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20.) physical (optics copper and power)

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An alternative to the core/aggregation/access layer network topology has emerged known as leaf-spine. In a leaf-spine architecture, a series of leaf switches form the access layer. These switches are fully meshed to a series of spine switches. One way is to create a Spine and Leaf architecture, also known as a Distributed Core. This architecture has two main components: Spine switches and Leaf switches. Intuition Systems can think of spine switches as the core, but instead of being a large, chassis-based switching platform, the spine is composed of many high-throughput Layer 3 switches with high port density. The mesh ensures that access-layer switches are no more than one hop away from one another, minimizing latency and the likelihood of bottlenecks between access-layer switches. When networking vendors speak of an Ethernet fabric, this is generally the sort of topology they have in mind.

Haven’t we spent the last few decades disaggregating datacenter architecture? And if so, what does disaggregation mean now, is it something different? Strictly speaking, to “disaggregate” means to divide

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20.) physical (optics copper and power)

  1. 1. L1 - Optics, Copper and Power…
  2. 2. L1 Networking (Wavelengths) Medium Physical Layer Repeater Medium Physical Layer
  3. 3. Ethernet Optical Modules XENPAK XPAK X2 300 Pin MSA 100G 10G 1G 40G 100GbE 40GbE DataRateandLineRate(b/s) Key: Ethernet Standard Released Module Form Factor Released GbE CFP QSFP+ SFP GBIC 10GbE SFP+ XFP CFP2 QSFP28 CFP4 CXP 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Standard Completed
  4. 4. Basics of Photonics Single mode  only one signal can be transmitted  use of single frequency Multi mode  Several signals can be transmitted  Several frequencies used to modulate the signal Losses in optical fibers  Attenuation loss  Dispersion loss  Waveguide loss Losses in optical fibers  To connect to fibers mechanically or by fusion  Lot of signal loss possible  Very accurate alignment necessary  Most important cost factor  Now being replaced by optical amplifiers Optical Receivers  Must be very sensitive  Capable of picking up and amplifying signals of nanowatts  Photodiodes and phototransistors  These devices get ‘turned ON’ by light  Produce photocurrent
  5. 5. Multi-Mode vs. Single-mode Basics Electrical Connector Electrical Connector Transceiver Transceiver Fiber Optic Cable Transmit & Receive Transmit & Receive Optical Port Optical Port Optical Transmitter - a device that converts electrical signal into optical signal Lasers or LEDS Fiber Connector Type
  6. 6. Low and High-speed Channels in Medium Channel 1 Channel 2 One cable with a bandwidth of 220 MHz. 50 Mhz 150 Mhz 5 Mhz 5 Mhz 10 Mhz Guard Bands
  7. 7. 1G SFP - Data Link Using Multiple Switches 10/100/1000 BASE-T SX LX ZX BX FX100/ LX1000 LX100 Media type Copper MMF SMF SMF SMF SMF/MMF SMF Connector type RJ-45 LC LC LC LC LC LC Distance range up to 100m (Cat 5) up to 550m up to 10km up to 80km up to 10km up to 2km/10km up to 100km Original Signal Received Signal Received Signal Received SignalRegenerated Signal Regenerated Signal UTP UTP62.5/125 Multimode Fiber 100BASE-TX (100 m maximum) Physical Link 100BASE-TX (100 m maximum) Physical Link 1000BASE-SX (220 m maximum) Physical Link Each trunk line along the way has a distance limit
  8. 8. Fiber Physical Layer Standards Medium 850 nm light (inexpensive) Multimode fiber Maximum Run Length Speed 1000BASE-SX 275 m1 Gbps 1000BASE-SX 500 m1 Gbps 1000BASE-SX 220 m1 Gbps 1000BASE-SX 550 m1 Gbps Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 62.5 microns 160 MHz-km 62.5 200 50 400 50 500 The 1000BASE-SX standard dominates trunk links today. Carriers use 1310 and 1550 nm light and single-mode fiber.
