SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 30
Albanese Ch 10:
Fundamentals of the New Age
Pluralism and Postpluralism
• Helen Cohn Schucman -
“This is a course in
miracles. Please take
note…” (1976).
• Expansion and contraction
• “culture wars”?
Expansion: The New Age and
New Spirituality
1. Introduction
2. Roots of the New Age
3. Religion of the New Age
4. New Spirituality
Introduction to Patterns of
Contemporary Expansion
• “If we think of the nation’s
culture as the work of the
social body made up of all
Americans, we understand
it as a system. Expansion
and contraction, then,
become self-correcting
devices for the culture.
Each has its strengths,
and each its weaknesses”
(228).
From Movement to Spirituality
• New Age movement
• Theosophical Society
• Ascended masters
• Channels
• UFO’s
• Shirley MacLaine’s Out
On a Limb (1983)
• Millennialism to healing
Roots of the New Age 1
• Transcendentalists
• New Thought (affirmations)
• Theosophists
• “I AM” movement of Guy
Ballard (1878-1939)
• Arcane School of Alice
Bailey (1880-1949)
• Aetherius Society of
George King (1954)
Roots of the New Age 2
• Quantum physics
• Humanistic
psychology
• Parapsychology
• Holistic healers
• Astrologers
• Asian gurus
• Native American
teachers
New Age Religion
• Social thinkers: ordinary religion, ethics
• Individually oriented actors: extraordinary religion, ritual
and “symbolic behavior”
• “universe” and “energy” and “chakras” and “planet” and
“healing” (credo)
• New Age ethic = personal responsibility and progress
• Ritual work = small groups and communities, not
churches, includes meditation.
– Harmonial ritual (Reiki)
– Imaginal ritual (Shamanic journeying)
• New Spirituality
– Robert Bellah and “Sheilaism”
– Deepak Chopra
– Eckhart Tolle, etc.
Contraction: Conservative
Religion Comes of Age
1. Introduction
2. Fundamentalist and Evangelical
Identity
3. The Religion of the Fundamentalist-
Evangelical Movement
1. Introduction to 20th
century Protestant
Fundamentalism
Four Characteristics of 19th-century American
Christianity influencing emergence of
Fundamentalism:
1. Biblical Realism or Conservative Christianity
2. Limited view of Science
3. Dispensationalism or Prophetic Movement
4. Holiness Movement
Dispensationalism
• Postmillennialism: belief that gospel will spread with the supernatural help of
the Holy Spirit; optimistic view of American civilization as the “New Israel”, the “city
on a hill”; culture would be transformed into the Kingdom of God - a golden age of
Christianity culminating in the return of Christ. This was dominant view until 1875.
• Premillennialism (millenarianism): as postmillennialism was secularized
into the Social Gospel, the supernatural agency of the Holy Spirit seemed to be left
out; evangelicals turned to a more pessimistic view of American civilization and
culture; world seen in declension with dramatic supernatural return of Christ before
establishing the golden age of Christianity. Based on biblical prophecy (e.g. Daniel
9:24, Rev. 20:4-6).
• Dwight L. Moody: “I look upon this world as a wrecked vessel. God has given me a
lifeboat and said to me, ‘Moody, save all you can.’”
• Prophecy: Old Testament had been viewed as foreshadowing of New
Testament and life of Jesus - as continuous. New view of prophecy stresses
discontinuity - distinct “ages” or dispensations (5=age of law, post exodus Israel;
6=current age of grace; 7=age of tribulation, 7 years of tumult followed by millennial
kingdom of Christ).
– Pretribulation: most believe Christians get “raptured” before the 7 years of suffering.
– Posttribulation: some believe Christians will suffer for the sins of this dispensation, and
get “raptured” after the years of suffering.
20th Century Setting
1. Publication of The Fundamentals - a
development from within Conservative Christianity in America.
2. World War I - an influence from outside America
3. Higher Criticism - another influence from outside, but
taken up by Liberal Christians within America.
4. Teaching Evolution in Schools and the
Scopes Trial - the militant reaction against secular
culture and modernism.
• Curtis Lee Laws (1868-1946) coined
the term “fundamentalist” in 1920 during
a protest of the Northern Baptist
Convention.
* 12 booklets published 1910-1915,
edited by A. C. Dixon, authored by
conservative scholars and popular
writers.
* 3 million copies distributed free by
wealthy businessmen Lyman and Milton
Stewart.
1. The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the
Truth
1) Inerrancy of Scripture 2) Divinity of Jesus 3) Virgin Birth 4) Trinity
and 5) Christ’s Death, Resurrection, and Second Coming
More on “The Fundamentals”
• Nothing said about dispensationalism or premillenialism,
social or political issues - all this gets associated with
Fundamentalism later…
• Other topics besides Biblical authority and the
theological issues mentioned above are: evangelism,
missions, prayer, personal piety, and the menace of
Mormonism, Catholicism, Liberalism.
• Main point is that Christian faith must be defended, “real”
science would “prove” the faith - if it is not biased against
supernaturalism (essential to the faith).
• Many authors later regretted being associated with
“Fundamentalism” - never very popular, but important as
basic tenets.
2. World War I
• Seen as result of modernism,
Nietzschean Philosophy (equating
power with moral superiority), and
higher criticism.
• This is what we will become if we
