• Sociology is the youngest member of social
science. The term Sociology' was coined by
Auguste Comte , a French philosopher in his book
'The course of Positive Philosophy' in 1838.The
word 'Sociology' is derived from the Latin word
‘Societus’ means ‘society’, ‘companion’ or’
associate’, and the Greek word ‘Logos’ means
`study or science’. Thus, the etymological
meaning of sociology is the scientific study of
society or the science of society. It is the study of
man’s behavior in groups and society as a whole.
• Sociology is the study of human social
relationships and institutions.
• The science of society, social institutions, and
social relationships specifically : the
systematic study of the development, structure,
interaction, and collective behavior of
organized groups of human beings
The science of society, social institutions, and
The science of society, social institutions, and
social relationships specifically : the systematic
study of the development, structure, interaction,
and collective behavior of organized groups of
human beings. https://www.merriam-
• British Dictionary definitions for sociology
• The study of the development, organization,
functioning, and classification of human
• Scientific definitions for sociology
• The scientific study of human social behavior
and its origins, development, organizations,
• Cultural definitions for sociology
• The systematic study of human society,
especially present-day societies. Sociologists
study the organization, institutions, and
development of societies, with a particular
interest in identifying causes of the changing
relationships among individuals and groups.
• 1. Sociology is described by Emile Durkheim as the "science
of social institutions."
• 2. Sociology is described by Small as the "science of social
• 3. According to Kingsley Davis, "sociology is a
comprehensive science of society."
• 4. Park considers sociology to be the "science of collective
• 5. Sociology, according to Jones, is the "study of man in
relation to other men."
• The underlying feature running across all of the
aforementioned definitions is that sociology is concerned with
man, his social connections, and his society.
8. Sociology's Characteristics:
• Sociology has its distinct traits as a discipline of study. In certain
aspects, it is distinct from other sciences. Robert Bierstedt defined the
fundamental aspects of sociology in his study "the social order.“
• 1.It is an Independent Science
• Sociology is a specific science having its own branches of
knowledge. It does not come under the umbrella of other social or
physical sciences. It has its own code of study and a separate line
from other sciences.
• 2. It is Social Science not Physical
• Sociology belongs to the family of social sciences and is considered
as the mother of all social sciences. Other social sciences are under
the jurisdiction of sociology from one of other point of view. For this
purpose it study the behavior, action and social activities of a man.
• 3.It is a Categorical(uncompromising) Science
• Sociology is not concern to study the moral or immoral, right or
wrong, good and evil problems. It studies the general phenomena of
social life for this it is a categorical science separate from the judgment
of any type of value.
• 4. Pure Science
• Sociology has its theoretical knowledge which is indispensible(vital) for
sociologists, scientists and social worker as well as for
anthropologists(study of past & present humans). Its study does not
interest in any law making or public policies and their implementation
but study examine only the social aspect of society that what is
happening in the social situation. This study is important for scientists.
• 5. Sociology is Generalizing not Particular
• There is no specification or limitation in the study of social system. It tries
to find general law and principles about human interaction and association.
• 6. General Science Not Special
• The field of sociology is generalized. Other social sciences
study a specific aspect of its study like economics, political
science, which is confined to a central point but the discipline
of sociology is generalized.
• 7. Empirical Science
• Rational and empirical are the two main approaches in
scientific study. Sociology applies both the approaches on its
stud. Rationalization is the collection of facts while empirical
is the arrangement and coordination of these facts. Facts and
theories are interrelated to each other’s. Theories without facts
are empty and facts without theories are blind.
• 8.Sociology is both Rational and Empirical science:
• Rational approach stresses on reason, logic and theories that result from
logical inference. Empirical method stresses on facts and figures and not on
speculation. Empiricists collect facts and rationalists co-ordinate and
arrange them. Both theories and facts are necessary in the construction of
knowledge. It is also required in sociological inquiry. If a theory is not
backed by facts, then it is just a matter of opinion. Similarly, facts without
theories are blind and directionless. Isolated facts are meaningless without
theorization. Thus, sociology is both empirical and rational in nature.
12. Meaning of Educational
• Educational Sociology is a combination of two
words, education and society, which means
"education in sociology" or "inclusion of sociology in
education". George Peyne is considered the father of
educational sociology. The education that is formed
by including the qualities of society and its elements
in education is called educational sociology. In
educational sociology, all those principles are adopted
which are adopted in the principles of education.
