SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 33
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
ESSENTIALS OF PSYCHOMETRIC:
HOW TO IDENTIFY
Prof. Dr. N.K.Chadha
Dean,International Relations & Chairperson, Council for Doctoral Program,MRIIRS
Fr. Senior Consultant, UNDP, Chief Psychometrcian,MINDLER
Former Prof. and Head,Psychology Deptt, Delhi University
nkcdu11@gmail.com, nkc_du@yahoo.co.uk
Essential Psychometric Ingredients
■One of the common drawbacks of
psychometric testing in the corporate
environment is the
■Belief that anyone can administer
them
■Anyone can debrief or interpret the
results
Essential Psychometric Ingredients
■ To have effective outcomes, there are a few criteria that should be
followed:
■ Choose the right test for the right purpose from the thousands
of tests out there in the market.
■ Make sure to check for reliability, validity and standardization
process.
■ Ask the test developer to provide the technical manual of the
test which contains the details about the test development
process and psychometric properties.
■ Make sure to look for item level properties as well.
1. 256x2 = ?
2. (25+30) x 5 = ?
3. (3x4 + 5x6) (6+5) = ?
4. under root of 225 = ?
5. Eighth root of 34521670 = ?
6. (8+10-5) x 20 = ?
Q.No.(ORDER) Difficukty index Right Order
1 13 X
2 38 2
3 56 4
4 45 3
5 94 X
6 31 1
Day Room 1
(actual/corr
ected)
Room 2
(actual/corr
ected)
Room 3
(actual/corr
ected )
FIRST 9.00pm/9.00
pm
9.05pm/9.00
pm
9.07pm/9.00
pm
SECOND 9.00pm/9.0
0pm
9.05pm/9.0
0pm
9.09pm/9.0
0pm
THIRD 9.00pm/9.0
0pm
9.05pm/9.0
0pm
9.06pm/9.0
0pm
■ WHEN A WATCH IS VALID , IT HAS TO BE
RELIABLE
THIS LEAD TO
WHEN ANY PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENT IS
VALID THEN IT HAS TO BE RELIABLE
■ WHEN A WATCH IS RELIABLE, IT MAY OR
NOT BE VALID
■ THIS LEADS TO
■ WHEN ANY PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENT
IS RELIABLE, IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE
VALID
■ WHEN A WATCH IS NOT RELIABLE , IT CAN
NEVER BE VALID
■ THIS LEADS TO
■ WHEN A PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENT IS
NOT RELIABLE, IT CAN NEVER BE VALID
METHODS OF RELIABILITY
■ 1. SPLIT HALF RELIABILITY
■ 2. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY
■ 3. PARALLEL FOR RELIABILITY
■ 4. METHOD OF RATIONAL EQUIVALENCE
■ 5. CRONBACK ALPHA
You are a coach and while you are couching, client
said that it seems you have not done the home work
and you are wasting my and your time. How to your
respond
■ A. Ignore the client
■ B. Promise to recheck your style/assessment
■ C. Cancel the session
■ D. Try to find what bothers the client
When things don't go my way, I...
a) Try to force it around
b) Speak my mind and complain
c) Pretend it's not happening
d) Handle the situation at hand
When facing a challenging situation, I...
a) Face it with an open mind
b) Put a smile on my face
c) Turn and run
d) Pretend it's not happening and hope it will
go away
PLANNING THE TEST
PLANNING THE TEST
DEFINE THE TESTING
UNIVERSE
DEFINE THE TARTGET
AUDIENCE
PURPOSE OF TEST
Thus, the three anchors of a good psychometric test:
§ Standardization Process
§ Reliability
§ Validity
Standardization Process
■ Check the characteristics and the size of the sample of the norm group.
■ The norm group should truly represent your target audience.
■ Test should be standardized on a similar sample (in terms of language,
education, occupation, culture etc.) as for whom the test has been made.
Standardization Process (Ctd..)
■ The norm group should include at least more than thousand tested
individuals from the target group.
■ Changing the characteristics of the sample group (language of the test,
geography etc.) requires re-standardization.
§ Example: If the test was originally developed and standardized for
an English-language population, it is not suitable as such for Hindi-
speaking population.
Reliability- The Consistency and Repeat-
Ability Of Test Result
■ Check for test reliability. The test should produce consistent results every time it is
administered and would be free from outside factors such as stress, temperature
etc.
■ Administer the test to a group, and re-administer it on the same group after a week.
If the test is stable and reliable, the correlation between both the scores will be
positive.
■ An unreliable test would produce totally different scores on retesting.