abandon “true religion”…
• Political events associated by
Preachers with personal sin - like
smoking, dancing, going to theatres….
• Sound familiar?
3. Higher Criticism of Bible
German Theologians: Friedrich
Schleiermacher (1768–1834), and
Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872)
apply rational, naturalistic, and
historical principles to the Bible.
Multiple authors for Old Testament,
inconsistencies in New
Testament, Q-Source, redactions,
2 authors of Isaiah, etc.
Thomas F. Curtis’s The Human
Element in the Inspiration of the
Sacred Scriptures (1867)
4. Militancy and Battle
Fronts
• Scopes “Monkey” Trial:
Dayton, Tenn. July 1925.
• Found guilty, then reversed on
technicality.
• William Jennings Bryan (Dem.
2-time Pres candidate, fiery
rhetorician) is cross-examined
by Clarence Darrow (super-
smart trial lawyer) and looks
bad. Press makes it even
worse.
• Viewed as science v. religion,
urban v. rural, North v. South
• Another front was the winning
over of congregations and
forming new churches (often as
splinter groups and new
denominations).
Decline and Resurrection
• After Scopes Trial in 1925, due to press and public
opinion, Fundamentalism was caricatured as poor,
uneducated, stubbornly narrow-minded, simple, etc.
• Went from a loose, but influential coalition of
conservatives in 1920’s to a rigid, militant, and defensive
subculture after 1925.
• Written off as marginal and obscure by Conservatives
and Liberals alike.
• Internal strife and defections left only the splinter
churches and new denominations struggling for
membership.
So how did they make their come back?
Why the Success of Fundamentalism?
• A sense of certainty and refuge in the midst of a hostile anti-
Christian culture.
• Lack of national cohesion allows grass-roots development.
• Evangelicalism, Depression, WWII.
• Role of Church to save souls and make everyone lay evangelists
- limited and simple, but it worked.
• Bible schools,
Sunday-school
curricula, summer retreats,
radio shows.
• Irony of appropriation of
modern technology to
spread the gospel.
Billy Graham (b. 1918)
Graham’s 1949 L.A. Crusade:
1) followed a period of Graham’s
own self-questioning - he is
“fully surrendered” and
“convicted”.
2) friction from local clergy,
unsure how much support to
give
3) lots of media attention
because of Hollywood
celebrities; and
4) was VERY successful and
popular. 3 weeks expanded
to 8 weeks.
Contemporary Contraction
• American Council of
Christian Churches
(fundamentalist)
• National Association of
Evangelicals
(moderate)
• Fuller Theological
Seminary
• “new evangelicalism”
• Christianity Today
Culture Wars?
• School Prayer
• Teaching of Evolution in Schools
• Gay rights/marriage
• Ten Commandments in Courts
• Abortion
• Divorce
• Religious Organizations in Schools
• Faith-Based Initiative
• Religious Discourse in Politics
Fundamentalist or Evangelical
• 1995 Left Behind series
of 14 books Tim LaHaye
& Jerry Jenkins - 55
million sold
• 1970 Late Great Planet
Earth by Hal Lindsey
• Premillennial
dispensationalism (Fund.)
• Sin AND grace in the
world (Evangelicalism)
Regional Religion (Contraction)
• Megachurches (2000+
members)
• Saddleback Church:
80,000 members
• Christian
Reconstructionism
• Dominion Theology
• Vineyard Christian
Fellowship - 600+
churches (holiness-
pentecostal)
Televangelism
• Pat Robertson “700 Club”
• Jerry Falwell’s “Old Time
Gospel Hour”
• Rex Humbard’s
“Cathedral of Tomorrow”
• Jim Bakker’s “PTL Club”
• Jimmy Swaggart
• Robert Schuller’s “The
Hour of Power”
“Armchair Religion”?
Televangelism:
• The “Electronic Church”
• Some Pentecostal, some not
• Most promoted right-wing causes with little relationship
with religion (economic success = God’s approval)
• All directed at upwardly mobile
• All VERY ambitious, modern-day prophets
• Demanded little action except mailing in checks
• Evangelicals and their constituents not very political, less
inclined to register and vote UNTIL 1980….
Politics and
Religion
• 1950’s Fundamentalist Anti-
Communist organizations:
– Billy James Hargis’ “Christian
Anticommunist Crusade”
– American Council of Churches
• 1979: Moral Majority (Jerry
Falwell)
• Ronald Reagan, 1980
• 1980: 29% evangelical
ministers registered
Republican, by 1984, 60%.
• Christian Coalition (Pat
Robertson)
• Focus on the Family (James
Dobson)
Progressive Evangelicals
• Radical Evangelicals
• Sojourners Ministries
• Sojourners magazine
• Jim Wallis and Trinity
Evangelical Divinity School
(1975)
• Evangelical Environmental
Network (EEN)
• Creation Care magazine
The Religion
• (creed) “getting saved” and “coming to Jesus” and the
“sinner’s prayer” and being “born again”
• “holiness” = strict morality (code)
• (cultus) “worship life” = bible groups, bible study,
prayer, mission, witnessing; rhetorical and emotional
patterns
• Bill McCartney’s Promise Keepers (1990-1997) related
to the Men’s Movement of the New Age
• Strict separation of ordinary and extraordinary, clear
boundaries, high “walls to consolidate a community”
(250).
Conclusions
• Pluralism -> conflict
• Postpluralism -> expansion, combinationism
• Liberals and conservatives actually very similar?
– Millennial themes
– Direct experience
– Personal transformation
– Ongoing revelation
– Need for healing
– Common language
– Literalness in belief
– Democracy of believers
– New forms of community
• Patterns of expansion and contraction are BOTH part of our
cultural system, related, and mutually dependent…!! ***

