PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments

Josephine Ann Necor
Josephine Ann NecorJosa um Far Eastern University Diliman
The third basic phase of curriculum
development
L T E A C H E R D V
S G I R A F F E F I
L H A P P I V I R O
A V A M S E T N I L
I E T Y L P O S E E
R M A O T T E T Y N
E I P H U C V R G Y
T T C E D E E U O L
A V A L E N T C R O
M Q W Y T O Y T P S
L T E A C H E R D V
S G I R A F F E F I
L H A P P I V I R O
A V A M S E T N I L
I E T Y L P O S E E
R M A O T T E T Y N
E I P H U C V R G Y
T T C E D E E U O L
A V A L E N T C R O
M Q W Y T O Y T P S
PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments
Curriculum Implementation Overview
Implementation is an interaction between those who have
created the program and those who are charged to deliver it
The integration of instructional content, arrangement,
interventions, management, and monitoring in the
classroom
It entails putting into practice the officially prescribed
courses of study, syllabuses and subjects.
• Refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study
is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of work and
lessons to be delivered to students (University of Zimbabwe,
1995)
Requires educators to shift from the current program which they
are familiar with to the new or modified program; Involves
changes in the knowledge, actions and attitudes of people
(Ornstein and Hunkins, 1998)
Curriculum Implementation Overview
Josephine Ann J. Necor
CONTENT
ESTABLISHED
quality materials must be
obtained to aid in planning
and conducting meaningful
student learning experiences
TASK: IDENTIFY/SELECT or
DEVELOP MEANINGFUL
MATERIALS ALIGNED WITH
INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
CURRICULUM MATERIALS
• physical resources used to support the
presentation of and interaction with the
curriculum content
• resources that, if used properly, can assist a
teacher in bringing about an intended
desirable behavior change in individual
students.
TYPES OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS
• Printed Matter – those that rely mainly upon reading for
comprehension and are currently printed on paper (e.g.
manuals, workbooks, pamphlets, study guides, reference
books, standard textbooks, magazines, newspapers, modules)
• Audiovisual Materials – may involve seeing and hearing at the same
time, although not in all cases; require some type of equipment for
their use (e.g. pictures, graphics, transparencies, filmstrips, posters,
audiotapes, records, films, film loops, slide series, videotapes,
microcomputers)
• Manipulative Aids – those that must be physically handled (e.g.
puzzles, games, models, specimens, puppets/figures, learning kits,
experiments, trainers, simulators)
DEVELOP
MATERIALS
DEVELOP
MATERIALS
IDENTIFY/SELECT
MATERIALS
TEACHER
SEARCHES FOR
MATERIALS TO
FIT
INSTRUCTIONAL
CONTENT
NOT AVAILABLE
SELECTING CURRICULUM MATERIALS
FACTORS TO CONSIDER
1. General Information
(a description of the
materials)
2. Assessment areas
• Bias
• Readability
• Content
• Presentation
• Learning
• Support
• Cost-benefit
3. Strengths and
Limitations
DEVELOPING CURRICULUM MATERIALS
• Even with the variety of curriculum materials available today, the
curriculum developer is often faced with the need to produce new
materials.
• This need becomes evident when materials are required for a certain
instructional situation and are not available. Furthermore, they may be
established when the available materials are not appropriate for an
intended audience or when their use is limited by other factors that
might prohibit a teacher from using them with established instructional
objectives.
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
1.Time Available and Needed
2.Expertise Available
• Technical information
• Editorial assistance
• Media
• Duplication
3. Money Available
4. Decisions to Make Regarding Materials Development
• What materials should be developed and why?
• Who should develop the materials?
• When should the materials be developed?
• Where should the materials be developed?
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
5. Target Population
6. Dissemination
7. Support Needed
8. Development Alternatives
• Individual Development
• Team Development
FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
THE CURRICULUM MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
PROCESS
• Curriculum materials development must follow a
systematic and logical process from beginning to end.
Whether an individual or team approach is used, it is
important to keep in mind that development consists of
several stages, each of which contributes to the overall
materials quality. When each stage in the development
process is followed, materials produced will be of higher
quality and well worth the effort involved.
STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS
A. Preliminary development plan
1. Determine curriculum content to be investigated
2. Determine terminal and enabling objectives
3. Identify special curriculum materials needed
4. Review the literature to determine what materials are
available.
