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Project Scope
Management
Knowledge
Area
6 Processes of Scope
Management in a Project
Project Scope
– Scope defines what work is required and
managing scope ensures that the defined
work is completed and only the defined work
The Project
Scope
Creates boundaries for the work
that will be performed on a
project
Scope relies on clear and
detailed requirements to help
avoid scope creep
There are six processes to the
Project Scope Management
Knowledge Area
Gold Plating / Scope
Creep
– Gold Plating is the process of delivering more than what is
required in the scope
– In many projects, customers will ask for things and insist
that they aren’t change requests, the Project Manager
must ensure that these requests are evaluated and will
not impact the scope
– Changes to the scope must go through a change control
process
Product and
Project Scope
PRODUCT SCOPE:
• Product scope are those
requirements that relate to the
output or the product that the
project produces
PROJECT SCOPE:
• Project scope is the work/activities
that the project team will perform in
order to deliver the work output or
the product
Overview of Project Scope
Management
6 Processes of Project Scope
Management
• 5.1 Plan Scope Management
• 5.2 Collect Requirements
• 5.3 Define Scope
• 5.4 Create WBS
• 5.5 Validate Scope
• 5.6 Control Scope
Exists in only two Project
Management Process Groups
• Planning
• Monitoring & Controlling
Process Groups and Project
Scope Management
• 5.1 Plan Scope Management
• 5.2 Collect Requirements
• 5.3 Define Scope
• 5.4 Create WBS
Planning
• 5.5 Validate Scope
• 5.6 Control Scope
Monitoring
& Controlling
5.1 Plan Scope
Management
Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
5.1 Plan Scope Management
Plan Scope Management
Explains how the scope will be validated and
controlled
Process of creating a scope management plan
Outputs:
Scope Management Plan
Requirements Management Plan
Scope Management Plan
– Contains the process for defining the scope, how the scope
will be created, and how it will be controlled and verified
– Part of the Project Management plan and is used as in input
in creating the Project Management plan as part of the
Integration processes
– Facilitates the creation of the Work Breakdown Structure
(WBS)
– Describes the change request process
Requirements
Management Plan
– Describes how requirements will be collected
and documented
– Includes the explanation on planning,
tracking, and reporting of requirements
– Instructs on how to handle conflicting
requirements from stakeholders
5.2 Collect
Requirements
Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
5.2 Collect Requirements
Belongs in the
Planning Project
Process Group
The main activity
of gathering the
requirements
from stakeholders
Should contain the
details of the
requirement
Collecting Requirements -
Techniques
INTERVIEWING:
• Meeting with
stakeholders to
question them
about their
requirements
FOCUS GROUPS:
• Meeting with
stakeholders within
a specific
area/realm; like a
user group, or
residents of an
impacted area
WORKSHOPS:
• Controlled or
facilitated meeting
to bring various
stakeholders
together to help
elicit requirements;
often through a
process designed to
help them think or
brainstorm ideas
BRAINSTORMING:
• A collaborative
process where
stakeholders work
together to
generate ideas and
discuss them with
each other in the
hopes of stimulating
more ideas
Collecting
Requirements
- Techniques
AFFINITY
DIAGRAM:
Group early ideas to
generate more specific
requirements
Assist in defining risks
with a group of
requirements
DELPHI METHOD:
Anonymous method for
collecting requirements
and refining them
Requests for
information are sent to
select stakeholders; As
ideas are collected the
requests are compiled
and sent to the
stakeholders again -
The process is repeated
until requirements are
narrowed down to the
most important items a
consensus is reached
MIND MAPPING:
Diagram ideas to help
classify information
This helps generate
new ideas
GROUP DECISION
MAKING:
Requirements are
evaluated by a group of
stakeholders and ideas
are debated
Collecting Requirements -
Techniques
SURVEYS:
• If interviewing is
cumbersome to the
large number of
stakeholders
• Questions are sent
out to stakeholders
asking them for ideas
OBSERVATION:
• Watch users to
identify possible
requirements
• This can be
particularly useful for
replacing old
software, process
improvement
projects, or
determining most
used features in a
product
PROTYPES:
• A light-weight model
used to generate
feedback from
stakeholders
NOMINAL GROUP
TECHNIQUE:
• Stakeholders rank the
ideas for
requirements
• Highest rank items
gain priority
• Can be used within