13. Definition of Educational
• (1). According to George Payne, "A science
which describes and explains the institutions,
social groups and social processes, that is, the
social relationships in which or through
which the individual gains and organizes his
• (2). According to John Dewey, "All
Education proceeds by the participation of
the individual in the social consciousness of
14. Need and Importance of Educational
• The function of education is to make all round development
of the personality of the child. This development cannot
happen in a vacuum. Development is always influenced by
social relations. The development of a child is influenced by
his family, school, community, culture etc. All these are
studied in educational sociology. The need and importance of
teacher sociology can be clarified from the following points-
• In educational sociology, the curriculum of education is
designed keeping in mind the social problems.
• Educational sociology is also helpful in the formulation of
• Educational sociology also plays its proper role in the
manufacture of teaching aids.
• Educational sociology links schools with society.
• Educational sociology studies the needs and
problems of society, after which the objectives of
education are formulated.
• With the help of educational sociology, it helps to
understand the concept of education.
• With the help of educational sociology, it helps to
understand the problems of the students, due to
which it also plays an important role in the teaching-
16. Scope of Educational Sociology
• Educational Sociology is a wide and comprehensive subject
because it deals with the influences of educational process on
Sociology and the effects of sociological processes on
education. The following are the important factors of study for
• Mutual relations of teachers and students.
• The place of a teacher in society.
• Social problems, needs and aspirations(goals).
• Small units of society and their interrelation.
• School and its relations with local social institutions.
• Effect of social life upon individuals and schools.
• Progress of democratic feelings in school.
• Necessary modifications in the curriculum
for individual and social growth.
• Encouragement to critical thinking and
• Evaluation of Radio, Television and Press as
medium of social progress.
• Determination of teaching methods for the
development of child.
• Investigation of all the sources of social
restrictions and social advancement.
18. AGENCIES OF EDUCATION
• Society has established and developed
institutions for achieving the modification of
behaviour and passing on customs, traditions,
beliefs, knowledge to next generation. These
institutions/organizations or social groups that
take forward the educational process called '
agencies of education’. By agencies of
education is meant those organizations/social
groups which helps in the education of people
in any way(directly or indirectly).An agency of
19. Types of Agencies of education
• 1. Formal Agency of Education -(special and
for regular schools)
• 2. Informal Agency of. Education -(home,
community and mass media)
• 3. Non-Formal Agency of Education -(open &
20. FORMAL AGENCY OF
• Formal agencies are those institutions and organizations which are set up by
the society deliberately with the exclusive aim imparting definite and ready-
made habits of knowledge in a specified time under a structured environment.
There are well-defined aims and objectives, specific curriculum, definite
teachers and students, definite and fixed time and place in such agencies. In
short, everything or every aspects of education are pre-planned or planned
in advance. Such agencies include school, college, university, library, religious
institution, the recreation club, the museum, picture and art galleries, zoo, etc.
• Formal agency as School:
• After family the educational institutions take over the charge of socialisation. In
some societies (simple non-literate societies), socialisation takes place almost
entirely within the family but in
• highly complex societies children are also socialised by the educational system.
• Schools not only teach reading, writing and
other basic skills, they also teach students to
develop themselves, to discipline themselves,
to cooperate with others, to obey rules and
to test their achievements through
competition. Schools teach sets of expecta-
tions about the work, profession or
occupations they will follow when they
mature. Schools have the formal
22. INFORMAL AGENCY OF
• Informal agencies are those institutions which exercise a great educative
influence upon the individuals indirectly and ceaselessly throughout
their life. They are called indirect agencies influencing the behaviour of the
individuals. Education is provided to the individuals informally and
unconsciously. These agencies lack all formalities, rules,
systematization, pre-planning, premeditation or training. There are not
particular places or location for imparting education. Individuals learn
incidentally and naturally by their own initiatives and efforts. Among the
agencies of informal education are family, community, state, social
gathering, play-ground, associations, religious ceremonies, crowds,
market places, cinema house, news-paper, fairs, exhibitions, radio,
television, public meeting, field trip etc
• Informal Agency of education as Home
• The child’s first world is that of his family or home. It is a world in
itself, in which the child learns to live, to move and to have his being.
