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Approaches to curriculum

  1. Approaches to Curriculum
  2. Content/ Body of Knowledge Process Product
  3. Content Presentation APPROACHES: • Topical • Concept • Thematic • Modular Content Selection CRITERIA: • Significance • Validity • Utility • Learnability • Feasibility • Interest
  4. SIGNIFICANCE responds to the needs and interests of learners; meaningful perception; over-all purpose of curriculum; CAP skills
  5. VALIDITY authenticity of content that we ought to teach according to national standards and prescribed curriculum
  6. UTILITY usefulness of content; functionality and life-long quality
  7. LEARNABILITY content fully covers essentials; complexity relative to range of experiences
  8. FEASIBILITY essentials are covered within available instructional time frames
  9. INTEREST consideration of learners’ developmental stage, culture and ethnicity; meaningful and valued
  10. Guide in Content Selection • 1. Content is commonly used in daily life. • 2. Content is appropriate to the maturity levels and abilities of the learners.
  11. Guide in Content Selection • 3. Content is valuable in meeting the needs and competencies of the future career. • 4. Content is related to other subject fields or discipline for complementation and integration.
  12. Guide in Content Selection • 5. Content is important in the transfer of learning in other disciplines.
  14. Balance •Fair distribution of topics in breadth and depth
  15. Articulat ion •Content complexity progression •Vertical or horizontal
  16. Sequenc e • Logical arrangement of content • Deepening- vertical • Broadening- horizontal
  17. Integrati on •Relatedness of content •Unification rather than segmentation & isolation
  18. Continui ty •Perennial content •Continuous flow
  19. Guiding Principles: Curriculum as a PROCESS •Curriculum process in the form of teaching methods or strategies are means to achieve the end.
  20. Guiding Principles: Curriculum as a PROCESS • There is no single best process or method. Its effectiveness will depend on the desired learning outcomes, the learners, support materials, and the teacher.
  21. Guiding Principles: Curriculum as a PROCESS •Curriculum process should stimulate the learners’ desire to develop the cognitive, affective, psychomotor domains in each individual.
  22. Guiding Principles: Curriculum as a PROCESS •In the choice of methods, learning and teaching styles should be considered.
  23. Guiding Principles: Curriculum as a PROCESS • Every method or process should result to learning outcomes which can be described as cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
  24. Guiding Principles: Curriculum as a PROCESS • Flexibility in the use of the process or methods should be considered. An effective process will always result to learning outcomes.
  25. Guiding Principles: Curriculum as a PROCESS • Both teaching and learning are two important processes in the implementation of the curriculum.
  26. Curriculum Development Process  dynamic process of alteration, modification, and improvement; procedural & systematic
  27. Curriculum Development Process Designing Implementing Evaluating Planning
  28. Curriculum Development Process Models These are based on a body of theory about teaching and learning.
  29. Curriculum Development Models These are targeted to needs & characteristics of a particular group of learners. Outline approaches, methods, & procedures for implementation.
  30. Curriculum Development Models Deductive Models: 1. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s 2. Tyler’s Inductive Model: 3. Taba’s model
  31. Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model Taba took what is known as a grass-roots approach to curriculum development. She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority.
  32. Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating teaching- learning units for their students in their schools rather initially in creating a general curriculum design.
  33. Models of Curriculum Development The Taba Model an inductive approach to curriculum development, starting with specifics and building up to a general design
  34. The Taba Model Five-Step Sequence 1.Producing pilot units - linking theory and practice a.) Diagnosis of Needs b.) Formulation of Objectives c.) Selection of Content
  35. The Taba Model Five-Step Sequence 1. Producing pilot units - linking theory and practice d.) Organization of Content e.) Selection of Learning Experiences f.) Organization of Learning Activities g.) Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it h.) Checking for Balance and Sequence
  36. Five-Step Sequence (cont.): 1. 2.Testing Experimental Units 3.Revising and consolidating 4.Developing a Framework 5.Installing and disseminating new units The Taba Model
  37. GOALS & OBJECTIVES CURRICULUM DESIGNING Decisions as to design(s) made by the responsible curriculum planning group(s) for a particular educational center. Various prior decisions by political and social agencies may limit the final design(s). CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION (Instruction)Decisions as to instructional modes made by responsible teacher(s). The curriculum plan includes alternative modes with suggestions as to resources, media, and organization, thus encouraging flexibility and more freedom for the teacher(s) and students. CURRICULUM EVALUATION Decisions as to evaluative procedures for determining learner progress made by the responsible teacher(s). Decisions as to evaluative procedures for evaluating the curriculum. Plans are made by the responsible planning group. Evaluative data become bases for decision making in further planning. Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis’s conception of the curriculum planning process:
  38. Models of Curriculum Development The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model Curriculum: “a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for persons to be educated.”
  39. Models of Curriculum Development The Saylor, Alexander, and Lewis Model Curriculum planners begin by specifying the major educational goals and specific objectives they wish to be accomplished.
  40. Models of Curriculum Development The best or one of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to planning phases is Ralph W. Tyler’s in his classic little book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. The Tyler Model
  41. The Tyler Model of Curriculum Design The nature and structure of knowledge The needs of the society The needs of the learner
  42. Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?
  43. Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? How can we determine whether and to what extent these purposes are being attained?
  44. Reflection:  On what bases would you choose a model for curriculum development?  Who should decide which model for curriculum development to follow?  Is the Tyler rationale a suitable basis for current curriculum development?

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Topical-much of the contents are based on knowledge and experiences Concept- fewer topics, concepts with related emphasis Thematic- combination of concepts that lead to concept structures Modular- complete units of instruction