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Was ist angesagt?

Christianity presentation
Christianity presentationChristianity presentation
Christianity presentationLivvie Hanks
 
INT-244 Topic 2 Judaism
INT-244 Topic 2 JudaismINT-244 Topic 2 Judaism
INT-244 Topic 2 JudaismS Meyer
 
INT-525 topic 3
INT-525 topic 3INT-525 topic 3
INT-525 topic 3S Meyer
 
Church history modern
Church history modernChurch history modern
Church history modernRyan LeBlanc
 
Turning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of Pentecostalism
Turning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of PentecostalismTurning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of Pentecostalism
Turning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of Pentecostalismsandiferb
 
Hidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and Zimbabwe
Hidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and ZimbabweHidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and Zimbabwe
Hidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and ZimbabweS Meyer
 
Global awakening presentation
Global awakening presentationGlobal awakening presentation
Global awakening presentationDavid Rogers
 
INT-460 Topic 3 Worldview Families
INT-460 Topic 3 Worldview FamiliesINT-460 Topic 3 Worldview Families
INT-460 Topic 3 Worldview FamiliesS Meyer
 
Rise of Christianity
Rise of ChristianityRise of Christianity
Rise of ChristianityKevin Zahner
 
Hidden Jewish Communities: Bnei Anusim
Hidden Jewish Communities: Bnei AnusimHidden Jewish Communities: Bnei Anusim
Hidden Jewish Communities: Bnei AnusimS Meyer
 
H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1
H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1
H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1S Meyer
 
Pentecostal healing
Pentecostal healingPentecostal healing
Pentecostal healingYasir Hameed
 
Mvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental domination
Mvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental dominationMvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental domination
Mvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental dominationJohn Bradford
 
1 29-13 ideology of environmental domination
1 29-13 ideology of environmental domination1 29-13 ideology of environmental domination
1 29-13 ideology of environmental dominationJohn Bradford
 
6.3 - The Rise Of Christianity
6.3 - The Rise Of Christianity6.3 - The Rise Of Christianity
6.3 - The Rise Of ChristianityDan Ewert
 