  9. 9. Proprietary “got you” Keyed Optics 1m~10m Passive Copper Active Fiber Optics + MTP Cable Passive Fan-out Copper Cable Optics + Fan-out Fiber Cable Extreme Networks will restrict the integration of non- qualified 3rd party optical devices within 40G and 100G product environments, unless you purchase the EXOS 3rd Party 40G/100G Optics feature license to allow such integration. DAC Cables DIRECT ATTACH CABLES (DAC) SFP+ (10G) and QSFP+ (40G) copper 10G-CX4
  10. 10. Ethernet in the First Mile later added 1000BASE-LX10 and -BX10. Definition: a device that combines and split lights with different wavelengths
  11. 11. Dual-fiber vs Single-fiber Dual-fiber vs Single-fiber  Dual-fiber is the standard mode of transmission where there are two strands of fibers used: one strand for transmit (Tx) and the other strand for receive (Rx)  Single-fiber transmission uses only one strand of fiber for both transmit and receive (1310nm and 1490nm for 1Gbps; 1310nm and 1550nm for 100Mbps) Dual-fiber optics Single-fiber optics
  12. 12. Gigabit Standard Optical Functionality or Medium Specified distance 1000BASE-BX10 1000BASE BX-D SFP supports link length of up to 10km point to point on single mode fiber (1490nm TX/1310nm RX wavelength) at 1Gbps bidirectional. This optic uses an LC connector. Single-mode fiber, single-strand: 1,480 to 1,500 nm downstream, 1,260 to 1,360 nm upstream. *1000BASE-BX optics have two models and must be used in a pair. 1000BX is a technology that allows 1000BASE Ethernet connectivity via single fiber cable. 10 km 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-LX SFP supports link length of up to 10km on single mode fiber at 1Gbps. This optic works at 1310nm wavelength and uses an LC connector. Multi-mode fiber using 1,270 to 1,355 nm wavelength 550 meters 1000BASE-LX100 LX100 SFP supports link length of up to 100km on single mode fiber at 1Gbps. This optic works at 1550nm wavelength and uses an LC connector. 100 km 1000BASE-LX10 Single-mode fiber using 1,260 to 1,360 nm wavelength. 1000BASE-LX SFP supports link length of up to 10km on single mode fiber at 1Gbps. This optic works at 1310nm wavelength and uses an LC connector. 10 km 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-SX SFP supports link length of up to 550m (depending on fiber type) on multimode fiber at 1Gbps. This optic works at 850nm wave- length and uses an LC connector. Multi-mode fiber using 770 to 860 nm wavelength. FDDI (62.5 µm) 220 m OM1 (62.5 µm) 275 m OM2 (50 µm): 550 m 1000BASE-T Twisted-pair cabling (Cat-5, Cat-5e, Cat-6, Cat-7) 100 meters 1000BASE-TX Twisted-pair cabling (Cat-6, Cat-7) 100 meters 1000BASE-ZX 1000BASE-ZX SFP supports link length of up to 80km on single mode fiber at 1Gbps. This optic works at 1550nm wavelength and uses an LC connector. Single-mode fiber at 1,550 nm wavelength. 80 KM
  13. 13. Optical-to-electrical pluggables Electrical-to-electrical pluggables uses copper cabling as its transmission medium Standalone copper cable ·Up to 100m ·Works with separate copper pluggable Passive copper cable ·Up to 10m ·Copper pluggable is integrated with copper cable Active copper cable ·Up to 15m ·Copper pluggable is integrated with copper cable ·Active components increase reach Active optical cable Multi-mode fiber Single-mode fiber Up to 100m Up to 300m Up to 100km
