster management should use resources that
exist for a day-to-day purpose.
Organizations should function as an extension
of their core business.
The Disaster management cycle illustrates the
ongoing process by which governments,
businesses, and civil society plan for and reduce
the impact of disasters, react during and
immediately following a disaster, and take steps to
recover after a disaster has occurred.
Phases of disaster
Mitigation - Minimizing the effects of disaster.
Examples: building codes and zoning;
vulnerability analyses; public education.
Preparedness - Planning how to respond.
Examples: preparedness plans; emergency
exercises/training; warning systems.
Response - Efforts to minimize the hazards
created by a disaster.
Examples: search and rescue; emergency relief .
Recovery - Returning the community to normal.
Examples: temporary housing; grants; medical care.
Major disasters in India
S No. Event Year State & Area Effects
1. Earthquake 2001 Bhuj, Gujrat 13,805 deaths,6.3
2. Tsunami 2004 CoastlineTN, Kerala 10.749 deaths, 5,640
missing, 2079 M
3. Floods 2005 Maharashtra 1,094 deaths, 167
injured, 54 missing
4. Earthquake 2008 Kashmir 1,400 deaths
5. Cyclone 2008 Tamil nadu 204 deaths
Event Year State & Area Effects
6. Kosi floods 2008 North bihar 527 deaths, 19,323 cattles
7. Krishna floods 2009 Andhrapradesh &
8. Flash floods 2013 Uttrakhand 5,700 deaths, 70,000
9. PhailinCyclone 2013 Orissa, Jharkhand 27 died, 10,00,000
10. Floods 2014 Kashmir 280 deaths, 550,000
11. Floods 2015 Tamil nadu 50 died, 1.8 M affected
12. Floods 2018 Kerala 373 deaths, 87 injured, 32
missing, 5.41 M affected