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Chapter 4 Workforce Focus (1).pptx

  1. 1. Workforce Focus TQM-Chapter 4
  2. 2. “We’ve got nothing, technology-wise, that anyone else can’t have. There is no secret Toyota quality machine out there. The quality machine is the workforce-the team members on the paint line, the suppliers, the engineers-everybody who has a hand in production takes the attitude that we are making world-class vehicles.”-Georgetown Kentucky Toyota Plant, Gold quality Awardee
  3. 3. “No organization can survive without good people; people who are improving. The human resource is the only one that competitors cannot copy, and the only one that can synergize, that is produce output whose value is greater than the sum of its parts.
  4. 4. “The person who figures out how to harness the collective genius of the people in his or her organization is going to blow the competitions away.” -CEO of Citibank
  5. 5. A study found that there is a direct correlation between customer and workforce satisfaction.
  6. 6. An extensive study by the Gallup Organization of 7,939 business units in 36 companies showed that employee satisfaction and engagement were positively related not only to customer satisfaction and loyalty, but also to productivity, profit, turnover, and safety.
  7. 7. ISO 9000:2000 includes several workforce-focused requirements: “Personnel performing work affecting product quality shall be competent on the basis of appropriate education, training, skills, and experience.”
  8. 8. Workforce refers to everyone who is actively involved of accomplishing the work in organization Paid employees Volunteers Contract employees Team leaders Supervisors Managers at all levels
  9. 9. Key Workforce-Focused Practices for Performance Excellence ❖ Understand the key factors that drive workforce engagement, satisfaction, and motivation. ❖ Design and manage work and jobs to promote effective communication, cooperation, skill sharing, empowerment, innovation, and the ability to benefit from diverse ideas and thinking of employees and develop an organizational culture conducive to high performance and motivation.
  10. 10. ❖ Make appropriate investments in development and learning, both for the workforce and the organization’s leaders. ❖ Create an environment that ensures and improves workplace health, safety, and security, and supports the workforce via policies, services, and benefits.
  11. 11. ❖ Develop a performance management system based on compensation, recognition, reward, and incentives that supports high performance work and workforce engagement. ❖ Assess workforce engagement and satisfaction and use results for improvement.
  12. 12. ❖ Assess workforce capability and capacity needs and use the results to capitalize on core competencies, address strategic challenges, recruit and retain skilled and competent people, and accomplish the work of the organization. ❖ Manage career progression for the entire workforce and succession planning for management and leadership positions.
  13. 13. Frederick Taylor Evolution of Workforce Management ➢ Father of scientific management ➢ Obsessed with order and control ➢ piece rate system increased productivity among factory workers ➢ Born in 1856 at Germantown Pennsylvania ➢ Philosophy known as Taylorism ➢ Died 1915 Evolution of work-force management
  14. 14. WORKFORCE MANAGEMENT(HRM) Is the function performed in the organization that facilitates the most effective use of people (employees) to achieve organizational and individual goals. Objectives: Build a high-perfromance workplace and maintain an enironment for wuality wxcellence to enable employees & organization to achieve strategic objectives & adapt to change.
  15. 15. WORKFORCE MANAGEMENT Activities designed to provide for and coordinate the people of an organization: ❏ Determining the organizations workforce needs ❏ Assisting in the design of work systems ❏ Recruiting, selecting , training,and developing, counseling,motivating and rewarding employees. ❏ Acting as a liason, with unionsand governments organizations ❏ Handling others matters of employee well being. (Today, this principles have permeated not only in HR but also in daily job responsibilities of managers at all levels.
  16. 16. STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ➢ Concerned with the contributions HR strategies make to organizational effectiveness and how this contributions are accomplished. ➢ It involves designing,and implementing a set of internally consistent policies and practices to ensure that an organizations human capital (employees collective knowledge, skills,and abilities)contributes to overall business objectives.
  17. 17. HIGH PERFORMANCE WORK CULTURE Performance- the extent to which an individual contributes to achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. High-performance work- work approaches used to systematically pursue ever higher levels of overall organizational and human performance .