  14. 14. LaserWire SFPwire » Active Optical Cable SFPwire 10G Ethernet SFP+ Active Optical Cable Quadwire 4x10G (40G) Ethernet and Infiniband QDR QSFP Active Optical Cable With reaches up to 30 meters, the Quadwire Fan-Out active optical cable is ideally suited for high-density 10G Ethernet, InfiniBand QDR, and other datacom and high-performance computing applications
  15. 15. 10GBASE-LRM (IEEE 802.3aq: Long Reach on FDDI-grade Multimode Fiber)  10 Gigabit Ethernet optical interface that will support a 300 meter distance on “FDDI grade” multimode fiber (62.5mm, 160/500 or 200/500 Mhz*km MMF).  At least achieve 220 meters on installed 500 MHz*km multimode fiber and achieve a distance of 300 meters on multimode fiber  Pricing less than or equal to the price of 10GBASE-LR. This standard will require the use of a 1310nm laser, hence the price comparison to 10GBASE-LR LRM objectives Making the switch from 62.5- to 50- micron fiber
  16. 16. Reach 10GBASE-ZR 10GBASE-ER 10GBASE-LR 10GBASE-LRM 10GBASE-LX4 10GBASE-SR 10GBASE-T 10GBASE-CX4 SFP+ Direct AttachPassive Copper Infiniband 4x 1310nm LAN WWDM MMF Category6a UTP 1310nm LAN Serial MMF 850nm WAN Serial MMF 1310nm LAN Serial SMF 1550nm LAN Serial SMF 1550nm LAN Serial SMF 1310nm LAN WWDM SMF
  17. 17. Interconnect AKA Connector[13] Medium Media type Wav Max range Notes 10GBASE-USR Ultra short reach 2011 X2, SFP+ Fiber Serial multi-mode 850 nm 100 or 150 m vendor-specific, 10GBASE-SR Short reach 2002 XENPAK, X2, XFP, SFP+ Fiber Serial multi-mode 850 nm OM3: 300 m OM4: 400 m 10GBASE-LR Long reach 2002 XENPAK, X2, XFP, SFP+ Fiber Serial single-mode 1310 nm 10 km 10GBASE-ER Extended reach 2002 XENPAK, X2, XFP, SFP+ Fiber Serial single-mode 1550 nm 40 km 10GBASE-ZR - XENPAK, X2, XFP, SFP+ Fiber Serial single-mode 1550 nm 80 km Not covered by IEEE 802.3ae 10GBASE-LX4 2002 XENPAK, X2, SFP+ Fiber WDM multi-mode or single-mode 1310 nm 300 m (multimode) 10 km (single- mode) Costly and complex, replaced by 10GBASE-LRM 10GBASE-LRM Long reach multi- mode 2006 XENPAK, X2, SFP+ Fiber Serial multi-mode 1310 nm 220 m 10GBASE-CX4 2004 XENPAK, X2 Copper twinaxial - 15 m Four lanes, each at 3.125 Gbit/s expensive SFP+ Direct Attach DA, "10GBASE- CR" 2006 SFP+ Copper Twinaxial 2-pair - 15 m Cheap, low latency, low power 10GBASE-T 2006 8P8C Copper Class E channel using category 6, Class Ea channel using 6a or 7 twisted pair - 55 m (Class E cat 6) 100 m (Class Ea cat 6a or 7) Can reuse existing cables, high port density, relatively high power
  18. 18. UTP characteristics UTP categories • Unshielded • Twisted (why?) pairs of insulated conductors • Covered by insulating sheath Category 1 Voice only (Telephone) Category 2 Data to 4 Mbps (Local talk) Category 3 Data to 10Mbps (Ethernet) Category 4 Data to 20Mbps (Token ring) Category 5 Category 5e Data to 100Mbps (Fast Ethernet) Data to 1000Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) Category 6 Data to 2500Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet)
  19. 19. Universal PoE (UPOE) IEEE 802.3at (PoE+) Cat5e 30W Cat5e 30W30W 60W UPOE Uses standard RJ45 connectors and Category 5e or higher cabling  Intelligent power redundancy extended to devices. Consolidate UPS infrastructure  The UTP consists of two copper conductors, each having their own insulating material (e.g. plastic), intertwined with each other to cancel induced current.  The reason for placing twist in the pair of wires is to minimize the vulnerability of the twisted pair cable to external electrical noise.
