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Project work, Analysis of Rainfall inensity

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Project ppt

  2. 2. TableofContent 1. Basic Introduction 2. Objective 3. Scope of Study 4. Literature Review 5. Study Area 6. Need for Study 7. Rainfall Data Collection of Silvassa 8. Analysis of Rainfall Data for Silvassa 9. Rainfall Data Collection & Analysis for Surat 10. Storm Drain Design for Illustrative Region 11. Technical Visit 12. Conclusion
  3. 3. The circulation and conservation of earth’s water as it circulates from the land to the sky and back again is called the ‘hydrological cycle’ or ‘water cycle’. Hydrological cycle BasicIntroduction
  4. 4. BasicIntroduction  Precipitation : It denotes all forms of water that reach the earth from the atmosphere. The usual forms are rainfall , snowfall, hail, frost, drizzle and dew.  Evaporation : The process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas & is transferred from the surface to the atmosphere.  Interception : The process in which, the part of precipitation, which may get evaporated or flow down after interception through trees and structures.
  5. 5.  Transpiration : Vegetation sends a part of water from under ground surface back to atmosphere.  Infiltration : A process in which portion of water that reaches the ground surface and enters the earth surface.  Runoff : The process in which the portion of precipitation by different paths above and below ground surface reaches the stream channel. BasicIntroduction
  6. 6.  This Runoff may cause flood in the city areas and hence storm drain network are laid to overcome this problem.  A storm drain system is a network of pipes used to convey runoff from a city to a receiving water body.  Their design involves determination of diameters, slopes and crown elevation or invert elevation of each pipe. BasicIntroduction
  7. 7.  The selection of layout or network of pipe location for a storm sewer system requires a considerable amount of subjective judgment.  Gradually manholes/inlets are placed at street intersections and at major changes in grade or ground surface slope. BasicIntroduction
  8. 8. Objective Objective of the study:  To find out the 1-hour maximum rainfall depth for different return periods.  To find out rainfall intensity duration frequency relationship.  Apart from these, to design storm drain network for an illustrative region.
  9. 9. ScopeofStudy  To carry out literature review for analyzing rainfall intensity and frequency.  To carry out data collection for compiling rainfall intensity.  To carry out analysis of collected data for Silvassa and Surat city.  To compute 1-hour maximum rainfall
  10. 10. Name Year Publication Description Elsebaie I H “Developing rainfall intensity–duration– frequency relationship for two regions in Saudi Arabia” 2012 Elsevier IDF relationship is a mathematical relationship between the rainfall intensity i, the duration d, and the return period T (or, equivalently, the annual frequency of exceedance ‘f ‘referred to as ‘frequency’). A Ramchandra Rao “Statistical Analysis of Indiana Rainfall Data” 2006 Purdue University West Lafayette Several aspects of short time interval rainfall data from Indiana are investigated in this study. The variability in rainfall intensity estimates by different procedures is quantified. Dr. Lamia Abdul Jaleel “Developing Rainfall Intensity-duration- freqency Relationship For Basrah City” 2012 Kufa Journal of Engineering (K.J.E) The purpose of this paper is to develop an empirical formula to estimate design rainfall intensity based on intensity–duration– frequency (IDF) curves for Basrah City. LiteratureReview
  11. 11. Name Year Publication Description Agnihotri et al “Analysis of Rainfall Data and Design of storm Water Drainage System in an Urban Area” 2013 Global Journal for research analysis Rainfall data available from 1969 to 1983 are of duration 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 minute. Analysis of rainfall data is carried for year 1969 to 1983 and one year flood frequency is calculated Harshil H Gajjar “Storm Water Network Design of Jodhpur Tekra Area of City of Ahmedabad “ 2014 International Journal of Engineering Development and Research In this paper, past 20 years rainfall data is taken. The system has been designed considering in total of 65% of the impervious area. Rational method has been used for estimation of storm water runoff. . S M Yadav “A Case Study on Remodelling of Bambapada Khadi, Silvassa “ 2011 Present paper discusses the steps involved in the design of storm water drains. LiteratureReview
  12. 12. Map of Surat City StudyArea
  13. 13. StudyArea  Surat city is located on the western part of India in Gujarat. It is also called as city of flyovers.  The city is located at 306 km south of the state capital, Gandhinagar on the left bank of the Tapti River (Tapi).  Surat is Gujarat's second largest city with a population of 2.1 million at the 2001 census and 4.6 million at the 2011 census.