INT-244 New Age
INT-244 New AgeINT-244 New Age
INT-244 New AgeS Meyer
 

Was ist angesagt? (20)

Christianity presentation
Christianity presentationChristianity presentation
Christianity presentation
 
1 david j bosch
1 david j bosch1 david j bosch
1 david j bosch
 
Ch 12 many centers
Ch 12 many centersCh 12 many centers
Ch 12 many centers
 
R5. sda views on trinity
R5. sda views on trinityR5. sda views on trinity
R5. sda views on trinity
 
INT-244 Topic 2 Judaism
INT-244 Topic 2 JudaismINT-244 Topic 2 Judaism
INT-244 Topic 2 Judaism
 
INT-525 topic 3
INT-525 topic 3INT-525 topic 3
INT-525 topic 3
 
Church history modern
Church history modernChurch history modern
Church history modern
 
Turning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of Pentecostalism
Turning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of PentecostalismTurning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of Pentecostalism
Turning Points, chapter 13, Rise & Spread of Pentecostalism
 
Hidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and Zimbabwe
Hidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and ZimbabweHidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and Zimbabwe
Hidden Jewish Communities Part 2 - Ethiopia and Zimbabwe
 
Catholic Reformation
Catholic ReformationCatholic Reformation
Catholic Reformation
 
Global awakening presentation
Global awakening presentationGlobal awakening presentation
Global awakening presentation
 
INT-460 Topic 3 Worldview Families
INT-460 Topic 3 Worldview FamiliesINT-460 Topic 3 Worldview Families
INT-460 Topic 3 Worldview Families
 
Rise of Christianity
Rise of ChristianityRise of Christianity
Rise of Christianity
 
Hidden Jewish Communities: Bnei Anusim
Hidden Jewish Communities: Bnei AnusimHidden Jewish Communities: Bnei Anusim
Hidden Jewish Communities: Bnei Anusim
 
H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1
H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1
H504 Contemporary Judaism Week 1
 
Pentecostal healing
Pentecostal healingPentecostal healing
Pentecostal healing
 
Mvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental domination
Mvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental dominationMvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental domination
Mvsu bradford ch 6 ideology of environmental domination
 
1 29-13 ideology of environmental domination
1 29-13 ideology of environmental domination1 29-13 ideology of environmental domination
1 29-13 ideology of environmental domination
 
6.3 - The Rise Of Christianity
6.3 - The Rise Of Christianity6.3 - The Rise Of Christianity
6.3 - The Rise Of Christianity
 
INT-244 New Age
INT-244 New AgeINT-244 New Age
INT-244 New Age
 

Ähnlich wie Ch 10 fundamentals of the new age

Ch 5 denominations and missions
Ch 5 denominations and missionsCh 5 denominations and missions
Ch 5 denominations and missionsJeffrey W. Danese
 
INT-244 Topic 7 New Religious Movements
INT-244 Topic 7 New Religious MovementsINT-244 Topic 7 New Religious Movements
INT-244 Topic 7 New Religious MovementsS Meyer
 
LOAPUSH 15
LOAPUSH 15LOAPUSH 15
LOAPUSH 15LOAPUSH
 
2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850
2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850 2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850
2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850 jbstubb77
 
The Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great Awakening
The Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great AwakeningThe Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great Awakening
The Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great Awakeningsaud1774
 
[Module 6] Dayton.pptx
[Module 6] Dayton.pptx[Module 6] Dayton.pptx
[Module 6] Dayton.pptxMariaKenney3
 
Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7
Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7
Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7Andre Fernandez
 
APUSH Lecture Ch. 12
APUSH Lecture Ch. 12APUSH Lecture Ch. 12
APUSH Lecture Ch. 12bwellington
 
1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reforms
1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reforms1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reforms
1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reformsthuphan95
 
Onward christian soldiers chapter 2
Onward christian soldiers chapter 2Onward christian soldiers chapter 2
Onward christian soldiers chapter 2PoliSciDep
 
Lecture 6 Religion In America
Lecture 6 Religion In AmericaLecture 6 Religion In America
Lecture 6 Religion In Americabflood
 
The great awakenings christian history - part 2 of 4
The great awakenings   christian history - part 2 of 4The great awakenings   christian history - part 2 of 4
The great awakenings christian history - part 2 of 4Chrysalis Campaign, Inc.
 