5. Identify materials lacking in the content area.
6. Establish priorities for needed materials.
STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS
B. Finalize development plan
1. Conduct an intensive literature review.
2. Obtain relevant references and resources.
3. Prepare a first draft of the materials.
4. Edit the first draft. (technical accuracy, composition,
applicability)
5. Prepare a second draft.
6. Pilot-test the second draft.
7. Prepare a third draft.
8. Field test the third draft.
9. Prepare the final draft.
10. Duplicate the materials.
STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS
DISSEMINATING CURRICULUM MATERIALS
• The curriculum materials development cycle is not complete until
materials have been disseminated to the intended users.
• The value of disseminating curriculum materials is quite clear,
since valuable and useful material may end up on a shelf and
never be used if teachers are not made aware of their worth.
Failure to provide plans for dissemination would be a great loss to
those who might have benefited from the materials and a great
waste of human and monetary resources to those who developed
the materials.
• When devising plans for the dissemination of materials,
several factors need to be considered in order to ensure that
those who are to be reached during the dissemination are
efficiently and effectively informed about how the materials
may be used.
• Potential Audience
• Geographical Considerations
• Dissemination in relation to the cost
CURRICULUM MATERIALS ADOPTION PROCESS
• Awareness/Knowledge – the stage at which the educator or decision maker is
exposed to curriculum materials, develops some understanding of their potential
value, and visualizes how the curriculum materials might be used.
• Attitude Formation – the stage during which an educator or decision maker
becomes more receptive to either adopting the materials or rejecting their use.
• Decision – the stage where previous experience leads an educator or decision
maker to either adopt or reject adoption of the curriculum materials.
• Application – the stage at which an educator or decision maker uses curriculum
materials in the actual learning environment.
• Validation – the stage at which an educator or decision maker continues to use
curriculum materials to either reaffirm the earlier decision to adopt the materials
or discontinue use of materials.
• IN-SERVICE/PRE-SERVICE MATERIALS
ORIENTATION PROCESS
• UPDATING CURRICULUM MATERIALS
8 M’s of Teaching
• In school, we are dealing with the young who are immature
and who lack the experiences in life which learning emanates.
That is why the teacher assumes an important role in their
development. The learners who are expected to undergo the
learning process cannot do it on their own without adult help
and supervision. That is what teaching is all about. It is the
process of "helping" the learners learn economically,
efficiently, and effectively. The success of a learning
situation depends to a large extent on the skillful intervention
of a professional person, the teacher.
PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments
1. Milieu: The Learning Environment
2. Matter: The Content of Learning
3. Method: The teaching-learning Strategy
4. Material: The Resources of Learning
5. Media: Communication in Teaching and Learning
6. Motivation: Arousing and Sustaining Interest in Learning
7. Mastery: The Be-all and End-all of Learning
8. Measurement: Getting Evidence of Learning
8 M’s of Teaching
8 M’s of Teaching vis-à-vis Plantilla
Learning
Objective
Learning
Content
Learning
Experiences/
Resources
Evaluation of
Learning
Outcomes
Matter Motivation
Method
Materials
Media
Mastery
Measurement
PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments
PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments
PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments
PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments
LESSON PLANS
• Lesson plans chart daily instruction.
• A lesson plan is simply an outline prepared in advance of teaching, so that
time and materials will be used efficiently. Various types of lessons require
different kinds of lesson plans. (Lawrence J. Peter)
• Various types of teachers, various types of learners, and various types of
subject matter require different types of lesson plans. Various types of
administrators and supervisors require different types of lesson plans.
• A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and
how it will be done effectively during the class time.
• Specifying concrete objectives for student learning will help you determine
the kinds of teaching and learning activities you will use in class, while those
activities will define how you will check whether the learning objectives have
been accomplished
SUGGESTED FORMAT OF A LESSON PLAN
Goal: A unifying theme, an overall general purpose to accomplish by the end of the
lesson period. e.g. Students will increase their familiarity with the conventions of
telephone conversations
Objectives: Explicitly state what you want students to gain from the lesson.