Within it, not only the biological tasks of birth, protection and feeding
take place, but also develop those first and intimate associations with
persons of different ages and sexes which form the basis of the child’s
personality development. The family or home is the primary agency
of socialisation. It is here that the child develops an initial sense of
self and habit-training—eating, sleeping etc. To a very large extent,
the indoctrination of the child, whether in primitive or modem
complex society, occurs within the circle of the primary
• family group. The child’s first human relationships are with the
immediate members of his family—mother or nurse, siblings, father
and other close relatives.
24. NON-FORMAL AGENCY OF EDUCATION
• Non-formal education includes adult basic education, adult
literacy education or school equivalency preparation. In non
formal education, someone (who is not in school) can learn
literacy, other basic skills or job skills. Home education,
individualized instruction (such as programmed learning),
distance learning and computer-assisted instruction are
other possibilities. Non-formal education is imparted
consciously and deliberately and systematically implemented.
It should be organized for a homogeneous group. Non-formal,
education should be programmed to serve the needs of the
identified group. This will necessitate flexibility in the design
of the curriculum and the scheme of evaluation.
• Non-formal agency of education as distance education
• Distance education is a relatively new field of study and gaining
prominence off late. However, different terms are used to refer to open and
distance learning system. Some of them are: "correspondence education,
home study, independent study, external study, continuing education,
distance teaching, self instruction, adult education, technology-based or
mediated education, learner-centered education, open learning, open
access, flexible learning and distributed learning".
• Open and Distance Learning courses, resources, and materials must be
designed and delivered in such a way that the level of communication and
course-taking experience is the same for students with or without
• Human child has an innate capacity to learn and to
communicate. Therefore, gradually it learns the group-defined
ways of behaviour. It is human company initially in the form
of a family and later other social institutions like the
community, peer group, school etc. Educate the human child to
be a responsible and useful member of society. The
process of learning to internalize(adopt) the values and
norms into its self or the mode of learning to live in society
is called the process of socialization.
27. Stages of Socialization
Social scientists have earmarked four different stages
of socialization from infancy to adulthood. These are:
i) The oral stage
ii) The anal stage .
iii) The oedipal stage, and
At the first stage, the infant is not involved in the family as a whole. He is involved
only in the subsystem consisting of himself and his mother.
The anal stage of socialization covers the period between first and third year of
child's life. During this stage the child internalizes two roles- his/her own and that of
his/her mother, now clearly separate. The child receives love and care and gives love
The third stage extends from about the fourth year to puberty. During this stage the
child becomes a member of the family as a whole. The child identifies itself with the
social role ascribed to him on the basis of his sex.
The fourth stage begins roughly at puberty. At this stage young boy or girl wants to
be freed from the control of parents. By the time the individual attains maturity
major part of socialization is over, though it continues for whole of the life.
• All types of socialization may be classified into two broad groups, viz.
primary socialization and secondary socialization. This division is based
on the primary and secondary needs of individuals. The basic physical
needs such as thirst, hunger etc. are called primary needs while
secondary needs are those which emerge to meet primary
needs e.g. the need for learning skills to earn livelihood. In the modem
societies, where the social mobility of individuals and groups takes place
more frequently, individual's loyalty to a particular social group weakens.
He starts emulating the values, norms, behaviour patterns of another group
in anticipation of
being accepted as its member. This kind of socialization is called
29. Education for Socialization
• Education as social institution, plays a vital role in our society.
The function of education is multidimensional within the
school system and outside it. It performs the function of
socializing the individual for a variety of social roles and
development of personality. It is also an important part of the
control mechanisms of society. Education is a necessity right
from the simple society to modern complex industrial society.
• 1. Socialization:
The most important function of education is socialization. The
people have no knowledge about the culture of their society.
They must learn them and they must learn the way which their
society is functioning. Hence, the children as they grow up
must be introduced into the culture which they are going to
• 2. Development of Personality:
Education plays an important role in the development
of personality. The object of education, as said
Durkheim “is to awaken and develop in the child
those physical, intellectual and moral states which
are required of him both by his society as a whole
and by the milieu for which he is specially
designed”. Education helps the development of the
qualities of an individual, such as physical, mental and
emotional make-up as well as his temperament and
• 3. Social Control
• “Education in a broad sense”, as says Bottom ore,
“From infancy to adulthood, is thus a vital means of
social control”. Formal education in modern societies
• 4. Social Integration:
Education, by imparting values, also integrates people into the
broader society. The curriculum of the school, its ‘extra-
curricular’ activities and the informal relationship among
students and teachers communicate certain values and social
skills such as cooperation or team-spirit, obedience, fair play.