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...S Sandoval
 

Ähnlich wie Ch 10 fundamentals of the new age (20)

Ch 5 denominations and missions
Ch 5 denominations and missionsCh 5 denominations and missions
Ch 5 denominations and missions
 
Ch 7 new religions
Ch 7 new religionsCh 7 new religions
Ch 7 new religions
 
Ch 11 civil religion today
Ch 11 civil religion todayCh 11 civil religion today
Ch 11 civil religion today
 
INT-244 Topic 7 New Religious Movements
INT-244 Topic 7 New Religious MovementsINT-244 Topic 7 New Religious Movements
INT-244 Topic 7 New Religious Movements
 
LOAPUSH 15
LOAPUSH 15LOAPUSH 15
LOAPUSH 15
 
2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850
2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850 2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850
2011 AP US PP - Religious Developments 1800 - 1850
 
The Second Great Awakening
The Second Great AwakeningThe Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening
 
The Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great Awakening
The Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great AwakeningThe Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great Awakening
The Good, the Bad & the Ugly: the Second Great Awakening
 
Ch 8 metaphysical religion
Ch 8 metaphysical religionCh 8 metaphysical religion
Ch 8 metaphysical religion
 
10 chapter08
10 chapter0810 chapter08
10 chapter08
 
[Module 6] Dayton.pptx
[Module 6] Dayton.pptx[Module 6] Dayton.pptx
[Module 6] Dayton.pptx
 
Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7
Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7
Politics as a noble calling church history ii lesson 7
 
APUSH Lecture Ch. 12
APUSH Lecture Ch. 12APUSH Lecture Ch. 12
APUSH Lecture Ch. 12
 
1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reforms
1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reforms1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reforms
1820-1860: Society, Culture, and Reforms
 
Onward christian soldiers chapter 2
Onward christian soldiers chapter 2Onward christian soldiers chapter 2
Onward christian soldiers chapter 2
 
Lecture 6 Religion In America
Lecture 6 Religion In AmericaLecture 6 Religion In America
Lecture 6 Religion In America
 
The great awakenings christian history - part 2 of 4
The great awakenings   christian history - part 2 of 4The great awakenings   christian history - part 2 of 4
The great awakenings christian history - part 2 of 4
 
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...
AP WORLD HISTORY: Chapter 15 cultural transformations: Religion and Science 1...
 
Hum40 christianity-f11-p2
Hum40 christianity-f11-p2Hum40 christianity-f11-p2
Hum40 christianity-f11-p2
 
2111_chp13_notes.pdf
2111_chp13_notes.pdf2111_chp13_notes.pdf
2111_chp13_notes.pdf
 

Mehr von Jeffrey W. Danese

Ch 6 black churches and nationhood
Ch 6 black churches and nationhoodCh 6 black churches and nationhood
Ch 6 black churches and nationhoodJeffrey W. Danese
 
Ch 4 puritans and liberal tradition
Ch 4 puritans and liberal traditionCh 4 puritans and liberal tradition
Ch 4 puritans and liberal traditionJeffrey W. Danese
 
Ch 1 native american religion
Ch 1 native american religionCh 1 native american religion
Ch 1 native american religionJeffrey W. Danese
 
Ch 0 preface and introduction
Ch 0 preface and introductionCh 0 preface and introduction
Ch 0 preface and introductionJeffrey W. Danese
 
1.intro to rel studies and arh
1.intro to rel studies and arh1.intro to rel studies and arh
1.intro to rel studies and arhJeffrey W. Danese
 

Mehr von Jeffrey W. Danese (8)

Ch 9 east is west
Ch 9 east is westCh 9 east is west
Ch 9 east is west
 
Ch 6 black churches and nationhood
Ch 6 black churches and nationhoodCh 6 black churches and nationhood
Ch 6 black churches and nationhood
 
Ch 4 puritans and liberal tradition
Ch 4 puritans and liberal traditionCh 4 puritans and liberal tradition
Ch 4 puritans and liberal tradition
 
Ch 3 catholicism in america
Ch 3 catholicism in americaCh 3 catholicism in america
Ch 3 catholicism in america
 
Ch 2 judaism in america
Ch 2 judaism in americaCh 2 judaism in america
Ch 2 judaism in america
 
Ch 1 native american religion
Ch 1 native american religionCh 1 native american religion
Ch 1 native american religion
 
Ch 0 preface and introduction
Ch 0 preface and introductionCh 0 preface and introduction
Ch 0 preface and introduction
 