What students will do:
• Be sure you know what it is you want to accomplish
• Preserve the unity of your lesson
• Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too much
• Evaluate students' success at the end of, or after,
• Materials & Equipment: Tape / tape recorder / poster / map / handouts / OHP
• Procedures: There is so much variation here that it is hard to give any “set recipes” but
make sure your plan includes:
a. An Oral Test
b. An opening statement or activity as warm-up for the lesson itself
c. A set of activities and techniques in which you have considered appropriate proportions
of time for :
-Whole class work, Group and / or pair work, Teacher Talk, Student Talk, Teacher /
student Talk
d. Closure
e. Homework
f. Evaluation
ISSUES, CONCERNS, RECOMMENDATIONS
Issues and Concerns
• Poor quality of materials/lessons
• Instructional tasks of teacher versus instructional tasks of written materials
• Curriculum materials do not meet the objectives/insufficient that compromises student
learning
Recommendations
• Teachers/developers must be guided and must work collaboratively with other teachers to
assess the effectiveness of materials
• There should be balance between the two; Teacher should have “required teaching
actions” in every material to show the division of labor
• Curriculum materials must be selected and developed carefully in relation to the
instructional objectives and of the lesson
THANK YOU!
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PNU CTP Ed 3 Curriculum implementation through developments

  • 1. The third basic phase of curriculum development
  • 2. L T E A C H E R D V S G I R A F F E F I L H A P P I V I R O A V A M S E T N I L I E T Y L P O S E E R M A O T T E T Y N E I P H U C V R G Y T T C E D E E U O L A V A L E N T C R O M Q W Y T O Y T P S
  • 3. L T E A C H E R D V S G I R A F F E F I L H A P P I V I R O A V A M S E T N I L I E T Y L P O S E E R M A O T T E T Y N E I P H U C V R G Y T T C E D E E U O L A V A L E N T C R O M Q W Y T O Y T P S
  • 5. Curriculum Implementation Overview Implementation is an interaction between those who have created the program and those who are charged to deliver it The integration of instructional content, arrangement, interventions, management, and monitoring in the classroom It entails putting into practice the officially prescribed courses of study, syllabuses and subjects.
  • 6. • Refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of work and lessons to be delivered to students (University of Zimbabwe, 1995) Requires educators to shift from the current program which they are familiar with to the new or modified program; Involves changes in the knowledge, actions and attitudes of people (Ornstein and Hunkins, 1998) Curriculum Implementation Overview
  • 8. CONTENT ESTABLISHED quality materials must be obtained to aid in planning and conducting meaningful student learning experiences TASK: IDENTIFY/SELECT or DEVELOP MEANINGFUL MATERIALS ALIGNED WITH INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES
  • 9. CURRICULUM MATERIALS • physical resources used to support the presentation of and interaction with the curriculum content • resources that, if used properly, can assist a teacher in bringing about an intended desirable behavior change in individual students.
  • 10. TYPES OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS • Printed Matter – those that rely mainly upon reading for comprehension and are currently printed on paper (e.g. manuals, workbooks, pamphlets, study guides, reference books, standard textbooks, magazines, newspapers, modules) • Audiovisual Materials – may involve seeing and hearing at the same time, although not in all cases; require some type of equipment for their use (e.g. pictures, graphics, transparencies, filmstrips, posters, audiotapes, records, films, film loops, slide series, videotapes, microcomputers) • Manipulative Aids – those that must be physically handled (e.g. puzzles, games, models, specimens, puppets/figures, learning kits, experiments, trainers, simulators)
  • 12. SELECTING CURRICULUM MATERIALS FACTORS TO CONSIDER 1. General Information (a description of the materials) 2. Assessment areas • Bias • Readability • Content • Presentation • Learning • Support • Cost-benefit 3. Strengths and Limitations
  • 13. DEVELOPING CURRICULUM MATERIALS • Even with the variety of curriculum materials available today, the curriculum developer is often faced with the need to produce new materials. • This need becomes evident when materials are required for a certain instructional situation and are not available. Furthermore, they may be established when the available materials are not appropriate for an intended audience or when their use is limited by other factors that might prohibit a teacher from using them with established instructional objectives.
  • 14. FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT 1.Time Available and Needed 2.Expertise Available • Technical information • Editorial assistance • Media • Duplication
  • 15. 3. Money Available 4. Decisions to Make Regarding Materials Development • What materials should be developed and why? • Who should develop the materials? • When should the materials be developed? • Where should the materials be developed? FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
  • 16. 5. Target Population 6. Dissemination 7. Support Needed 8. Development Alternatives • Individual Development • Team Development FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT
  • 17. THE CURRICULUM MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS • Curriculum materials development must follow a systematic and logical process from beginning to end. Whether an individual or team approach is used, it is important to keep in mind that development consists of several stages, each of which contributes to the overall materials quality. When each stage in the development process is followed, materials produced will be of higher quality and well worth the effort involved.