■ Usually a correlation of 0.8 and higher is considered to be a good reliability.
Validity: The Accuracy And Predictability
Of The Test
■ Extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure.
■ Read the items carefully to see whether the items ‘look like’ what they say are measuring.
■ Try to analyze whether the test is measuring the construct it is claiming to measure rather
than something else. For example: if a test claims to measure numerical ability and is only
available in ‘Hindi” then it will not only measure numerical ability but also the ability to
read and understand Hindi for non-Hindi speaking group.
■ See for the degree of correlation between the test and other well established test of the
same characteristic or ability.
■ In case of any doubt, ask the test developer what is the purpose of the test
and what constructs does it measure.
■ If the test developer has adopted fair measures to develop and validate the
test, he or she will be able to tell you what the test is supposed to
measure.
■ In the case of Validity the accepted degree of correlation is 0.7 or higher.
Other Essential Ingredients of a
Psychometric Assessment
Objectivity
■ The test and its results should be objective and free from subjective elements. It should
measure individuals objectively, free from personal biases and perspective.
■ Try to analyze the test as well as its results. For a test to be fair and unbiased, no individuals
from any particular group should be disadvantaged when completing the test.
■ If your target audience has some additional needs, make sure to check and make adjustment
for them in the test.
Operational Definition
■ The test should have a proper operational definition
■ Ask the test developer for the Operational Definition of the construct and individual
dimensions.
■ Constructs are simply the manifestation of ideas.
■ An operational definition will enable you to have a clarity of the construct and of the
dimensions the scale will measure.
Item-Analysis
■ It is a process through which only those items that are valid and are suited to the purpose of the test
are retained while the rest are either modified or eliminated.
■ Ask the test developer to share the item-analysis charts with you. This is usually included in the
technical manual of the test.
■ These charts would reveal the item-difficulty index (only in case of test which have right or wrong
answers), item-discrimination value, item reliability, and item-test correlation.
■ It will reveal individual item as well as total test quality.
■ It will also enable you to know how many items have actually been removed or modified from the
original version after the analysis.
Item-Difficulty
■ Refers to the percentage of respondents who responded to an item correctly.
■ Item-Difficulty will let you know the difficulty level of each of the item.
■ By looking at the Item-Difficulty table you will get an idea regarding each of the item
and the ones (too easy and too difficult) that were eliminated.
Item-Discrimination
■ Separates or differentiate among respondents on the basis of how well they
know the material being tested.
■ By looking at this table, you will get an idea regarding the extreme scores.
Item-Reliability
■ Item reliability is obtained by calculating correlations between all the items of a test.
■ Also called as Inter-item Correlation.
■ Item reliability chart will give you a clear idea about the reliability of each of the items.
■ For a particular item if more than 50% correlations are found to be significant then that
item would be retained
Item-Total Correlation
■ Item-total correlation will assess the contribution of a single item to overall consistency
of the test.
■ This chart will give you an idea regarding the strength and direction of relation
between an individual item and the overall test.
■ It will let you know the total contribution of each item with the overall consistency of the
etst.
Test Manual
■ It will give you the information of the entire process involved in test construction along
with various indices calculated for standardization of the test.
■ It will be able to answer in-depth questions about the test, how it operates, how it was
created, what it is designed to do, how the results are calculated, and what to do if you
do not agree with the results.
■ It will reveal the psychometric properties of the test.

