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A (Short) History of the Human Brain

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Slides from brief lecture on the history of neuroscience given at the Brooklyn Brainery on 3/5/14.

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A (Short) History of the Human Brain

  1. 1. A (Brief) History of the Human Brain John Borghi, PhD Science Informationist Rockefeller University @JohnBorghi
  2. 2. A Human’s Brain
  3. 3. Front (Anterior) Back (Posterior) Top (Superior) Bottom (Inferior)
  4. 4. Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe
  5. 5. Herrick, C. J. (1915). An introduction to neurology. Saunders. Chicago
  6. 6. Sabatinelli, D., et al. (2011). Emotional perception: meta-analyses of face and natural scene processing. Neuroimage, 54(3), 2524-2533.
  7. 7. The Edwin Smith Papyrus 1500 BCE
  8. 8. Case 6: Instructions concerning a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone, smashing his skull, and rending open the brain of his skull. Examination: If thou examinest a man having a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone, smashing his skull, and rending open the brain of his skull, thou shouldst palpate his wound. Shouldst thou find that smash which is in his skull like those corrugations which form in molten copper, and something therein throbbing and fluttering under thy fingers, like the weak place of an infant's crown before it becomes whole-when it has happened there is no throbbing and fluttering under thy fingers until the brain of his (the patient's) skull is rent open- and he discharges blood from both his nostrils, and he suffers with stiffness in his neck... Diagnosis: Thou shouldst say concerning him: "An ailment not to be treated." Treatment: Thou shouldst anoint that wound with grease. Thou shalt not bind it; thou shalt not apply two strips upon it: until thou knowest that he has reached a decisive point. Gloss: As for: "Smashing his skull, (and) rending open the brain of his skull," it means the smash is large, opening to the interior of his skull, to the membrane enveloping his brain, so that it breaks open his fluid in the interior of his head....
  9. 9. Fourth Century BCE Plato: Based on the teaching of Socrates, the soul has three distinct parts. Each part affects our behavior in different ways. Raphael’s The School of Athens
  10. 10. Jan van Noordt’s Hippocrates visiting Democritus in Abdera
  11. 11. Hippocrates: Based on observations made by Alcmaeon and others, the brain is the center of intelligence. Fourth Century BCE Aristotle: The heart is the center of intelligence. The brain cools the blood.
  12. 12. Galen: Different parts of the soul can be localized to different parts of the body. The rational aspect of the soul is located in the brain. Second Century CE
  13. 13. Head Liver Heart Plato Galen The Immortal Soul The Irascible Soul The Appetitive Soul Animal Spirit Vital Spirit Natural Spirit· · · Second Century CE
  14. 14. Fourth Century CE Nemesius: Different functions can be localized to the different ventricles of the brain. From Nemesius’ De Natura Hominis
  15. 15. Fourth Century CE
  16. 16. Neuroscience in the Dark Ages Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi 854–925 Hunayn ibn Ishaq 809–873
  17. 17. Neuroscience in the Renaissance René Descartes 1596-1650 Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564
  18. 18. From Andreas Vesalius’ De humani corporis fabrica Illustrations by Jan van Calcar
  19. 19. Neuroscience in the Renaissance Cartesian Dualism / Substance Dualism The mental does not have extension in space, and the material cannot think.
  20. 20. Thomas Willis 1621-1675 Neuroscience in the Renaissance From Thomas Willis’ Cerebri Anatome Illustrations by Christopher Wren
  21. 21. Luigi Galvani 1737-1798 Electrical Brains From Luigi Galvani’s De Viribus Electricitatis in Motu Musculari
  22. 22. Frankenstein (1931 film)De Viribus Electricitatis in Motu Musculari
  23. 23. Phrenology- 1810 ~ 1840 Franz Joseph Gall 1758-1828 Johann Spurzheim 1776-1832
  24. 24. Phrenological chart attributed to Johann Gaspar Spurzheim
  25. 25. Phrenology- 1810 ~ 1840 Jean Pierre Flourens 1794-1867
  26. 26. Phineas Gage 1823-1860 Examining Brain Injuries
  27. 27. Examining Brain Injuries Harlow, J.M. (1868). Recovery from the Passage of an Iron Bar through the Head. Publications of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 2, 327–347 Phineas Gage 1823-1860
  28. 28. Examining Brain Injuries Paul Broca 1824-1880
  29. 29. Paul Broca 1824-1880 Examining Brain Injuries The brain of Victor Leborgne
  30. 30. Carl Wernicke 1848-1905 Examining Brain Injuries
  31. 31. Yeatman, J. D., et al. (2014). The vertical occipital fasciculus: A century of controversy resolved by in vivo measurements. PNAS, 111(48), E5214-E5223
  32. 32. Digression: Moniz, Freeman, and the prefrontal lobotomy Egas Moniz 1874-1955 Rosemary Kennedy 1918-2008
  33. 33. Golgi Stain A method for visualizing brain cells using silver nitrate and potassium dichromate Stained Brains
  34. 34. CamilloGolgiSantiagoRamónyCajal
  35. 35. It may seem strange that, since I have always been opposed to the neuron theory – although acknowledging that its starting-point is to be found in my own work – I have chosen this question of the neuron as the subject of my lecture, and that it comes at a time when this doctrine is generally recognized to be going out of favour. The 1906 Nobel Lecture: Golgi vs. Cajal In accordance with the tradition followed by the illustrious orators honoured before me with the Nobel Prize, I am going to talk to you about the principal results of my scientific work in the realm of the histology and physiology of the nervous system. Camillo Golgi Santiago Ramón y Cajal
  36. 36. Stained Brains
  37. 37. Yang, A.C. (In Press). Decreased resting-state brain activity complexity in schizophrenia characterized by both increased regularity and randomness. Human Brain Mapping.
  38. 38. Gustav Fritsch 1838-1927 Eduard Hitzig 1838-1907 Electrical Brains
  39. 39. Electrical Brains The Motor Strip
  40. 40. David Ferrier 1848-1928 Electrical Brains
  41. 41. Electrical Brains Wilder Penfield 1891-1976
  42. 42. Wilder Penfield 1891-1976 Electrical Brains
  43. 43. Karl Lashley 1890-1958
  44. 44. Roger Sperry 1913-1994 More Broken Brains
  45. 45. Henry Molaison aka Subject H.M. 1926-2008 More Broken Brains
  46. 46. Hans Berger 1874-1941 Brain Imaging
  47. 47. Alan Hodgkin & Andrew Huxley The Giant Squid Axon Brain Imaging
  48. 48. Brain Imaging Paul Lauterbur (1929-2007) -Developed first MRI in Stony Brook NY. Peter Mansfield (1933-Present) -Conducted first MRI on human tissue. Seigi Ogawa (1934-Present) -Developed methods for measuring BOLD signal to study brain activity.
  49. 49. Brain Imaging
  50. 50. -21 -11 9 14 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Faces > Scenes Faces Scenes Time (s) Time (s) p < 0.001 Brain Imaging
  51. 51. Anatomical Connections Connectogram Brain Imaging
  52. 52. Functional Connectivity