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Models of curriculum development

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Models of curriculum development

  1. 1. WHAT IS A CURRICULUM? • Curriculum is a design plan for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive organization, sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students, and the content knowledge we want students to acquire.
  2. 2. SUBJECT/ TEACHER-CENTERED CURRICULUM • This model focuses on the content of the curriculum. • The subject centered design corresponds mostly to the textbook written for the specific subject.
  3. 3. WHAT IS A CURRICULUM MODEL? A model is a format for curriculum design developed to meet unique needs, contexts, and/or purposes. In order to address these goals, curriculum developers design, reconfigure, or rearrange one or more key curriculum components.
  4. 4. CURRICULUM DESIGNS • Subject-Centered Curriculum • Learner-Centered Curriculum • Problem-Centered Curriculum
  5. 5. DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM The planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners’ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence.” (Daniel Tanner, 1980)
  6. 6. •The subject-centered curriculum can be focused on – traditional areas in the traditional disciplines – interdisciplinary topics that touch on a wide variety of fields – on processes such as problem solving – on the goal of teaching students to be critical consumers of information. • A curriculum can also be organized around a subject center by focusing on certain processes, strategies, or life-skills, such as problem solving, decision making, or teamwork.
  7. 7. OBJECTIVES: To transfer cultural heritage To represent knowledge To impart information
  8. 8. DRAWBACKS Ignores interest of students No process of insight or thinking Remote memory Neglects social problems and demands
  9. 9. LEARNER-CENTERED CURRICULUM •centered on certain aspects of the learners themselves. •may explore the learner’s own life or family history or local environment.
  10. 10. ADVANTAGES: • It gives power to the learners: they are identified as the experts in knowing what they need to know. • The constructivist element of this approach honors the social and cultural context of the learner. • It creates a direct link between in-class work and learners' need for literacy outside the classroom.
  11. 11. DISADVANTAGES: • It often relies on the teacher's ability to create or select materials appropriate to learners' expressed needs. • Teachers may also find it difficult to strike an acceptable balance among the competing needs and interests of students.
  12. 12. TEACHERS CENTERED V/S LEARNERCENTERED CURRICULUM Teacher-Centered Learner-Centered Focus is on instructor Focus is on both students and instructor Instructor talks; students listen Instructor models; students interact with instructor and one another Students work alone Students work in pairs, in groups, or alone depending on the purpose of the activity Instructor monitors and corrects every student utterance Students talk without constant instructor monitoring Instructor chooses topics Students have some choice of topics Instructor answers student’s questions about language Students answer each other’s questions, using instructor as an information resource Classroom is often noisy and busy Instructor evaluates student learning Classroom is quite Students evaluate their own learning; instructor also evaluates
  13. 13. PROBLEM-CENTERED CURRICULUM •Problem-centered curriculum, or problem based learning, organizes subject matter around a problem, real or hypothetical, that needs to be solved. •Problem-centered curriculum is inherently engaging and authentic, because the students have a real purpose to their inquiry -- solving the problem.
  14. 14. PROBLEM CENTERED-CURRICULUM • Types of problems to be explored may include: – Life situations involving real problems of practice – Problems that revolve around life at a given school – Problems selected from local issues – Philosophical or moral problems
  15. 15. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODELS • Tyler’s model • Taba’s model • Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model • Oliva model
  16. 16. THE TYLER MODEL THE TYLER MODEL • Introduced in 1949 by Ralph Tyler in his classic book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. • One of the best known models for curriculum development. • Known for the special attention it gives to the planning phases. • deductive for it proceeds from the general (examining the needs of society, for example) to the specific (specifying instructional objectives).
  17. 17. • Tyler recommends that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: ○ the learners ○ contemporary life outside the school ○ subject matter. • After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine them by filtering them through two screens: ○ the philosophical screen ○ the psychological screen • In the Tyler Model, the general objectives that successfully pass through the two screens become what are now popularly known as instructional objectives.
  18. 18. THE TYLER MODEL OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
  19. 19. She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. • Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design. • She noted 7 major steps to her grass-roots model in which teachers would have major input. • She was of the opinion that the Tyler model was more of an administrative model.
  20. 20. HILDA TABA : GRASSROOTS APPROACH 1. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society. 2. Formulation of learning objectives. 3. Selection of the learning content. 4. Organization of learning content. 5. Selection of the learning experiences. 6. Organization of learning activities. 7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.
  21. 21. THE TABA MODEL • Diagnosis of need: The teacher who is also the curriculum designer starts the process by identifying the needs of students for whom the curriculum is planned. For example, the majority of students are unable to think critically. • Formulation of objectives: After the teacher has identified needs that require attention, he or she specifies objectives to be accomplished.
  22. 22. THE SAYLOR, ALEXANDER, AND LEWIS MODEL • Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished.
  23. 23. THE OLIVA MODEL • The Oliva Model is a deductive model that offers a faculty a process for the complete development of a school’s curriculum. • Oliva recognized the needs of students in particular communities are not always the same as the general needs of students throughout our society.
  24. 24. THE OLIVA MODEL In the Oliva Model a faculty can fashion a plan: • for the curriculum of an area and design ways in which it will be carried out through instruction • to develop school-wide interdisciplinary programs that cut across areas of specialization such as career education, guidance, and class activities. • for a faculty to focus on the curricular components of the model to make programmatic decisions. • to allow a faculty to concentrate on the instructional components.
  25. 25. SUMMARIZATION • Introduction • Definition • Curriculum designs – Subject-Centered Curriculum – Learner-Centered Curriculum – Problem-Centered Curriculum • Curriculum models – Tyler’s model – Taba’s model – Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s model – Oliva model
  26. 26. RECAPTUALIZATION Fill in the blanks • In teacher centered curriculum, the focus is only on ______________. • Tyler model was introduced in _____________. • The grassroot approach was given by _____________. • The disadvantage of learner centered curriculum is ________________. • Various sources in curriculum planning in Tyler model are _______________.
  27. 27. TRUE/FALSE • Subject centered curriculum focuses on the content of the curriculum. T/F • Oliva model is an inductive model. T/F • Hilda Taba believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers. T/F • Tyler model was introduced in 1949. T/F • Problem centered curriculum explores philosophical or moral problems. T/F

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