the brainstorming
requirements
collection to refine
ideas
Collecting
Requirements
- Techniques
• Compare the planned practices to
projects or organizations to help
identify best practices
BENCHMARKING:
• A scope model, a visual way to view
the scope
• Shows users visual way to interact
with the product
CONTEXT
DIAGRAMS:
• Analyze existing documentations of
older but similar projects to create
requirements in a new project
DOCUMENT
ANALYSIS:
Documentation of Requirements
– Upon requirements being finalized, requirements need to be documented
– Assumptions, Dependencies, Constraints
– Stakeholder Requirements
– Solution/Technical Requirements
– Business Requirements
– Project Requirements
– Requirements pertaining to transition events
Requirements
Traceability
Tracks requirements to ensure they
are completed
Lists the requirement source and the
resource responsibility
5.3 Define Scope
Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
5.3 Define Scope
BELONGS IN THE PLANNING PROJECT
PROCESS GROUP
WORKS TO DEFINE THE LIMITS/BOUNDARIES
OF THE PROJECT
USES THE DOCUMENTED REQUIREMENTS,
PROJECT CHARTER, RISKS, ASSUMPTIONS,
AND CONSTRAINTS AS INPUTS IN HELPING
TO DEFINE THE PROJECT SCOPE
Scope Statement
The Scope Statement is the output of the Define Scope
Process
It defines the boundaries of the project and explains
what will be completed for the project
Includes:
The scope of the project output
Acceptance criteria for the final product
Possible risks to the scope, constraints, dependencies and assumptions
Defined exclusions to the scope
5.4 Create WBS
Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
5.4 Create WBS
BELONGS IN THE PLANNING
PROJECT PROCESS GROUP
THE WORK BREAKDOWN
STRUCTURE PROCESS IS THE
PROCESS OF BREAKING
DOWN PROJECT WORK INTO
MORE MANAGEABLE PARTS
CREATES A HIERARCHY
STRUCTURE TO THE PROJECT
AND ALLOWS PROJECT
PHASES TO BE CREATED
PROVIDES A PATH TO
COMPLETING THE PROJECT
AND SHOWS THE SMALLER
DELIVERABLES
MAKES THE PROJECT WORK
EASIER TO VISUALIZE AND
UNDERSTAND
WBS Levels
PROJECT LEVEL: The Core
Purpose of the Project / Project
Name
CONTROL ACCOUNTS: The major
deliverables or phases of the
project
WORK PACKAGES: Small units of
work that are required to create
the deliverables or project phases
ACTIVITIES: Tasks to be assigned
in order to complete the Work
Packages
Generic WBS Example
Work Packages and Activities
Control Accounts
-Deliverables and Phases
The Main Objective/Project
CORE
PROJECT
Deliverable
1
Work
Package 1
Activity 1
Activity 2
Work
Package 2
Activity 1
Work
Package 3
Activity 1
Deliverable
2
Work
Package 1
Activity 1
Activity 2
Deliverable
3
Work
Package 1
Activity 1
WBS Dictionary
Provides a detailed
description of the
work that is required
to complete the work
packages
Each work package
should have detailed
information in the
WBS Dictionary
5.5 Validate Scope
Belongs in the Monitoring & Controlling Project
Process Group
5.5 Validate
Scope
Occurs during
the Monitoring
& Controlling
process group
Formalizing the
acceptance of
completed
project
deliverables
Deliverables
must be
prepared and
aligned to the
approved scope
Requirements
status must be
known and
presented
Validating
Scope
Outputs
– Accepted deliverables or phase project work
– May include change requests if the customer seeks a
modification, a defect is found, or deliverables rejected
for not meeting scope
Validate Scope
Process
Customer Accepts
or Rejects
Deliverable
Rejection may result in more change requests or defect repairs
Customer Inspects
Deliverable
Customer Inspects
Deliverable
Perform Defect
Repair or Change
Requests
Perform Defect
Repair or Change
Requests
Compare Scope to
Scope Baseline –
Control Scope
Compare Scope to
Scope Baseline –
Control Scope
Complete
Deliverables
Complete
Deliverables
5.6 Control Scope
Belongs in the Monitoring & Controlling Project
Process Group
5.6 Control Scope
Belongs in the
Monitoring &
Controlling Project
Process Group
Monitoring and
controlling the
scope of the
project
Compares the
current state of the
product to the
scope baseline
A clear definition of
the scope is
required
Work item or
package must be
completed
Control Scope
Measure against
the scope baseline
Determine any
variance from the
baseline
Determine if repairs
or corrections on
the deliverable is
needed
Update project
documents or
project plan as
required
Evaluate the impact
of any possible
changes
Sources
– A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge – 6th Edition
– https://www.pmi.org/
Joshua Render
https://agile-mercurial.com

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Project Scope Management Knowledge Area

  • 1. Project Scope Management Knowledge Area 6 Processes of Scope Management in a Project