  14. 14.  Surat city is divided into 7 zones by Surat Municipal Corporation namely:  North Zone  South Zone  East Zone  West Zone  South-West Zone  South-East Zone  Central Zone StudyArea
  15. 15.  Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapti River. The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E.  The average annual rainfall of surat city is about 1,200 millimetres (47 in) (IMD).  The general slope is from north-east to south-west.  The city is 13m above mean sea level.  The coastal line is along the villages of Hazira, Mora, Limla, Dumas, Bhimpor, Abhava, Gavier, Sarsana and Vesu. StudyArea
  16. 16. NeedforStudy  In Surat, life and property are frequently under the threat of flooding due to heavy rainfall. The average annual rainfall of Surat is about 1200 millimetres.  Such heavy rainfall, sometimes coupled with high sea levels associated with storm surges during the passage of tropical cyclones, can cause flooding.
  17. 17.  Apart from natural causes, sometimes human activities may also influence the prevalence of flooding.  Storm water drainage is an integral part of the essential infrastructure of a modern city. In Surat, separate systems are provided for the collection and disposal of storm water and sewage. NeedforStudy
  18. 18.  For study of rainfall intensity, yearly rainfall data and the 24-hour maximum rainfall data were collected from Central Water Commission (CWC) or Municipal corporation.  Rainfall intensity and duration is calculated by using India Meteorological Department (IMD) Method.  1-hour rainfall has been estimated by using 24- hours maximum rainfall, using IMD empirical reduction formula. 1-hour maximum rainfall is denoted by: Pt = P24 (t/24)1/3 where P24 = yearly 24-hour maximum rainfall Rainfall Data of Silvassa for 29 years. RainfallDatacollectionofSilvassa
  19. 19.  By using Gumbel frequency distribution method, frequeny analysis of 1-hour maximum rainfall is carried out.  Graph is plotted between 1-hour maimum rainfall and Gumbel frequency factor(K).  1-hour maximum rainfall depth for different return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 year is calculated. Pt = Pm + K*s where Pt = expected 1-hour T-year rainfall depth, Pm = mean 1-hour maximum rainfall s = standard deviation of 1-hour maximum rainfall k = Gumbel frequency factor AnalysisofRainfallDatafor Silvassa
  20. 20.  1-hour maximum rainfall depth is used for finding the t-minute rainfall depth for different time period such as 5, 10, 15, 30 and 120 minute.  1 hour T-year rainfall depth is multiplied by factor (taken from Journal of Indian Water Works Association, Vol-Octo-Dec- 2007 ) to obtain T minute Rainfall Depth. Frequency Analysis Using Gumbel Distribution method AnalysisofRainfallDatafor Silvassa
  21. 21.  Rainfall data of different time period ranging from previous 50 year, 100 year and 120 year are obtained for Surat city.  Similar calculations is executed on these data and 1- hour maximum rainfall depth, maximum rainfall intensity and intensity duration curve is obtained. Estimation of Rainfall Intensity of Surat for 30 years. Estimation of Rainfall Intensity of Surat for 50 years. Estimation of Rainfall Intensity of Surat for 100 years. Estimation of Rainfall Intensity of Surat for 120 years. Datacollection&AnalysisforSura
  22. 22. StormDrainDesignforanIllustrat Region
  23. 23.  Design of Storm Water Drainage Network for a rectangular plot of area 180 X 250 square meter has been carried out.  Reduced levels of all the nodes for the illustrative region were available.  The main line passes through the centre of the catchment area.  The runoff from other part of the catchment area flows through the sub branches which are connected to the main line. DesignofStormDrain Network
  24. 24.  The frequency of storm selected was once in 2 years.  Usually, the storm drains are not designed for peak discharges or extreme events from economical point of view.  The design of the drain should be economical and at the same time it should prevent frequent flooding and it should drain out quickly. DesignofStormDrain Network