  20. 20. End-span powering • Create enterprise edge policies Deploy Automated Power Savings modules and policies to switches 1 2 Time triggered event 3 Profiles to power off the IP handsets on specified edge ports. 4 Mid-span (HUB) Power Injector
  21. 21. Power with Intelligence WiMax Why so much Power?  Samsung's NC220 zero client (Desktop).  BT's Netrix turret (Trading Rooms).  Oracle Sun Ray Clients (Thin Clients).  Other Switches or Access Points.  TelePresence or Security video-surveillance with pan/tilt/zoom Power sourcing equipment (PSE) IEEE 802.3az PoE PoE Plus UPOE Minimum cable type Cat5e Cat5e Cat5e IEEE standard definition 802.3af 802.3at Cisco proprietary Maximum power per PSE port 15.4W 30W 60W Maximum power to PD 12.95W 25.5W 51W Twisted pair used 2-pair 2-pair 4-pair
  22. 22. Ethernet Physical Layer Standards UTP Physical Layer Standards Medium Required Maximum Run Length Speed 100BASE-TX 4-pair Category 5 or higher100 meters100 Mbps 1000BASE-T (Gigabit) 4-pair Category 5 or higher100 meters1,000 Mbps 10BASE-T 4-pair Category 3 or higher100 meters10 Mbps 2.5GBASE-T and 5GBASE-T 802.3bz downscaled 10GBASE-T for Cat 5e (2.5G) and Category 6 (5G) cabling 100 meters2 500 5 000 Mbps 10GBASE-T 802.3an THP PAM-16 coding. Uses cat 6a cable.100 meters10,000 Mbps 25GBASE-T 40GBase-T 802.3bq Under development, uses encoding from 10GBASE-T on proposed Cat 8.1/8.2 shielded cable 30 meters25 & 50,000 Mbps
  23. 23. Data Center Network in a Box  High fan-out modules  96 ports on a single I/O module  Up to 768 ports in one chassis  No oversubscription – Up to 128 Gbs per slot  MRJ 21 cabling  6:1 cabling reduction  Go straight from blade server directly to aggregation switch  Eliminate multiple physical network tiers  Blade switch  ToR switch Direct Attach – “Physically” Reducing Tiers 6-Port MRJ21 Copper Connector
  24. 24. MRJ-21 High Density Cabling (simplified deployment) Page 24
  25. 25. 2.5G/5G standard—known as IEEE 802.3bz Greenfield - Cat 6a (2.5, 5G & 10G) 100m Cat 6 (2.5G, 5G & 10G) 55m Brownfield - Cat 5e (2.5&5G) 100M Alliance members are promoting the development of 2.5G and 5G Ethernet to extend the life of the installed cable plant.  Data Centers with Copper based infrastructure  Many data centers have standardized on RJ45 cabling and do not want to replace with fiber  Wave 2 Wifi Why Copper based 10 Gigabit Ethernet  No re-cabling required  lower cost  More durable  operationally simple Cable type Max distance* Cat 7 Shielded 100 m Cat 6a Shielded 100 m Cat 6a Unshielded 100 m Cat 6 Shielded** 100 m Cat 6 Unshielded** 55 m NBASE-T Alliance
  26. 26. Why the focus on 10G, 40G and 100G? 45% Reduction in Power per Rack 80% Reduction in Cables and Switch ports 15% Reduction in Infra- structure Costs 2x Improved Bandwidth per Server GbE Server 10GbE Serve
  27. 27. Area of Focus (Intra- rack) Leaf or Spine Switch Top of Rack Switch Focus of Cost Comparison
  28. 28. 40Gb Ethernet QSFP+ Passive copper cable Active copper cable Active optical cable Media type Connector type Copper Not applicable Copper Not applicable MMF Not applicable Image Distance range up to 5m up to 10m up to 100m ·QSFP+ (or QSFP) · Aggregated 4 lanes of 10G to provide 40G SR LR ER Media type MMF SMF SMF Connector type MPO LC LC Distance range up to 100m up to 10km up to 40km
  29. 29. 10 Gigabit Ethernet on QSFP+ - QSFP+ to SFP+ Adapter – Single 10Gb Port QSFP-SFPP-ADPT – QSFP to SFP+ adapter  Mechanical adapter which allows a single SFP+ transceiver to be supported in a QSFP+ port  SFP+ transceiver or Direct Attach Cable is inserted into the adapter  Adapter connects to a single 10 Gigabit lane of the QSFP+ port QSFP-SFPP-ADPT 1 x ETS SFP+ - Multi-mode or single mode transceiver, or Direct Attach Cable (10GB-LRM-SFPP not supported)
