5. DEFINITION OF TOURISM:
“Sum of the phenomena and relationships
arising from the travel and stay of non-
residents, in so far as they do not lead to
permanent residence and are not connected to
any earning activity.” – Hunziker and Krapf of
Berne University, Switzerland.
6. “Tourism is the temporary short-term movement of
people to destinations outside the places where they
normally live and work and their activities during their
stay at these destinations.” – Tourism Society in
“Tourism may be defined in terms of particular
activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the
home environment.” – Reformulated by the Tourism
Society in Cardiff.
7. “The activities of the persona travelling to
and staying in place outside their usual
environment for not more than one
consecutive year for leisure, business and
other purpose.” -UNWTO
8. Tourism is a combination of phenomena and
Two essential elements: Dynamic element (The
journey) and the Static element (The stay).
The journey and stay are to and from destinations
outside the place of residence and work.
Burkart and Medlik cited five main
characteristics of tourism:
9. The movement to destinations is temporary and
Destinations are visited for purpose not connected
with paid work, that is, not to be employed and not
for business or vocational reasons.
10. MEANING OF TOURIST:
“ A tourist is a person who, visits a country other
than that in which he usually resides for a period
of at least 24 hours.” –The League of Nations in
“ A visitor as any person visiting a country other
than that of earning money.” – The United
Nations Conference on International Travel and
Tourism in 1963.
12. Tourists: Temporary visitors staying at least 24
hours, whose purpose could be classified as:
Leisure, Business, Family, Mission and Meeting.
Excursionists: Temporary visitors staying less
than 24 hours in the destination visited and not
making an overnight stay, including cruise
travelers but excluding travelers in transit.
Two Classes of visitors:
14. Four basic elements that have been used as criteria for defining travelers and/or tourists.
Four Elements of Travel:
15. “A measure that has been used
to distinguish travel away from
home is the distance traveled on
A trip is defined as “each time a
person goes to a place at least
100 miles away from home and
returns.” Travelers, on this
bases, are individuals who travel
at least 100 miles in one
direction from home.
16. The definition of tourist and
excursionists are proposed by the
WTO is largely teased on length of
Tourists are temporary visitors who
make at least one overnight stay
while Excursionists are temporary
visitors who do not stay overnight in
the country that they visit.
Length of Stay at Destination
18. Can be divided into seven:
Purpose of Travel
1. Visiting friends and relatives
2. Conventions, seminars, and meetings
4. Outdoor recreation – hunting, fishing, boating and camping
5. Entertainment – sightseeing, theater, sports
6. Personal – family, medical, funeral, wedding
20. Domestic Tourism – travel taken exclusively
within the national boundaries of the travels;ers
International Tourism – the movement of people
across international boundaries.
The Nature of a Tour
21. A package tour, sometimes called inclusive tour is an
arrangement in which transport and accommodation is
bought by the tourist at an all-inclusive price and the
price of the individual elements cannot be determined by
the purchaser himself.
22. The tour operator who organizes the package tour
purchases transport and hotel accommodation in advance,
usually obtaining these at a lower price because he is buying
them in bulk.
He sells the tours individually to tourists direct or through
travel agents. On the other hand, an independent tour is
one in which the tourist buys these facilities separately,
either making reservations in advance through a travel
agent or en route during his tour.
23. Tourists purchasing package tours may do so on the basis
of either individual or group travel. An independent
inclusive tour is one in which the tourist tour he travels
in the company of other tourist.
The abbreviations IIT and GIT are used for individual
inclusive tour and group inclusive tour respectively.
25. The Tourist Product
• this consist of what the tourist buy.
• Combination of what the tourist does at the
destination and the services he uses during
26. Characteristic of Tourist Product
- Intangible item
- This include a high degree of trust on the part of the buyer
• Psychological in its attraction
- Strange environment, culture, heritage, intangible benefits such as
atmosphere and hospitality
• Tends to vary in standard and quality
- Unequal standard and equal standard
• Supply of the product is fixed
27. The Tourist Destination
A geographical unit which the tourist visits and where
Three basic interrelationship factors:
Amenities or Facilities
28. The Tourist Destination / Attraction
One in which the destination itself has appeal.
Ex. Country, resort such as Boracay.
One in which tourist are drawn to the destination solely because of
what is taking place there.
Ex. Congresses, exhibitions, festivals such as Ati-atihan
29. The Tourist Destination / Amenities or Facilities
Amenities or Facilities
30. The Tourist Destination / Accessibility
Having regular and convenience of transport in
terms of time/distance to the destination from the
originating country at a reasonable price.
Good railways, coach services, airport and
seaport are design to facilitate accessibility.
31. Tourist Services
Principal tourist services:
This provides the means to reach the destination as well as the
movement at the destination.
Transport are between public and private.
Various mode: Land, Sea and Air
32. Tourist ServicesSecond group of tourist services: ACCOMMODATION,
FOOD AND BEVERAGES AND ENTERTAINMENT
Hotels are of vital concern to a large proportion of tourist.
Some stay in friends, relatives, private accommodations and other in a
form of caravans and tents.
Food and Beverages operation cut across since eating is a necessity
and pleasure for travellers.
Entertainment with amusement and recreation is the primary
reason why millions of people travel.
33. Tourist Services
Third group of tourist services:
Provided by Travel Agent and Tour Operator
Travel Agent is the distributor/supply the product.
Tour Operator is the manufacturer of the product.
36. Characteristics of Tourism
The different of Tourism to the other industries
• Not brought to the consumer while other manufactured in a factory is brought
to the wholesaler, retailer and ultimately.
• Not used up while other have limited resources.
• Tourism is a labor-intensive industry requires more man-power than other
• Tourism is people oriented.
• Tourism industry is seasonal.
• Tourism industry dynamic.
38. 1. Contribution to the balance of payments.
2. Dispersion of development.
3. Effect on general economic development.
Importance of Tourism
39. 4. Employment Opportunities
- Source of employment
- Provide a solution for unemployment and underemployment
5. Social Benefits
- social exchange with the local inhabitants
6. Cultural Enrichment
- appreciate the rich human and cultural diversity
- encourages governments to preserve historical sites and
monuments and motivates indigenous groups to preserve
their heritage in the form of dance, music, and artifacts
40. 7. Educational Significance
- Enhance one’s education.
- They provide up-to-date information for enhancing
the knowledge and skills for the development of the
8. A Vital force for peace
- Properly designed and developed can help bridge the
psychological and cultural distances that separate
people of different races, colors, religions.
Tourism is the temporary movement of people to
destination outside their normal environment.
Temporary visitors: Stay at least 24 hours/overnight.
Excursionist visitors: Stay less than 24 hours.
Four basic elements of travel:
-Length of stay at the destination
-Residence of the traveler
-Purposes of travel
43. Tour may be:
Domestic or International
Independent or Package
Three Interrelationship Factors:
Amenities or Facilities
44. • Principal tourist services are supplied by passenger transport.
• Second tourist services are the Accommodation, food and
beverages, and entertainment.
• Third tourist services provided by tour agent and operator.
• Other tourist services: Documentation and Information.
45. The special characteristic of tourism are the ff:
• The consumer has to travel and go to the product they
• It does not exhaust the country’s natural resources.
• It is people – oriented and highly labor intensive industry.
• Tourism is multi – dimensional, seasonal and dynamic.
Tourism is an important human activity with economic,
social, cultural and education significance; more
importantly it is an important vehicle for attaining
46. Thank You!
You have arrived at
the end of the tour,
thank you for
joining! Come with
us to the next travel!