  18. 18. Characterized by: ❖ Flexibility ❖ Innovation ❖ Knowledge and skill sharing ❖ Alignment with organizational directions, customer focus,and rapid response to changing business needs and market place requirements.
  19. 19. “Conditions of Collaboration” in a High Performance Work Culture ❖ Respect- believing in the inherent worth of another person ❖ Values- are the guiding principles and behaviors that embody how the organization and its people are expected to operate. ❖ Aligned values- create a congruency between what the organization stands for and the personal beliefs of individual ❖ Shared purpose- is the fundamental reason an organization exits. ❖ Communication- is often cited as one of the most important factors related to motivation. ❖ Trust- management trusts the worforce and vice-versa is vital.
  20. 20. WORKFORCE ENGAGEMENT ❖ The extent of workforce commitment both emotional and intellectual, to accomplishing the work, mission, and vision of the organization.
  21. 21. ENGAGE WORKERS: ■ Find personal meaning and motivation in their work. ■ Have a strong emotional bond to their organization, are actively involved in and committed to their work. ■ Feel that their jobs are important, know that their opinions and ideas have value and ■ Often go beyond their immediate job responsibilities for the good of the organization.
  22. 22. ADVANTAGE OF WORKFORCE ENGAGEMENT ● Replace the adversarial mentality with trust and cooperation ● Develops the skills and leaderships capability of individuals, creating a sense of mission and fostering trust ● Increase employee morale and commitment to the organization ● Foster creativity and innovation , the source of competitive advantage ● Helps people understands quality principles and instill these principles into the corporate culture ● Allows employee to solve problems at the source immediately ● Improves quality and productivity
  23. 23. Top 10 drivers of workforce engagement 1. Commitment to organizational values 2. Knowing that customers are satisfied with products and services 3. Beliefs that opinions counts 4. Clearly understanding work expectations 5. Understanding of how personal contributions help meet customers need
  24. 24. 6. Being recognized and rewarded fairly. 7. Knowing that senior leaders value the workforce 8. Being treated equally with respect 9. Being able to concentrate on the job and work processes 10. Alignment of personal work objectives to work plan.
  25. 25. Employee Involvement (EI) ❖ Any activity by which employees participate in work-related decisions and improvement activities, with the objectives of tapping the creative energies of all employees and improving their motivation. ❖ Employee suggestion system is a management tool for submission , evaluation, and implementation of an employee’s idea to save cost, increase quality, or improve other elements of work such as safety.
  26. 26. Motivation – is the art of creating conditions that aloow every one of us, warts and all, to get his work done at his own peak level of efficiency. - an individual’s response to a felt need (there is no such thing as an unmotivated employee, but the system within which people work can either seriously impede motivation or enhance it)
  27. 27. Designing High-Performance Work Systems ❖ Work and Job Design ❖ Empowerment ❖ Teamwork ❖ Work Environment ❖ Workforce Learning and Development ❖ Compensation and Recognition ❖ Performance Management
  28. 28. Work and Job Design ❖ Work design refers to how employees are organized in formal and informal units, such as departments and teams. ❖ Job design refers to responsibilities and tasks assigned to individuals.
  29. 29. Job Design Characteristics • Task significance- the degree that job gives substantial impact on the organization • Task identity- the degree in which the task is perceived as a whole, identifiable piece of work from start to finish. • Skill variety- job that requires to use variety of skills and talents • Autonomy- the task permits freedom, independence and personal control • Feedback from job- clear and timely information about the effectiveness of performance of individual is available.
  30. 30. Enhancing Work Design Job enlargement – expanding workers’ jobs ● Job rotation – having workers learn several tasks and rotate among them ● Job enrichment – granting more authority, responsibility, and autonomy
  31. 31. Hackman-Oldham Model ➔ The model proposes that five core characteristics of job design (task significance, task identity, skill variety, autonomy, and feedback from the job) influence three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility, and knowledge of results), which in turn, drive work outcomes (employee motivation, growth satisfaction, overall job satisfaction, and work effectiveness).