  • 18. STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS A. Preliminary development plan 1. Determine curriculum content to be investigated 2. Determine terminal and enabling objectives 3. Identify special curriculum materials needed 4. Review the literature to determine what materials are available. 5. Identify materials lacking in the content area. 6. Establish priorities for needed materials.
  • 19. STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS B. Finalize development plan 1. Conduct an intensive literature review. 2. Obtain relevant references and resources. 3. Prepare a first draft of the materials. 4. Edit the first draft. (technical accuracy, composition, applicability)
  • 20. 5. Prepare a second draft. 6. Pilot-test the second draft. 7. Prepare a third draft. 8. Field test the third draft. 9. Prepare the final draft. 10. Duplicate the materials. STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CURRICULUM MATERIALS
  • 21. DISSEMINATING CURRICULUM MATERIALS • The curriculum materials development cycle is not complete until materials have been disseminated to the intended users. • The value of disseminating curriculum materials is quite clear, since valuable and useful material may end up on a shelf and never be used if teachers are not made aware of their worth. Failure to provide plans for dissemination would be a great loss to those who might have benefited from the materials and a great waste of human and monetary resources to those who developed the materials.
  • 22. • When devising plans for the dissemination of materials, several factors need to be considered in order to ensure that those who are to be reached during the dissemination are efficiently and effectively informed about how the materials may be used. • Potential Audience • Geographical Considerations • Dissemination in relation to the cost
  • 23. CURRICULUM MATERIALS ADOPTION PROCESS • Awareness/Knowledge – the stage at which the educator or decision maker is exposed to curriculum materials, develops some understanding of their potential value, and visualizes how the curriculum materials might be used. • Attitude Formation – the stage during which an educator or decision maker becomes more receptive to either adopting the materials or rejecting their use. • Decision – the stage where previous experience leads an educator or decision maker to either adopt or reject adoption of the curriculum materials. • Application – the stage at which an educator or decision maker uses curriculum materials in the actual learning environment. • Validation – the stage at which an educator or decision maker continues to use curriculum materials to either reaffirm the earlier decision to adopt the materials or discontinue use of materials.
  • 24. • IN-SERVICE/PRE-SERVICE MATERIALS ORIENTATION PROCESS • UPDATING CURRICULUM MATERIALS
  • 25. 8 M’s of Teaching • In school, we are dealing with the young who are immature and who lack the experiences in life which learning emanates. That is why the teacher assumes an important role in their development. The learners who are expected to undergo the learning process cannot do it on their own without adult help and supervision. That is what teaching is all about. It is the process of "helping" the learners learn economically, efficiently, and effectively. The success of a learning situation depends to a large extent on the skillful intervention of a professional person, the teacher.
  • 27. 1. Milieu: The Learning Environment 2. Matter: The Content of Learning 3. Method: The teaching-learning Strategy 4. Material: The Resources of Learning 5. Media: Communication in Teaching and Learning 6. Motivation: Arousing and Sustaining Interest in Learning 7. Mastery: The Be-all and End-all of Learning 8. Measurement: Getting Evidence of Learning 8 M’s of Teaching
  • 28. 8 M’s of Teaching vis-à-vis Plantilla Learning Objective Learning Content Learning Experiences/ Resources Evaluation of Learning Outcomes Matter Motivation Method Materials Media Mastery Measurement
  • 33. LESSON PLANS • Lesson plans chart daily instruction. • A lesson plan is simply an outline prepared in advance of teaching, so that time and materials will be used efficiently. Various types of lessons require different kinds of lesson plans. (Lawrence J. Peter) • Various types of teachers, various types of learners, and various types of subject matter require different types of lesson plans. Various types of administrators and supervisors require different types of lesson plans. • A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during the class time. • Specifying concrete objectives for student learning will help you determine the kinds of teaching and learning activities you will use in class, while those activities will define how you will check whether the learning objectives have been accomplished
  • 34. SUGGESTED FORMAT OF A LESSON PLAN Goal: A unifying theme, an overall general purpose to accomplish by the end of the lesson period. e.g. Students will increase their familiarity with the conventions of telephone conversations Objectives: Explicitly state what you want students to gain from the lesson. What students will do: • Be sure you know what it is you want to accomplish • Preserve the unity of your lesson • Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too much • Evaluate students' success at the end of, or after,