1.intro to rel studies and arh
1.intro to rel studies and arh1.intro to rel studies and arh
1.intro to rel studies and arh
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

Foreign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptx
Foreign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptxForeign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptx
Foreign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptxunark75
 
lok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptx
lok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptxlok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptx
lok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptxdigiyvbmrkt
 
Political-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptx
Political-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptxPolitical-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptx
Political-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptxSasikiranMarri
 
13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
Power in International Relations (Pol 5)
Power in International Relations (Pol 5)Power in International Relations (Pol 5)
Power in International Relations (Pol 5)ssuser583c35
 
11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
Transforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road Connectivity
Transforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road ConnectivityTransforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road Connectivity
Transforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road Connectivitynarsireddynannuri1
 
Geostrategic significance of South Asian countries.ppt
Geostrategic significance of South Asian countries.pptGeostrategic significance of South Asian countries.ppt
Geostrategic significance of South Asian countries.pptUsmanKaran
 
15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...
Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...
Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...The Lifesciences Magazine
 
12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 
Emerging issues in migration policies.ppt
Emerging issues in migration policies.pptEmerging issues in migration policies.ppt
Emerging issues in migration policies.pptNandinituteja1
 
14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdfFIRST INDIA
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (14)

Foreign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptx
Foreign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptxForeign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptx
Foreign Relation of Pakistan with Neighboring Countries.pptx
 
lok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptx
lok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptxlok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptx
lok sabha Elections in india- 2024 .pptx
 
Political-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptx
Political-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptxPolitical-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptx
Political-Ideologies-and-The-Movements.pptx
 
13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
13042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
16042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Power in International Relations (Pol 5)
Power in International Relations (Pol 5)Power in International Relations (Pol 5)
Power in International Relations (Pol 5)
 
11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
11042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Transforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road Connectivity
Transforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road ConnectivityTransforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road Connectivity
Transforming Andhra Pradesh: TDP's Legacy in Road Connectivity
 
Geostrategic significance of South Asian countries.ppt
Geostrategic significance of South Asian countries.pptGeostrategic significance of South Asian countries.ppt
Geostrategic significance of South Asian countries.ppt
 
15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
15042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...
Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...
Mitochondrial Fusion Vital for Adult Brain Function and Disease Understanding...
 
12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
12042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 
Emerging issues in migration policies.ppt
Emerging issues in migration policies.pptEmerging issues in migration policies.ppt
Emerging issues in migration policies.ppt
 
14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
14042024_First India Newspaper Jaipur.pdf
 