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Ähnlich wie Psychometrics PPT.pdf

Non Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptx
Non Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptxNon Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptx
Non Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptxvirengeeta
 
Know how of question bank development
Know how of question bank developmentKnow how of question bank development
Know how of question bank developmentManoj Bhatt
 
CRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptx
CRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptxCRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptx
CRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptxMammeNkwelle
 
Coherence Scoring process
Coherence Scoring processCoherence Scoring process
Coherence Scoring processEdAdvance
 
Training Program Evaluation
Training Program EvaluationTraining Program Evaluation
Training Program EvaluationLaura Pasquini
 
Psych ch12-personalityassessments
Psych ch12-personalityassessmentsPsych ch12-personalityassessments
Psych ch12-personalityassessmentsjmclaugh813
 
ESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptx
ESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptxESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptx
ESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptxMaLourdesLazaro1
 
1607070124-chapter-1.ppt
1607070124-chapter-1.ppt1607070124-chapter-1.ppt
1607070124-chapter-1.pptkapilshah34
 
Assessment of learning
Assessment of learningAssessment of learning
Assessment of learningAhlamModiarat
 
Assessmentoflearning
AssessmentoflearningAssessmentoflearning
Assessmentoflearningmaryjoy46
 
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.ppt
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.pptCLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.ppt
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.pptMichaelAmbroseMselle
 
1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptx
1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptx1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptx
1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptxsaphiremirae
 

Ähnlich wie Psychometrics PPT.pdf (20)

Non Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptx
Non Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptxNon Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptx
Non Standarized Tests (Using Nursing Approch).pptx
 
Know how of question bank development
Know how of question bank developmentKnow how of question bank development
Know how of question bank development
 
CRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptx
CRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptxCRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptx
CRITERIA AND VALIDITY PRESENTATIONS.pptx
 
Coherence Scoring process
Coherence Scoring processCoherence Scoring process
Coherence Scoring process
 
Assessment techniques
Assessment techniquesAssessment techniques
Assessment techniques
 
Training Program Evaluation
Training Program EvaluationTraining Program Evaluation
Training Program Evaluation
 
research.pptx
research.pptxresearch.pptx
research.pptx
 
Chapter24
Chapter24Chapter24
Chapter24
 
Psych ch12-personalityassessments
Psych ch12-personalityassessmentsPsych ch12-personalityassessments
Psych ch12-personalityassessments
 
ESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptx
ESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptxESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptx
ESIM-Q1-PR2-Definition of terms.pptx
 
1607070124-chapter-1.ppt
1607070124-chapter-1.ppt1607070124-chapter-1.ppt
1607070124-chapter-1.ppt
 
Rubric
Rubric Rubric
Rubric
 
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND TESTS.pptx
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND TESTS.pptxPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND TESTS.pptx
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND TESTS.pptx
 
Constructing subjective test items
Constructing  subjective test itemsConstructing  subjective test items
Constructing subjective test items
 
Evaluation.ppt
Evaluation.pptEvaluation.ppt
Evaluation.ppt
 
Constructing subjective test items
Constructing  subjective test itemsConstructing  subjective test items
Constructing subjective test items
 
Assessment of learning
Assessment of learningAssessment of learning
Assessment of learning
 
Assessmentoflearning
AssessmentoflearningAssessmentoflearning
Assessmentoflearning
 
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.ppt
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.pptCLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.ppt
CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT PRACTICES.ppt
 
1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptx
1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptx1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptx
1_Intro-to-Psychological-Assessment-1-2.pptx
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingBootNeck1
 
OOP concepts -in-Python programming language
OOP concepts -in-Python programming languageOOP concepts -in-Python programming language
OOP concepts -in-Python programming languageSmritiSharma901052
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfDrew Moseley
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Sumanth A
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfCaalaaAbdulkerim
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdfsahilsajad201
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionMebane Rash
 
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Coursebim.edu.pl
 
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...Erbil Polytechnic University
 
CME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTES
CME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTESCME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTES
CME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTESkarthi keyan
 
signals in triangulation .. ...Surveying
signals in triangulation .. ...Surveyingsignals in triangulation .. ...Surveying
signals in triangulation .. ...Surveyingsapna80328
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodManicka Mamallan Andavar
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxsiddharthjain2303
 
TEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACH
TEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACHTEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACH
TEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACHSneha Padhiar
 
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitosKCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitosVictor Morales
 
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONTHE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONjhunlian
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemRashmi Bhat
 
List of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdf
List of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdfList of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdf
List of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdfisabel213075
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event SchedulingSystem Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
System Simulation and Modelling with types and Event Scheduling
 
OOP concepts -in-Python programming language
OOP concepts -in-Python programming languageOOP concepts -in-Python programming language
OOP concepts -in-Python programming language
 
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdfImmutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
Immutable Image-Based Operating Systems - EW2024.pdf
 
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
Robotics-Asimov's Laws, Mechanical Subsystems, Robot Kinematics, Robot Dynami...
 
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdfResearch Methodology for Engineering pdf
Research Methodology for Engineering pdf
 
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdfRobotics Group 10  (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
Robotics Group 10 (Control Schemes) cse.pdf
 
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of ActionUS Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
US Department of Education FAFSA Week of Action
 
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptxDesigning pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
Designing pile caps according to ACI 318-19.pptx
 
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School CourseKatarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
Katarzyna Lipka-Sidor - BIM School Course
 
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
Comparative study of High-rise Building Using ETABS,SAP200 and SAFE., SAFE an...
 