  30. 30. 40Gb Transceivers 40GB-LR4-QSFP QSFP+ LC Duplex Single Mode Fiber 10 km 4 Lane WDM 1271 / 1291 / 1311 / 1331 -4.0 / 2.3 -11.5 / 3.3 40GB-SR4-QSFP QSFP+ MPO Parallel Fiber Parallel 8 Multi-mode OM3 50 µm OM4 50 µm 100 m 150 m 4 Lanes 850 -7.6 / 2.4 -9.5 / 2.4 40Gb Direct Attach Cables and Adapters 40GB-C0.5-QSFP QSFP+ QSFP+ Copper 0.5 m - - - 40GB-C01-QSFP QSFP+ QSFP+ Copper 1 m - - - 40GB-C03-QSFP QSFP+ QSFP+ Copper 3 m - - - 40GB-C07-QSFP QSFP+ QSFP+ Copper 7 m - - - 40GB-F10-QSFP QSFP+ QSFP+ Fiber 10 m 850 - - 40GB-F20-QSFP QSFP+ QSFP+ Fiber 20 m 850 - - 10GB-4-C03-QSFP QSFP+ SFP+ 1 x QSFP+ 4 x SFP+ Copper 3 m - - - QSFP-SFPP-ADPT QSFP+ 1 x SFP+ Adapter supports 1 x SFP+ transceiver in QSFP+ port - - -
  31. 31. Multiple lanes of traffic per channel. Connector = MPO MPO cable contains multiple optical fibers inside (typically12 fibres) 10G Connector = LC 40GBASE-SR4 MPO connector QSFP+ Optics side 40GBASE-SR4 can support  4 x 10GBASE-SR with break- out cable  MPO to 8xLC cable (figure on right)  40 GbE Passive Copper Up to 3 Meters  40 GbE Active Fiber Up to 100 Meters 40GBASE-SR4 uses 8 fibers (4 in and 4 out)
  32. 32. Hybrid fan out cables 40Gb/s QSFP+ QSFP+ to SFP+ Passive Copper Cable Assemblies QSFP+ SFP+ “fiber-to-the-chip” technology
  33. 33. 40G & 100G Standards Distance and media type at least 10 m over copper cable at least 100 m over OM3 MMF at least 125 m over OM4 MMF at least 10 km over SMF at least 40 km over SMF 40 Gigabit Ethernet 40GBASE-CR4 40GBASE-SR4 40GBASE-SR4 40GBASE-LR4 100 Gigabit Ethernet 100GBASE-CR10 100GBASE-SR10 100GBASE-SR10 100GBASE-LR4 100GBASE-ER4 MPO Connector & Multi-fiber cable Front view of MPO connector ferrule (When using a 12 fiber cable, the middle 4 fibers are unused) MPO = “Multi-fiber Push On” 40GB-SR4-QSFP & 40GB-ESR4-QSFP and Parallel Multi-Mode Fiber
  34. 34. 40GB-LR4-QSFP for Single Mode Fiber • 40GBASE-LR4 for single mode fiber uses a standard single pair of G.652 compliant single mode fiber to support 40Gb Ethernet • 40GBASE-LR4 transceivers use integrated coarse wave division multiplexing (CWDM) to transmit 4 separate wavelengths over a single fiber – Each wavelength carries a 10Gbps lane – Wavelengths from the four separate lasers are mixed on transmit and separated on receive side by the integrated CWDM multiplexor in the transceiver • Supports distances of up to 10Km • The 40GB-LR4-QSFP transceiver uses a standard LC duplex connector 40GB-LR4-QSFP in 4 x 10Ggig mode One pair of Standard Single Mode Fiber One fiber for Tx, one for Rx LR4 Wavelengths: 1271nm / 1291nm / 1311nm / 1331nm Each wavelength runs at 10Gbps QSFP+ 40GBASE-LR4 40GB-LR4-QSFP in 4 x 10Ggig mode QSFP+ 40GBASE-LR4
  35. 35. 10 Gigabit Ethernet on QSFP+ - 40GB-LR4-QSFP for Single Mode Fiber  Break out individual LR4 CWDM channels to individual10Gb Ethernet fiber pairs  A compatible standalone CWDM Mux is used to break out & combine individual 10Gb Ethernet links  Use CWDM 10 Gb SMF transceivers compatible with the LR4 wavelengths  Distances up to 7Km supported with a single CWDM mux CWDM Mux/Demux 10GB-LR271-SFPP 10GB-LR291-SFPP 10GB-LR311-SFPP 10GB-LR331-SFPP 40GB-LR4-QSFP in 4 x 10Ggig mode Single Pair Single Mode Fiber LR4 Wavelengths: 1271nm / 1291nm / 1311nm / 1331nm 10Gb CWDM SFP+ Transceivers QSFP+ Transceiver MUX-CWDM-01
  36. 36. MUX-CWDM-01 - 4 Channel CWDM Mux/Demux Model Number Description 10GB-LR271-SFPP 10Gb CWDM LR, SM, Channel 1271nm, LC 10GB-LR291-SFPP 10Gb CWDM LR, SM, Channel 1291nm, LC 10GB-LR311-SFPP 10Gb CWDM LR, SM, Channel 1311nm, LC 10GB-LR331-SFPP 10Gb CWDM LR, SM, Channel 1331nm, LC MUX-CWDM-01 4 Channel O-Band CWDM Mux/Demux MUX-RACK-01 Rack mount kit for MUX-CWDM-01 40GB-LR4-QSFP 40Gb 40GBASE-LR4, SM 10Km, LC  By using multiplexers with optical wiring, speeds up 40 GbE may be obtained.  With wavelength division multiplexing, separate colors are multiplexed, sent together, and de-multiplexed at the receiving end.