  • 2. Project Scope – Scope defines what work is required and managing scope ensures that the defined work is completed and only the defined work
  • 3. The Project Scope Creates boundaries for the work that will be performed on a project Scope relies on clear and detailed requirements to help avoid scope creep There are six processes to the Project Scope Management Knowledge Area
  • 4. Gold Plating / Scope Creep – Gold Plating is the process of delivering more than what is required in the scope – In many projects, customers will ask for things and insist that they aren’t change requests, the Project Manager must ensure that these requests are evaluated and will not impact the scope – Changes to the scope must go through a change control process
  • 5. Product and Project Scope PRODUCT SCOPE: • Product scope are those requirements that relate to the output or the product that the project produces PROJECT SCOPE: • Project scope is the work/activities that the project team will perform in order to deliver the work output or the product
  • 6. Overview of Project Scope Management 6 Processes of Project Scope Management • 5.1 Plan Scope Management • 5.2 Collect Requirements • 5.3 Define Scope • 5.4 Create WBS • 5.5 Validate Scope • 5.6 Control Scope Exists in only two Project Management Process Groups • Planning • Monitoring & Controlling
  • 7. Process Groups and Project Scope Management • 5.1 Plan Scope Management • 5.2 Collect Requirements • 5.3 Define Scope • 5.4 Create WBS Planning • 5.5 Validate Scope • 5.6 Control Scope Monitoring & Controlling
  • 8. 5.1 Plan Scope Management Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
  • 9. 5.1 Plan Scope Management Plan Scope Management Explains how the scope will be validated and controlled Process of creating a scope management plan Outputs: Scope Management Plan Requirements Management Plan
  • 10. Scope Management Plan – Contains the process for defining the scope, how the scope will be created, and how it will be controlled and verified – Part of the Project Management plan and is used as in input in creating the Project Management plan as part of the Integration processes – Facilitates the creation of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) – Describes the change request process
  • 11. Requirements Management Plan – Describes how requirements will be collected and documented – Includes the explanation on planning, tracking, and reporting of requirements – Instructs on how to handle conflicting requirements from stakeholders
  • 12. 5.2 Collect Requirements Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
  • 13. 5.2 Collect Requirements Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group The main activity of gathering the requirements from stakeholders Should contain the details of the requirement
  • 14. Collecting Requirements - Techniques INTERVIEWING: • Meeting with stakeholders to question them about their requirements FOCUS GROUPS: • Meeting with stakeholders within a specific area/realm; like a user group, or residents of an impacted area WORKSHOPS: • Controlled or facilitated meeting to bring various stakeholders together to help elicit requirements; often through a process designed to help them think or brainstorm ideas BRAINSTORMING: • A collaborative process where stakeholders work together to generate ideas and discuss them with each other in the hopes of stimulating more ideas
  • 15. Collecting Requirements - Techniques AFFINITY DIAGRAM: Group early ideas to generate more specific requirements Assist in defining risks with a group of requirements DELPHI METHOD: Anonymous method for collecting requirements and refining them Requests for information are sent to select stakeholders; As ideas are collected the requests are compiled and sent to the stakeholders again - The process is repeated until requirements are narrowed down to the most important items a consensus is reached MIND MAPPING: Diagram ideas to help classify information This helps generate new ideas GROUP DECISION MAKING: Requirements are evaluated by a group of stakeholders and ideas are debated
  • 16. Collecting Requirements - Techniques SURVEYS: • If interviewing is cumbersome to the large number of stakeholders • Questions are sent out to stakeholders asking them for ideas OBSERVATION: • Watch users to identify possible requirements • This can be particularly useful for replacing old software, process improvement projects, or determining most used features in a product PROTYPES: • A light-weight model used to generate feedback from stakeholders NOMINAL GROUP TECHNIQUE: • Stakeholders rank the ideas for requirements • Highest rank items gain priority • Can be used within the brainstorming requirements collection to refine ideas