CME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTES
CME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTESCME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTES
CME 397 - SURFACE ENGINEERING - UNIT 1 FULL NOTES
 
signals in triangulation .. ...Surveying
signals in triangulation .. ...Surveyingsignals in triangulation .. ...Surveying
signals in triangulation .. ...Surveying
 
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument methodLevelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
Levelling - Rise and fall - Height of instrument method
 
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptxEnergy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
Energy Awareness training ppt for manufacturing process.pptx
 
TEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACH
TEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACHTEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACH
TEST CASE GENERATION GENERATION BLOCK BOX APPROACH
 
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitosKCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
KCD Costa Rica 2024 - Nephio para parvulitos
 
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTIONTHE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
 
Input Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating SystemInput Output Management in Operating System
Input Output Management in Operating System
 
Virtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating SystemVirtual memory management in Operating System
Virtual memory management in Operating System
 
List of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdf
List of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdfList of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdf
List of Accredited Concrete Batching Plant.pdf
 

Psychometrics PPT.pdf

  • 1. ESSENTIALS OF PSYCHOMETRIC: HOW TO IDENTIFY Prof. Dr. N.K.Chadha Dean,International Relations & Chairperson, Council for Doctoral Program,MRIIRS Fr. Senior Consultant, UNDP, Chief Psychometrcian,MINDLER Former Prof. and Head,Psychology Deptt, Delhi University nkcdu11@gmail.com, nkc_du@yahoo.co.uk
  • 2. Essential Psychometric Ingredients ■One of the common drawbacks of psychometric testing in the corporate environment is the ■Belief that anyone can administer them ■Anyone can debrief or interpret the results
  • 3. Essential Psychometric Ingredients ■ To have effective outcomes, there are a few criteria that should be followed: ■ Choose the right test for the right purpose from the thousands of tests out there in the market. ■ Make sure to check for reliability, validity and standardization process. ■ Ask the test developer to provide the technical manual of the test which contains the details about the test development process and psychometric properties. ■ Make sure to look for item level properties as well.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8. 1. 256x2 = ? 2. (25+30) x 5 = ? 3. (3x4 + 5x6) (6+5) = ? 4. under root of 225 = ? 5. Eighth root of 34521670 = ? 6. (8+10-5) x 20 = ?
  • 9. Q.No.(ORDER) Difficukty index Right Order 1 13 X 2 38 2 3 56 4 4 45 3 5 94 X 6 31 1
  • 10. Day Room 1 (actual/corr ected) Room 2 (actual/corr ected) Room 3 (actual/corr ected ) FIRST 9.00pm/9.00 pm 9.05pm/9.00 pm 9.07pm/9.00 pm SECOND 9.00pm/9.0 0pm 9.05pm/9.0 0pm 9.09pm/9.0 0pm THIRD 9.00pm/9.0 0pm 9.05pm/9.0 0pm 9.06pm/9.0 0pm
  • 11. ■ WHEN A WATCH IS VALID , IT HAS TO BE RELIABLE THIS LEAD TO WHEN ANY PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENT IS VALID THEN IT HAS TO BE RELIABLE
  • 12. ■ WHEN A WATCH IS RELIABLE, IT MAY OR NOT BE VALID ■ THIS LEADS TO ■ WHEN ANY PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENT IS RELIABLE, IT MAY OR MAY NOT BE VALID
  • 13. ■ WHEN A WATCH IS NOT RELIABLE , IT CAN NEVER BE VALID ■ THIS LEADS TO ■ WHEN A PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENT IS NOT RELIABLE, IT CAN NEVER BE VALID
  • 14. METHODS OF RELIABILITY ■ 1. SPLIT HALF RELIABILITY ■ 2. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY ■ 3. PARALLEL FOR RELIABILITY ■ 4. METHOD OF RATIONAL EQUIVALENCE ■ 5. CRONBACK ALPHA
  • 15. You are a coach and while you are couching, client said that it seems you have not done the home work and you are wasting my and your time. How to your respond ■ A. Ignore the client ■ B. Promise to recheck your style/assessment ■ C. Cancel the session ■ D. Try to find what bothers the client
  • 16. When things don't go my way, I... a) Try to force it around b) Speak my mind and complain c) Pretend it's not happening d) Handle the situation at hand
  • 17. When facing a challenging situation, I... a) Face it with an open mind b) Put a smile on my face c) Turn and run d) Pretend it's not happening and hope it will go away
  • 18. PLANNING THE TEST PLANNING THE TEST DEFINE THE TESTING UNIVERSE DEFINE THE TARTGET AUDIENCE PURPOSE OF TEST
  • 19. Thus, the three anchors of a good psychometric test: § Standardization Process § Reliability § Validity
  • 20. Standardization Process ■ Check the characteristics and the size of the sample of the norm group. ■ The norm group should truly represent your target audience. ■ Test should be standardized on a similar sample (in terms of language, education, occupation, culture etc.) as for whom the test has been made.