  37. 37. DWDM Tunable Transceiver  Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) solutions allow multiple wavelengths to be muxed onto one fiber pair channel  “Dense” refers to the large number of possible channels. Up to 102 channels are possible. 16 – 32 channel density is most commonly deployed.  Tunable for 102 DWDM channels  up to 80Km – with practical use of 40-50Km  Tunable DWDM EXOS CLI commands for programming transceiver  Requires customer DWDM MUX SFP+ ZR DWDM Tunable Transceiver Model# 10325
  38. 38. 40Gb QSFP+ LM4 – MMF / SMF Transceiver  Single mode/multi-mode -- Cheaper LR4 alternative for SMF distances upto 1km  Uses single pair fiber w/LC duplex connector – (no special MPO fiber)  Internal CWDM to leverage single fiber, MMF- 140M on OM3, 160M on OM4 Single Mode fiber Mutli-Mode fiber or 40G ER4 QSFP+ 40G LR4 QSFP+ 40G LR4 PSM QSFP+ 40G LM4 QSFP+ 40G SR4 QSFP+ Fiber Type Single-Mode (SMF) Single-Mode (SMF) Single-Mode (SMF) SMF and MMF Multi-Mode (MMF) Connector Type Duplex LC Duplex LC 8 Fiber MPO APC Duplex LC 8 Fiber MPO Launch Power 4.5 - -2.7dBm 2.3 - -7dBm 1.5 - -6dBm 4.3 - -7dBm -7.3dBm Receiver Power Range -4.5 - -21.2dBm 2.3 ~ -13.7dBm 2.3 - -12.7dBm 4.3 - -10dBm -1 ~ -9.9dBm Center Wavelength 1271/1291/1311/1331nm 1271/1291/1311/1331nm 1310nm 1271/1291/1311/1331nm 850nm Distance Range 40km (minimum of 9dB attenuation) 2m to 10km 2m to 10Km 1km SMF / 140m OM3 MMF / 160m OM4 MMF 100m OM3 / 150m OM4 PART NO.E 10320 40GBASE-LR4 QSFP+ 40GBASE-LR4 SFP+, 1310nm, LC Connector, transmission length of up to 10km on SMF 10319 40GBASE-SR4 QSFP+ 40GBASE-SR SFP+, 850nm, MPO Connector, transmission length of up to 100m on OM3 or 150m on OM4 MMF 10326 40Gb LR4 PSM QSFP+ 40Gb LR4 Parallel Single Mode (PSM) QSFP+, 1310nm, 10km SMF, MPO 10327 MPO to 4 x LC Patch Cord SMF 10m MPO to 4 x LC duplex connectors, SMF fanout patch cord, 10m (for use with 10326 and 10Gb breakout) 10334 40Gb LM4 QSFP+ 40Gb LM4, 140m OM3 MMF, 1Km SMF, QSFP+, LC 10335 40Gb ER4 QSFP+ 40Gb ER4, 40Km SMF, QSFP+, LC
  39. 39. 40Gb QSFP+ ER4 40Km - 10335 Internal CWDM to leverage single fiber, 40Gb ER4 is a cost effective bandwidth upgrade compared to adding new long distance fibers.  40Gb ER4 is a derivative of 40Gb LR4 technology, Four wavelength CWDM transmitted over single fiber  Reach of up to 40 Km using a high sensitivity receiver (APD) Uses conventional LC interface using a single pair of SMF  Minimum 9dB attenuation required for optical path
  40. 40. 100G BDX8 Program – Time to Market Risk Mitigation Non-XL 100G Blade • XL blade challenges with TCAM integration puts schedule at serious risk • Critical delivery schedules driven by LINX and others • IXP do not require large table sizes enabled by TCAM • Risk mitigation plan: • Create version without TCAM - PCB spin with termination resistors • Still has 64k table entries – more than sufficient for IXP • Lower cost, lower power, lower heat, higher MTBF • LINX was very happy with this plan as they must deliver 100G to key CDN customer before June • XL TCAM development will continue in parallel with new non-XL version