  • 17. Collecting Requirements - Techniques • Compare the planned practices to projects or organizations to help identify best practices BENCHMARKING: • A scope model, a visual way to view the scope • Shows users visual way to interact with the product CONTEXT DIAGRAMS: • Analyze existing documentations of older but similar projects to create requirements in a new project DOCUMENT ANALYSIS:
  • 18. Documentation of Requirements – Upon requirements being finalized, requirements need to be documented – Assumptions, Dependencies, Constraints – Stakeholder Requirements – Solution/Technical Requirements – Business Requirements – Project Requirements – Requirements pertaining to transition events
  • 19. Requirements Traceability Tracks requirements to ensure they are completed Lists the requirement source and the resource responsibility
  • 20. 5.3 Define Scope Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
  • 21. 5.3 Define Scope BELONGS IN THE PLANNING PROJECT PROCESS GROUP WORKS TO DEFINE THE LIMITS/BOUNDARIES OF THE PROJECT USES THE DOCUMENTED REQUIREMENTS, PROJECT CHARTER, RISKS, ASSUMPTIONS, AND CONSTRAINTS AS INPUTS IN HELPING TO DEFINE THE PROJECT SCOPE
  • 22. Scope Statement The Scope Statement is the output of the Define Scope Process It defines the boundaries of the project and explains what will be completed for the project Includes: The scope of the project output Acceptance criteria for the final product Possible risks to the scope, constraints, dependencies and assumptions Defined exclusions to the scope
  • 23. 5.4 Create WBS Belongs in the Planning Project Process Group
  • 24. 5.4 Create WBS BELONGS IN THE PLANNING PROJECT PROCESS GROUP THE WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE PROCESS IS THE PROCESS OF BREAKING DOWN PROJECT WORK INTO MORE MANAGEABLE PARTS CREATES A HIERARCHY STRUCTURE TO THE PROJECT AND ALLOWS PROJECT PHASES TO BE CREATED PROVIDES A PATH TO COMPLETING THE PROJECT AND SHOWS THE SMALLER DELIVERABLES MAKES THE PROJECT WORK EASIER TO VISUALIZE AND UNDERSTAND
  • 25. WBS Levels PROJECT LEVEL: The Core Purpose of the Project / Project Name CONTROL ACCOUNTS: The major deliverables or phases of the project WORK PACKAGES: Small units of work that are required to create the deliverables or project phases ACTIVITIES: Tasks to be assigned in order to complete the Work Packages
  • 26. Generic WBS Example Work Packages and Activities Control Accounts -Deliverables and Phases The Main Objective/Project CORE PROJECT Deliverable 1 Work Package 1 Activity 1 Activity 2 Work Package 2 Activity 1 Work Package 3 Activity 1 Deliverable 2 Work Package 1 Activity 1 Activity 2 Deliverable 3 Work Package 1 Activity 1
  • 27. WBS Dictionary Provides a detailed description of the work that is required to complete the work packages Each work package should have detailed information in the WBS Dictionary
  • 28. 5.5 Validate Scope Belongs in the Monitoring & Controlling Project Process Group
  • 29. 5.5 Validate Scope Occurs during the Monitoring & Controlling process group Formalizing the acceptance of completed project deliverables Deliverables must be prepared and aligned to the approved scope Requirements status must be known and presented
  • 30. Validating Scope Outputs – Accepted deliverables or phase project work – May include change requests if the customer seeks a modification, a defect is found, or deliverables rejected for not meeting scope
  • 31. Validate Scope Process Customer Accepts or Rejects Deliverable Rejection may result in more change requests or defect repairs Customer Inspects Deliverable Customer Inspects Deliverable Perform Defect Repair or Change Requests Perform Defect Repair or Change Requests Compare Scope to Scope Baseline – Control Scope Compare Scope to Scope Baseline – Control Scope Complete Deliverables Complete Deliverables
  • 32. 5.6 Control Scope Belongs in the Monitoring & Controlling Project Process Group
  • 33. 5.6 Control Scope Belongs in the Monitoring & Controlling Project Process Group Monitoring and controlling the scope of the project Compares the current state of the product to the scope baseline A clear definition of the scope is required Work item or package must be completed
  • 34. Control Scope Measure against the scope baseline Determine any variance from the baseline Determine if repairs or corrections on the deliverable is needed Update project documents or project plan as required Evaluate the impact of any possible changes
  • 35. Sources – A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge – 6th Edition – https://www.pmi.org/ Joshua Render https://agile-mercurial.com