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Learning theories

  1. 1. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY Albert Bandura
  2. 2. Under the social learning theory, an individual learns through observation and imitation of others. We learn not only how to perform a behavior but also what will happen to us in a specific situation if we do perform it.
  3. 3. Observation ImitationModeling
  4. 4. Characteristics of Social Learning Theory  It is observational learning which consists of four phases – attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.
  5. 5. ATTENTION  Mental focus or concentration.  Willingness to observe
  6. 6. RETENTION  Ability to store the information
  7. 7. PRODUCTION  To actually translate the behavior into action.
  8. 8. MOTIVATION Force that drives one to act
  9. 9. Characteristics of Social Learning Theory It is vicarious learning which is acquired from observing the consequences of other’s behavior. It is self-regulated which occurs when one evaluate his or her own behavior.
  10. 10. Models used in social learning are classified as :  Real-life (parents and teachers)  Symbolic (books)  Reprentional (films)
  11. 11. The components of successful modeling include:  Motivation – Pupils should know the reason why they demonstrate the behavior of model.  Attention – It is important that students are observing about what is being done.  Retention – Provide mechanisms to help learners remember the behavior.
  12. 12. Motor Reproduction – Pupils must be physically capable of the performing the behavior. Self Management – Learners should be helped gain control of their own way of learning.
  13. 13. FIELD THEORY Kurt Lewin
  14. 14.  Behavior is the function of the present life space.  This theory has also extended the concept of “wholeness” of the learning condition by showing the role played by the cultural and social environment in determining what man responds to.
  15. 15. The Learning Process
  16. 16. Learning is the most universal and important occupation of a man. It is the great task of childhood and youth. This is the means of achieving progress in any period in one’s life. At every moment in his life, man engage to some form of learning.
  17. 17. Learning is integrated, directed, systematic, purposive, and ongoing process that occurs in the individual that enables him to meet specific objectives, fulfill his interest, and satisfy his needs, and cope with problems that confront him.
  18. 18. Conceptually, as viewed by educators, the process of learning involves five well-defined phases.
  19. 19. Unfreezing Stage where individual become motivated and ready to consider changes in attitudes, behaviors, knowledge and skills.
  20. 20. Problem Diagnosis Stage of determining and examining the forces supporting the need for change.
  21. 21. Goal-Setting • Stage where the desire changes in attitude, knowledge, skills, and behaviors are explicitly stated.
  22. 22. New Behavior • Stage where the individual learns, adapts, and practices the newer knowledge, attitudes, skills, and behaviors which are desired.
  23. 23. Refreezing • Stage where learning have found to be relevant and beneficial and assimilated into the learner’s ongoing frame work of knowledge, attitudes, skill and behavior.
  24. 24. • Athikson and Shiffrin postulate information processing theory as the individual learns when the brain takes in information (encoding), performs operation on it, stores the information (storage), and retrieves it when needed (retrieved).
  25. 25. The sequence of information processing
  26. 26. INFORMATION PROCESSING - is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
  27. 27. Pattern of information processing sensory registers short term memory long term memory
  28. 28. Concepts in cognitive theories of learning perception - act of apprehending storage - putting information in memory encoding - changing the format rehearsal - finding the information retrieval - mental restoration dual-coding - encodes the complex network of images
  29. 29. episodic memory - images relating to personal experiences semantic memory - stores facts and information procedural memory - keeps information about how things are processed
  30. 30. Information Processing Theories as Applied in Classroom Teaching
  31. 31. Hold learner’s attention and interest in all cognitive tasks. Guide learners to assess learning materials considered most important to learn. Establish the basis of new learning materials. Concentrate on important and key concepts and ideas.
  32. 32. Organize all important information to be learned. Confine processing to few information at a time. Employ interesting drill strategies and approaches. Develop skills of learners in forming images of information they encounter.
  33. 33. Commulative learning theory
  34. 34. CHRISTOPHER KLAUSMEIR, learning occurs as the individual develops higher level skills that build successively on lower skills. TYPES OF LEARNING 1. SIGNAL LEARNING - when two stimuli are simultaneously presented and the response previously drawn only by the unconditioned stimulus is also elicited by the newly conditioned stimulus.
  35. 35. 2. STIMULUS RESPONSE LEARNING - when a response to specific stimuli that has been discriminated against from other stimuli. 3. MOTOR CHAINS / VERBAL CHAINS LEARNING - when two or more separated motor/verbal responses may be combined to develop a more complex learning skill.
  36. 36. 4. DISCRIMINATING LEARNING - when discriminating a specific stimuli from other. 5. CONCEPT LEARNING - when making a common response to stimuli that are different in various ways. 6. RULE LEARNING - when learning two or more concepts in a given period of time. 7. PROBLEM SOLVING - this is learning to recall and apply a rule.
  38. 38. observe sequence in teaching in terms of level of learning skills and capabilities required of the learner. check learner's capabilities in each level of the same lesson. be sure that the prerequisite learning skills are acquired before moving to the next.
  39. 39. Meaningful Learning Theory
  40. 40. Ausubel postulated meaningful learning theory where an individual learns by relating newly acquired information t what the learner already knows.  The characteristics and concepts related to meaningful learning theory are:
  41. 41. Meaningful Learning Set Characterized by meaningful learning attitude that the learner can make sense out of the information to be acquired.
  42. 42. Relevant Prior Knowledge Characterized by information to which a new idea can be related and understood.
  43. 43. Organization Characterized by finding connections among various pieces of information one needs to learn.
  44. 44. Elaboration Expanding on novel information and data based on what the learner already knows.
  45. 45. Visual Imagery  This is shaping a mental picture of information on a given subject.
  46. 46. Advanced Organizers Initial activities and techniques that provide a structure for the new information and relate it to information learners already know.
  47. 47. Cognitive Structure Refers to the ability and organization of a learner’s knowledge in a given subject matter.
  48. 48. Other Related Views of learning
  49. 49. Metacognitive View of Learning  Ability to monitor one’s own cognition.  This is characterized by an awareness of an ability to capitalize on one’s own knowledge as applied to specific task.
  50. 50. Constructivist View of Learning This theory states that learners must individually discover and transform information, check against old rule and revise it when it no longer works.
  51. 51. Reception and Discovery Learning Theory This is characterized by the use of advanced organizers; the use of examples and the focus on similarities and differences.  It is important to present both examples and non-examples to encourage learners to make intuitive guesses.