  32. 32. Empowerment Giving people authority to make decisions based on what they feel is right, to have control over their work, to take risks and learn from mistakes, and to promote change. “A sincere belief and trust in people.”
  33. 33. Successful Empowerment • Provide education, resources, and encouragement • Remove restrictive policies/procedures • Foster an atmosphere of trust • Share information freely • Make work valuable • Train managers in “hands-off” leadership • Train employees in allowed latitude
  34. 34. Teams ➔ A small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
  35. 35. Types of Teams Management teams Natural work teams Self managed teams ● Virtual teams ● Quality circles ● Problem solving teams ● Project teams
  36. 36. Team Skill Requirements ● Conflict management and resolution ● Team management ● Leadership skills ● Decision making ● Communication ● Negotiation ● Cross-cultural training
  37. 37. Ingredients for Successful Teams ★ Clarity in team goals ★ Improvement plan ★ Clearly defined roles ★ Clear communication ★ Beneficial team behaviors ★ Well-defined decision procedures ★ Balanced participation ★ Established ground rules ★ Awareness of group process ★ Use of scientific approach
  38. 38. Workplace Environment Key factors: ● Health ● Safety ● Overall well-being
  39. 39. Compensation and Recognition ➔ refer to all aspects of pay and reward, including promotions, bonuses, and recognition, either monetary and nonmonetary or individual and group. ● Compensation ● Merit versus capability/performance based plans ● Gainsharing ● Recognition ● Monetary or non-monetary ● Formal or informal ● Individual or group
  40. 40. Effective Recognition and Reward Strategies ● Give both individual and team awards ● Involve everyone ● Tie rewards to quality ● Allow peers and customers to nominate and recognize superior performance ● Publicize extensively ● Make recognition fun
  41. 41. Assessing Workforce Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Engagement ● Process Measures ➔ number of suggestions that employees make, numbers of participants in project teams, participation in educational programs, average time it takes to complete a process improvement project, whether teams are getting better, smarter, and faster at performing improvements, improvements in team selection and planning processes, frequency of use of quality improvement tools, employee understanding of problem-solving approaches, and senior management involvement.
  42. 42. Measuring Workforce Engagement ❖ Gallup Q survey statements that Gallup found as those that best form the foundation of strong feelings of engagement. Factors include: ● what is expected in one’s work ● having the right materials and equipment to do the job ● receiving recognition and feedback on progress and development ● having opinions that count ● feeling of importance of the job ● opportunities to learn grow and develop
  43. 43. Gallup Engagement Index Classification 1. Engaged employees who work with passion and feel a profound connection to their company. They drive innovation and move the organization forward. 2. Not-engaged employees who are essentially “checked out.” They are sleepwalking through their workday. They are putting in time, but not enough energy or passion into their work. 3. Actively disengaged employees who aren’t just unhappy at work; they’re busy acting out their unhappiness. Every day, these workers undermine what their engaged coworkers accomplish.
  44. 44. Sustaining High-Performance Work Systems Regular assessment of: ● workforce capability and capacity needs; ● hiring, training and retention of employees; and ● career progression and succession planning
  45. 45. Workforce Capability and Capacity Workforce Capability ➔ refers to an organization’s ability to accomplish its work processes through the knowledge, skills, abilities, and competencies of its people.
  46. 46. Workforce capacity ➔refers to an organization’s ability to ensure sufficient staffing levels to accomplish its work processes and successfully deliver products and services to customers, including the ability to meet seasonal or varying demand levels.
  47. 47. Effective Hiring Practices ● Determine key employee skills and competencies. ● Identify job candidates based on required skills and competencies. ● Screen job candidates to predict suitability and match to jobs.
  48. 48. Succession Planning ● Formal processes to identify, develop, and position future leaders ● Mentoring, coaching, and job rotation ● Career paths and progression for all employees ● Succession planning is vital to long-term sustainability
  49. 49. Thank you!