  41. 41. 25G and 50G Ethernet
  42. 42. 100G Ethernet
  43. 43. IEEE 802.3ba The BlackDiamond X8 supports a wide variety of 100 gigabit optics, including CFP2 and the new CFP4 CFP form factor package (86x127x14 mm / 3.4”x5.0”x0.55”)  100 GbE, 40 km on SMF (4x 25G LAN WDM, centered at 1305nm)  100 GbE, 10 km on SMF (4x 25G LAN WDM, centered at 1305nm)  40 GbE, 10 km on SMF (4x 10G CWDM, centered at 1305nm)  100 GbE, 10 km on SMF (10x 10G CWDM, centered at 1550nm)  From Santur Corporation  100 GbE, 100 m on MMF (850 nm parallel optics, 10x 10G)  Among Extreme Networks newest products are the SR and the LR optics. These are based on CFP2 optics and are Extreme Networks first 100 gigabit Ethernet productsCXP form factor (approx 20x54x11 mm / 0.78”x2.13”x0.43”)  100 GbE, 100 m on MMF (850 nm parallel optics, 10x 10G)  100 GbE, 10 m on active cable  QSFP form factor (18.4x72x8.5 mm / 0.72”x2.8”x0.33”)  40 GbE, 100m on MMF (850 nm parallel optics, 4x 10G)  40 GbE, 10 m on active cable CFP CFP2 CFP4 • Competitive Offerings • Extreme Networks BDX • TBD  Purpose built for cloud-scale core deployments  Industry leading CFP2 standard based efficient optics  Roughly half the form-factor and power compared to existing CFP  Lower-cost short range (< 300m) connectivity with SR10  10 x 10G breakout option using MPO ribbon cable  Long range (< 10Km) connectivity with LR4 over single-mode fiber
  44. 44. If 400GbE is released in 2016, Ethernet speeds will grow at about 26%/year CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 CFP4-LR4 Duplex Single-Mode Fiber Infrastructure 100G Ethernet up to 10 km 400G Ethernet up to 10 km Parallel Single-Mode Fiber Infrastructure Only 8 Fibers Used
  45. 45. # 5 # 6 # 8 # 9 # 7 # 0 # 1 # 3 # 4 # 2 Mux/Demux in PCS Lanes 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 Mux/Demux Mux/Demux (2:5  5:10) 128 4 0 16 11 7 3 1915 10 6 2 18 14 9 5 1 17 13 16048 12 16048 12 16048 12 12 15193 11 7 15193 11 7 15193 11 7 11 7 14182610 14182610 14182610 14182610 14182610 13 17159 17159 100 GbE serial bit stream Each PCS Lane is 5G bit stream Mux/Demux (2:5  5:10) b bits aka: CFP MAC & PHY 8 4 0 16 12 3 19 15 11 7 10 6 2 18 14 13 9 5 1 17
  46. 46. Possible SMF Ethernet Road Map: 100G, 400G, 1.6T 4 x 100GBASE-LR4 or “400GBASE-PSM4” CD-CFP4(LC) CFP4(LC) CFP4(LC) CFP4(LC) CD-CFP(MPO) 400GBASE-??? CD-CFP2(LC)CFP4(LC) 4 x 400GBASE-??? or “1600GBASE-PSM4” CD-CFP4(LC) (High-Density 100GE) Early Adopter 400G Mature 400G Early Adopter 1.6T Parallel Single Mode, 4 Lanes (PSM4) 4, Tx Fibers and 4, Rx Fibers 1x12 MPO Connector CD-CFP2(MPO) CD-CFP4(LC) CD-CFP4(LC) CD-CFP4(LC)
  47. 47. Limited Bandwidth of Installed Optical Spectrum Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing  50 GHz carrier spacing for installed DWDM equipment  100 Gb/s pushes spectrum of information to this limit