  25. 25. For designing the storm water network for the given area the following data is required: 1.Catchment area 2. Rainfall intensity and duration 3. Impervious factor 4. Design of Drainage system  Rainfall Intensity and duration has been estimated using India Meteorological Department (IMD) method.  For the paved area, the impervious factor is taken as 0.7 DesignofStormDrain Network
  26. 26.  Storm water runoff has been calculated by using Rational Method suggested by CPHEEO.  The diameter of pipe is selected so as to maintain the minimum velocity of 0.6 m/s and to carry slightly more discharge compared to the theoretical discharge.  The diameter of the pipe was selected to maintain a self cleansing velocity.  Moreover, the velocity of flow should not exceed more than scouring velocity. Design of Storm drain network of an illustrative region DesignofStormDrain Network
  27. 27.  A site was visited at Godadara where drainage pipes were being laid for the removal of storm water.  The storm water has been transported to the pumping station, treated and than disposed of in to the Khadi.  Consultant : Mayur Shah, Assistant Engineer Surat Municipal Corporation. TechnicalVisit
  28. 28.  The pipes which were being laid were spigot pipe of 500 mm diameter and the length of each pipe was 265 mm.  The pipes were being laid at the slope of 1:500. Generally the slope in the field is set by two methods: 1. Boning method 2.Spirit level TechnicalVisit
  29. 29.  Analysis of Rainfall Data of 29 years for Silvassa region has been carried out. Maximum hourly intensity with a recurrence interval of 2 year is estimated to be 78 mm/hr.  The same analysis of rainfall data was carried out for Surat region:  The present study helps in computing rainfall intensity which is used to estimate storm water runoff.  The storm water runoff thus computed is very important for the design of storm drain network. Conclusion Years Intensity (mm/hr) 30 Years 56.5 50 Years 56.309 100 Years 52.87 120 Years 51.54
  30. 30. Referencesand Bibliography  https://www.suratmunicipal.gov.in/TheCity/weather_annual.h tml  Central Public Health and Environment Engineering Organization manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment(1993), Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi  Subramanya K (1994), Engineering Hydrology, Tata- McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi  Garg Santoshkumar (1993), Irrigation Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Khanna Publications.  A Case Study on ' Remodelling of Bambapada Khadi, Silvassa '.  http://www.pressseal.com/Downloads/EvolutionOfWatertight StormDrainageSystemsFinal.pdf  Madhur K. Rathi and Patil Dhananjay Rajiv, " Study Of Problems and Corrective Actions of Urban Drainage Network“.
  31. 31.  Dr. Lamia Abdul Jaleel and Maha Atta Farawn, " Developing Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship For Basrah City "  Dr. P. G. Agnihotri, R. B. Khasiya, Priyanka D. Harpalani, “ Analysis of Rainfall Data and Design of storm Water Drainage System in an Urban Area.”  Ibrahim H. Elsebaie, “ Developing Rainfall Intensity- Duration-Frequency Realtionship For Two Regions In Saudi Arabia.”  John Argue, “ Storm Drainage Design In Small Urban Catchments: A Handbook For Australian People.”  City of Sheridan, Public Works Department, “Storm drainage Design Criteria; City of Sheridan, Wyoming”  Drainage Service Department, Government of Hong Kong, “Storm Water Drainage Manual; Planning, Design and Management.” Referencesand Bibliography
  32. 32.  William S. Springer, “ Storm Drain Design”  Kwokwing Chau and C. S. Cheung, “ Knowledge Representation on Design Of Storm Drainage system.”  Minister of Urban Development, Government of India, “ Storm Water Drainage.“  Zameer Ahmed, D. Rammohan Rao, K. Ram Mohan Reddy, Ellam Raj, “Rainfall intensity Variation For Observed Data And Derived Data – A Case Study of Imphal.”  “Application of Methods For Analysis of Rainfall Intensity in Areas of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinia Interest.”  Rezual Kabir, P. Das, “Short Duration Rainfall Estimation of Sylhet, IMD and USWD Method(2007), Journal of Indian Water Works Association.”  Ram Babu, Tejwani, K. K. Agarwal, M. C. & Bhusan, L. S. (1979) “Rainfall Intensity Period Equation and Nomograph of India, CSWCRTI, ICAR, Dehradun India.” Referencesand Bibliography
  33. 33. Thank You