5. Determination of Status:
Determination of status of an individual is an important function
of education. Amount of education is a good indicator of socio-
economic status, from lower working class to upper class, education
leads to economic opportunity. It is through education young people
secure higher status jobs than their parents. With higher incomes they
come to associate with the persons of higher status. Thus, education
provides the channel to better socio-economic status.
• 6. Provides Route for Social Mobility:
• Educational qualifications increasingly form the basis for the allocation of
individuals to social statuses and social mobility. There has been steady move
from one status to other due to educational attainment.The educational system
whether industrial societies or in developing societies like India tend to create
and maintain a broad division between elites and masses, between education for
intellectual and for manual occupations. Such differentiation within the
educational system is closely linked to the system of social stratification and
• 7. Social Development:
• Skills and values learned in education are directly related to the way to which
the economy and the occupational structure operate. Education trains the
individuals in skills that are required by the economy. In modern planned
economy the output of skilled people must be consciously geared to the
economic and social priorities of the society.
33. SOCIAL CHANGE
• Sociologists define social change as a transformation of
cultures, institutions, and functions. Most change isn’t
instantaneous. In society, change is often very slow. There are
a variety of parts and forces at work, many of which resist
disruptions of the status quo. All societies go through these
types of changes at one point. You don’t need to be an
avid(keen) student of history to know that. Consider a
modern society and reflect on what it looked like hundreds
of years ago. Often, society is unrecognizable.
34. Theories of social change
• Auguste Comte, known as the “father of
sociology,” believed in the evolutionary
model. According to this theory, society
always evolves into “higher levels.” Like
organisms evolve from simple to more
complex, so do societies.
• Functionalist theory
• The functionalist theory of social change
teaches that society is like a human body.
Emile Durkheim, a major leader in the social
35. What triggers social change?
• Demographic change
• Cultural change
• The Reformation
• The abolition of the transatlantic slave trade
• The Civil Rights movement
• The feminist movement
• The LGBTQ+ rights movement
• The green movement
36. SOCIAL MOBILITY
• Social mobility, movement of individuals, families, or groups
through a system of social hierarchy or stratification.
• If such mobility involves a change in position, especially in
occupation, but no change in social class, it is called “horizontal
mobility.” An example would be a person who moves from a
managerial position in one company to a similar position in another.
• This refers to a change in the occupational, political, or religious
status of a person that causes a change in their societal position. An
individual moves from one social stratum to another. Vertical mobility
can be ascending or descending.
• An industrial worker who becomes a wealthy businessman moves
upward in the class system.
• A landed aristocrat(lord) who loses everything in a revolution
moves downward in the system.
• https://www.britannica.com › topic › social-mobilty
• 5. Inter-generational mobility
• Inter-generational mobility happens when the social position changes
from one generation to another. The change can be upward or
downward. For example, a father worked in a factory while his son
received an education that allowed him to become a lawyer or a
• 6. Intra-generational mobility
• The intra-generational change in societal position occurs during the
lifespan of a single generation. For example, an individual starts their
career as a clerk and through their life moves on to a senior position
such as a director. One sibling may also achieve a higher position in
society than their brother or sister.
38. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION
• Social stratification refers to a society”s categorization of its people into rankings based
on factors such as wealth, income, education, family background, and power. Someones”
place within a system of social stratification is called their socioeconomic status. Social
stratification is a relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society by which groups
have different access to resources, power, and perceived social worth.
• Although many people and institutions in Western Societies indicate that they value
equality — the belief that everyone has an equal chance at success and that hard work
and talent — not inherited wealth, prejudicial treatment, racism, or societal values —
determine social mobility, sociologists recognize social stratification as a society-wide
system that makes inequalities apparent.
• While there are inequalities between individuals, sociologists interest themselves in large
social patterns. That is to say, sociologists look to see if those with similar backgrounds,
group memberships, identities, and geographic locations share the same social
• While some cultures may outwardly say that one”s climb and descent in socioeconomic
status depends on individual choices, sociologists see how the structure of society affects
a person”s social standing and therefore is created and supported by society.