  • 35. • Materials & Equipment: Tape / tape recorder / poster / map / handouts / OHP • Procedures: There is so much variation here that it is hard to give any “set recipes” but make sure your plan includes: a. An Oral Test b. An opening statement or activity as warm-up for the lesson itself c. A set of activities and techniques in which you have considered appropriate proportions of time for : -Whole class work, Group and / or pair work, Teacher Talk, Student Talk, Teacher / student Talk d. Closure e. Homework f. Evaluation
  • 36. ISSUES, CONCERNS, RECOMMENDATIONS Issues and Concerns • Poor quality of materials/lessons • Instructional tasks of teacher versus instructional tasks of written materials • Curriculum materials do not meet the objectives/insufficient that compromises student learning Recommendations • Teachers/developers must be guided and must work collaboratively with other teachers to assess the effectiveness of materials • There should be balance between the two; Teacher should have “required teaching actions” in every material to show the division of labor • Curriculum materials must be selected and developed carefully in relation to the instructional objectives and of the lesson

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. We are in the third basic phase of curriculum development – Curriculum Implementation
  2. Rationale: There are two modes of curriculum implementation. 1st: Through Developments – focused in producing materials, documents 2nd: Through Instruction – focused on the actual delivery which is facilitated by the teacher
  3. Curriculum is the way content is designed and developed. The process includes the structure, organization, and balance of the materials. Curriculum implementation therefore refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of work and lessons to be delivered to learners (University of Zimbabwe 1995:9)
  4. Curriculum Implementation thru Development is to produce all necessary design, documents & materials to be used for the actual delivery of the curriculum. These are some of the documents that are needed to be prepared in order to deliver the curriculum Develop: In this stage, curriculum development involves planning, construction and the logical step-by- step procedures used to produce written documents, as well as print and non-print resource materials. These documents may include vision statements, goals, standards, performance benchmarks, learning activities and instructional strategies, interdisciplinary connections, and other integration activities that guide curriculum implementation.
  5. Once curriculum content has been established, quality materials must be obtained to aid in planning and conducting meaningful student learning experiences. These materials may already be available from various sources. The task is to identify and select materials that can aid students in reaching predetermined objectives. If materials are not available, then developers must develop meaningful materials that align with the established instructional objectives.
  6. Curriculum guides Conventional curriculum materials include textbooks, workbooks, manipulatives, charts and posters, “‘Instructional materials’ means all materials that are designed for use by pupils and their teachers as a learning resource and help pupils to acquire facts, skills, or opinions or to develop cognitive processes. Instructional materials may be printed or non-printed, and may include textbooks, technology-based materials, other educational materials, and tests.“ “‘Technology-based materials’ means basic or supplemental instructional materials that are designed for use by pupils and teachers as learning resources and that require the availability of electronic equipment in order to be used as a learning resource. Technology-based materials include, but are not limited to, software programs, video disks, compact disks, optical disks, video and audio tapes, lesson plans, and data bases.”
  7. In general, curriculum materials may be classified into 3 categories: WHY DO WE NEED TO SECURE CURRICULUM MATERIALS?
  8. There are several factors to consider in selecting quality materials for curriculum. Failure to examine materials in relation to these factors may result in obtaining items that cannot be used to achieve the desired learning outcomes.
  9. If teacher constructed, this is one of the documents that needs to be developed. If there are existing syllabus already, the you can make use of it; If it needs to be developed - The topics in the syllabus needs to be rearranged in the order in which they are supposed to be taught. This is because some topics are build up e.g. before one learns to multiply he should have done additions, e.t.c. The syllabus topics should then follow that order. set up by committee who consists of people who supervise and controls course quality Difference Between Syllabus & Curriculum - Functionally a ‘Syllabus’ is generally unidimensional in the sense it merely presents the content or the subject matter to be studied. Curriculum is three dimensional , because it takes into account: the needs of the students, the content (in terms of specific performances) instructional methodology
  10. If a scheme of work is already available for the subject, it would be a waste of effort and time for the teacher to break new ground again. In this case, the teacher can revise the existing scheme to suit his/her students and to bring it up to date. Due to overlapping or underplanning experienced during instruction or unforeseen interruptions, it is necessary to revise the scheme of work in order to accommodate the unexpected difficulties. This date should be indicated in the space provided in the form.
  11. Learning experiences