Ch 10 fundamentals of the new age

  • 2. Pluralism and Postpluralism • Helen Cohn Schucman - “This is a course in miracles. Please take note…” (1976). • Expansion and contraction • “culture wars”?
  • 3. Expansion: The New Age and New Spirituality 1. Introduction 2. Roots of the New Age 3. Religion of the New Age 4. New Spirituality
  • 4. Introduction to Patterns of Contemporary Expansion • “If we think of the nation’s culture as the work of the social body made up of all Americans, we understand it as a system. Expansion and contraction, then, become self-correcting devices for the culture. Each has its strengths, and each its weaknesses” (228).
  • 5. From Movement to Spirituality • New Age movement • Theosophical Society • Ascended masters • Channels • UFO’s • Shirley MacLaine’s Out On a Limb (1983) • Millennialism to healing
  • 6. Roots of the New Age 1 • Transcendentalists • New Thought (affirmations) • Theosophists • “I AM” movement of Guy Ballard (1878-1939) • Arcane School of Alice Bailey (1880-1949) • Aetherius Society of George King (1954)
  • 7. Roots of the New Age 2 • Quantum physics • Humanistic psychology • Parapsychology • Holistic healers • Astrologers • Asian gurus • Native American teachers
  • 8. New Age Religion • Social thinkers: ordinary religion, ethics • Individually oriented actors: extraordinary religion, ritual and “symbolic behavior” • “universe” and “energy” and “chakras” and “planet” and “healing” (credo) • New Age ethic = personal responsibility and progress • Ritual work = small groups and communities, not churches, includes meditation. – Harmonial ritual (Reiki) – Imaginal ritual (Shamanic journeying) • New Spirituality – Robert Bellah and “Sheilaism” – Deepak Chopra – Eckhart Tolle, etc.
  • 9. Contraction: Conservative Religion Comes of Age 1. Introduction 2. Fundamentalist and Evangelical Identity 3. The Religion of the Fundamentalist- Evangelical Movement
  • 10. 1. Introduction to 20th century Protestant Fundamentalism Four Characteristics of 19th-century American Christianity influencing emergence of Fundamentalism: 1. Biblical Realism or Conservative Christianity 2. Limited view of Science 3. Dispensationalism or Prophetic Movement 4. Holiness Movement
  • 11. Dispensationalism • Postmillennialism: belief that gospel will spread with the supernatural help of the Holy Spirit; optimistic view of American civilization as the “New Israel”, the “city on a hill”; culture would be transformed into the Kingdom of God - a golden age of Christianity culminating in the return of Christ. This was dominant view until 1875. • Premillennialism (millenarianism): as postmillennialism was secularized into the Social Gospel, the supernatural agency of the Holy Spirit seemed to be left out; evangelicals turned to a more pessimistic view of American civilization and culture; world seen in declension with dramatic supernatural return of Christ before establishing the golden age of Christianity. Based on biblical prophecy (e.g. Daniel 9:24, Rev. 20:4-6). • Dwight L. Moody: “I look upon this world as a wrecked vessel. God has given me a lifeboat and said to me, ‘Moody, save all you can.’” • Prophecy: Old Testament had been viewed as foreshadowing of New Testament and life of Jesus - as continuous. New view of prophecy stresses discontinuity - distinct “ages” or dispensations (5=age of law, post exodus Israel; 6=current age of grace; 7=age of tribulation, 7 years of tumult followed by millennial kingdom of Christ). – Pretribulation: most believe Christians get “raptured” before the 7 years of suffering. – Posttribulation: some believe Christians will suffer for the sins of this dispensation, and get “raptured” after the years of suffering.
  • 12. 20th Century Setting 1. Publication of The Fundamentals - a development from within Conservative Christianity in America. 2. World War I - an influence from outside America 3. Higher Criticism - another influence from outside, but taken up by Liberal Christians within America. 4. Teaching Evolution in Schools and the Scopes Trial - the militant reaction against secular culture and modernism.
  • 13. • Curtis Lee Laws (1868-1946) coined the term “fundamentalist” in 1920 during a protest of the Northern Baptist Convention. * 12 booklets published 1910-1915, edited by A. C. Dixon, authored by conservative scholars and popular writers. * 3 million copies distributed free by wealthy businessmen Lyman and Milton Stewart. 1. The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth 1) Inerrancy of Scripture 2) Divinity of Jesus 3) Virgin Birth 4) Trinity and 5) Christ’s Death, Resurrection, and Second Coming
  • 14. More on “The Fundamentals” • Nothing said about dispensationalism or premillenialism, social or political issues - all this gets associated with Fundamentalism later… • Other topics besides Biblical authority and the theological issues mentioned above are: evangelism, missions, prayer, personal piety, and the menace of Mormonism, Catholicism, Liberalism. • Main point is that Christian faith must be defended, “real” science would “prove” the faith - if it is not biased against supernaturalism (essential to the faith). • Many authors later regretted being associated with “Fundamentalism” - never very popular, but important as basic tenets.
  • 15. 2. World War I • Seen as result of modernism, Nietzschean Philosophy (equating power with moral superiority), and higher criticism. • This is what we will become if we abandon “true religion”… • Political events associated by Preachers with personal sin - like smoking, dancing, going to theatres…. • Sound familiar?