  • 21. Standardization Process (Ctd..) ■ The norm group should include at least more than thousand tested individuals from the target group. ■ Changing the characteristics of the sample group (language of the test, geography etc.) requires re-standardization. § Example: If the test was originally developed and standardized for an English-language population, it is not suitable as such for Hindi- speaking population.
  • 22. Reliability- The Consistency and Repeat- Ability Of Test Result ■ Check for test reliability. The test should produce consistent results every time it is administered and would be free from outside factors such as stress, temperature etc. ■ Administer the test to a group, and re-administer it on the same group after a week. If the test is stable and reliable, the correlation between both the scores will be positive. ■ An unreliable test would produce totally different scores on retesting. ■ Usually a correlation of 0.8 and higher is considered to be a good reliability.
  • 23. Validity: The Accuracy And Predictability Of The Test ■ Extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure. ■ Read the items carefully to see whether the items ‘look like’ what they say are measuring. ■ Try to analyze whether the test is measuring the construct it is claiming to measure rather than something else. For example: if a test claims to measure numerical ability and is only available in ‘Hindi” then it will not only measure numerical ability but also the ability to read and understand Hindi for non-Hindi speaking group. ■ See for the degree of correlation between the test and other well established test of the same characteristic or ability.
  • 24. ■ In case of any doubt, ask the test developer what is the purpose of the test and what constructs does it measure. ■ If the test developer has adopted fair measures to develop and validate the test, he or she will be able to tell you what the test is supposed to measure. ■ In the case of Validity the accepted degree of correlation is 0.7 or higher.
  • 25. Other Essential Ingredients of a Psychometric Assessment
  • 26. Objectivity ■ The test and its results should be objective and free from subjective elements. It should measure individuals objectively, free from personal biases and perspective. ■ Try to analyze the test as well as its results. For a test to be fair and unbiased, no individuals from any particular group should be disadvantaged when completing the test. ■ If your target audience has some additional needs, make sure to check and make adjustment for them in the test.
  • 27. Operational Definition ■ The test should have a proper operational definition ■ Ask the test developer for the Operational Definition of the construct and individual dimensions. ■ Constructs are simply the manifestation of ideas. ■ An operational definition will enable you to have a clarity of the construct and of the dimensions the scale will measure.
  • 28. Item-Analysis ■ It is a process through which only those items that are valid and are suited to the purpose of the test are retained while the rest are either modified or eliminated. ■ Ask the test developer to share the item-analysis charts with you. This is usually included in the technical manual of the test. ■ These charts would reveal the item-difficulty index (only in case of test which have right or wrong answers), item-discrimination value, item reliability, and item-test correlation. ■ It will reveal individual item as well as total test quality. ■ It will also enable you to know how many items have actually been removed or modified from the original version after the analysis.
  • 29. Item-Difficulty ■ Refers to the percentage of respondents who responded to an item correctly. ■ Item-Difficulty will let you know the difficulty level of each of the item. ■ By looking at the Item-Difficulty table you will get an idea regarding each of the item and the ones (too easy and too difficult) that were eliminated.
  • 30. Item-Discrimination ■ Separates or differentiate among respondents on the basis of how well they know the material being tested. ■ By looking at this table, you will get an idea regarding the extreme scores.
  • 31. Item-Reliability ■ Item reliability is obtained by calculating correlations between all the items of a test. ■ Also called as Inter-item Correlation. ■ Item reliability chart will give you a clear idea about the reliability of each of the items. ■ For a particular item if more than 50% correlations are found to be significant then that item would be retained
  • 32. Item-Total Correlation ■ Item-total correlation will assess the contribution of a single item to overall consistency of the test. ■ This chart will give you an idea regarding the strength and direction of relation between an individual item and the overall test. ■ It will let you know the total contribution of each item with the overall consistency of the etst.
  • 33. Test Manual ■ It will give you the information of the entire process involved in test construction along with various indices calculated for standardization of the test. ■ It will be able to answer in-depth questions about the test, how it operates, how it was created, what it is designed to do, how the results are calculated, and what to do if you do not agree with the results. ■ It will reveal the psychometric properties of the test.