  • 16. 3. Higher Criticism of Bible German Theologians: Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), and Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872) apply rational, naturalistic, and historical principles to the Bible. Multiple authors for Old Testament, inconsistencies in New Testament, Q-Source, redactions, 2 authors of Isaiah, etc. Thomas F. Curtis’s The Human Element in the Inspiration of the Sacred Scriptures (1867)
  • 17. 4. Militancy and Battle Fronts • Scopes “Monkey” Trial: Dayton, Tenn. July 1925. • Found guilty, then reversed on technicality. • William Jennings Bryan (Dem. 2-time Pres candidate, fiery rhetorician) is cross-examined by Clarence Darrow (super- smart trial lawyer) and looks bad. Press makes it even worse. • Viewed as science v. religion, urban v. rural, North v. South • Another front was the winning over of congregations and forming new churches (often as splinter groups and new denominations).
  • 18. Decline and Resurrection • After Scopes Trial in 1925, due to press and public opinion, Fundamentalism was caricatured as poor, uneducated, stubbornly narrow-minded, simple, etc. • Went from a loose, but influential coalition of conservatives in 1920’s to a rigid, militant, and defensive subculture after 1925. • Written off as marginal and obscure by Conservatives and Liberals alike. • Internal strife and defections left only the splinter churches and new denominations struggling for membership. So how did they make their come back?
  • 19. Why the Success of Fundamentalism? • A sense of certainty and refuge in the midst of a hostile anti- Christian culture. • Lack of national cohesion allows grass-roots development. • Evangelicalism, Depression, WWII. • Role of Church to save souls and make everyone lay evangelists - limited and simple, but it worked. • Bible schools, Sunday-school curricula, summer retreats, radio shows. • Irony of appropriation of modern technology to spread the gospel.
  • 20. Billy Graham (b. 1918) Graham’s 1949 L.A. Crusade: 1) followed a period of Graham’s own self-questioning - he is “fully surrendered” and “convicted”. 2) friction from local clergy, unsure how much support to give 3) lots of media attention because of Hollywood celebrities; and 4) was VERY successful and popular. 3 weeks expanded to 8 weeks.
  • 21. Contemporary Contraction • American Council of Christian Churches (fundamentalist) • National Association of Evangelicals (moderate) • Fuller Theological Seminary • “new evangelicalism” • Christianity Today
  • 22. Culture Wars? • School Prayer • Teaching of Evolution in Schools • Gay rights/marriage • Ten Commandments in Courts • Abortion • Divorce • Religious Organizations in Schools • Faith-Based Initiative • Religious Discourse in Politics
  • 23. Fundamentalist or Evangelical • 1995 Left Behind series of 14 books Tim LaHaye & Jerry Jenkins - 55 million sold • 1970 Late Great Planet Earth by Hal Lindsey • Premillennial dispensationalism (Fund.) • Sin AND grace in the world (Evangelicalism)
  • 24. Regional Religion (Contraction) • Megachurches (2000+ members) • Saddleback Church: 80,000 members • Christian Reconstructionism • Dominion Theology • Vineyard Christian Fellowship - 600+ churches (holiness- pentecostal)
  • 25. Televangelism • Pat Robertson “700 Club” • Jerry Falwell’s “Old Time Gospel Hour” • Rex Humbard’s “Cathedral of Tomorrow” • Jim Bakker’s “PTL Club” • Jimmy Swaggart • Robert Schuller’s “The Hour of Power”
  • 26. “Armchair Religion”? Televangelism: • The “Electronic Church” • Some Pentecostal, some not • Most promoted right-wing causes with little relationship with religion (economic success = God’s approval) • All directed at upwardly mobile • All VERY ambitious, modern-day prophets • Demanded little action except mailing in checks • Evangelicals and their constituents not very political, less inclined to register and vote UNTIL 1980….
  • 27. Politics and Religion • 1950’s Fundamentalist Anti- Communist organizations: – Billy James Hargis’ “Christian Anticommunist Crusade” – American Council of Churches • 1979: Moral Majority (Jerry Falwell) • Ronald Reagan, 1980 • 1980: 29% evangelical ministers registered Republican, by 1984, 60%. • Christian Coalition (Pat Robertson) • Focus on the Family (James Dobson)
  • 28. Progressive Evangelicals • Radical Evangelicals • Sojourners Ministries • Sojourners magazine • Jim Wallis and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School (1975) • Evangelical Environmental Network (EEN) • Creation Care magazine
  • 29. The Religion • (creed) “getting saved” and “coming to Jesus” and the “sinner’s prayer” and being “born again” • “holiness” = strict morality (code) • (cultus) “worship life” = bible groups, bible study, prayer, mission, witnessing; rhetorical and emotional patterns • Bill McCartney’s Promise Keepers (1990-1997) related to the Men’s Movement of the New Age • Strict separation of ordinary and extraordinary, clear boundaries, high “walls to consolidate a community” (250).
  • 30. Conclusions • Pluralism -> conflict • Postpluralism -> expansion, combinationism • Liberals and conservatives actually very similar? – Millennial themes – Direct experience – Personal transformation – Ongoing revelation – Need for healing – Common language – Literalness in belief – Democracy of believers – New forms of community • Patterns of expansion and contraction are BOTH part of our cultural system, related, and mutually dependent…!! ***