2. Learning Objectives
Understand what is a learning organization and how can learning be
facilitated in an organization.
Know the entire process of training.
Know multiple methods of designing content and delivery for a
Know how to evaluate a training programme against the training
Understand a management development programme.
3. “Smell the cheese often so you know when it is getting old.”
“The quicker you let go of old cheese, the sooner you find
“Movement in a new direction helps you find new cheese.”
- Quotes from “Who Moved My Cheese” is a business fable
written by Spencer Johnson, M.D.
4. Learning, Training, Development and Education
Education: Experience which forms the knowledge base that underpins activities that
an individual may engage in.
Learning: Permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or
experience. That may be due to attainment of new knowledge, and skills.
Development: Skills and abilities get enhanced through conscious and unconscious
learning and growth of individuals.
Training: Narrower focus than education and learning. It tends to concentrate on skill
development. Post training, it is clear about what people are to achieve.
Learning and development can be defined as a collective progress which aids the
organizational process through facilitation, collaborative and expert stimulation and in
depth knowledge which helps in achieving business goals
5. Learning and Development
Learning strategies of an organization needs to look at both levels:
Organizational learning is all about the way an organization learns and
adapts. It can also be called continuous learning systems
Individual Learning comprises interventions and activities which are
intended to improve knowledge and skills
in an organization to ensure success of the enterprise
6. Learning Organization
To regulate businesses
To sustain competitive advantage
Rate of learning>Rate of change in the world
What does it take to become one?
Learning Processes are built for experimentation, sharing
knowledge, and transferring it and learning from the past
Learning Environment supports and encourages learning,
tolerates errors and asking uncomfortable questions or even
Leadership that inspires learning and does not hesitate to
ask questions, show curiosity, admit when things go wrong and
is one which
and acts by
7. Training Process
It is a planned programme designed to improve performance
and to bring out measurable changes in knowledge, skills,
attitude and social behaviour of employees for doing particular
1. Training Need Assessment
2. Training Content
3. Training Delivery
4. Training Evaluation
8. Training Need Assessment
Analysis is done on:
Organization – Examination is done of the internal and
external environments of it, its human resources and strategic
objectives to identify areas within the organization where
training emphasis should be laid.
Person – identifies who in the organization will need training
and for what purpose
Task – Dissects a job into its different task components and
draws conclusion about KSA and behaviour needed to perform
successfully in the present and in the future
9. Training Content
1. Objectives of Training - spell out what
precisely the aim is to be achieved
2. Training Methods –
• programmed learning
• Business Games
• Role plays
• In-basket exercise
• Behaviour modelling
• Transactional analysis
• Fishbowl exercise
• Job instruction
3. Designing Training
10. Lecture Method
It as an exposition of a given subject delivered before an audience, for the purpose of
It is a quick and simple way to present information to a large audience.
However they are often looked upon as boring and ineffective
You can make a lecture interesting and interactive by:
An activity to follow the lecture – like a simple pen and paper quiz with an attractive
Active participation of the audience
An attractive visual support in the form of PowerPoint slides.
A handout with a key word outline and room to make notes.
Well placed humour
11. Case Method
It is an account or situation given to students who are asked to suggest answers
to a number of practical and theoretical issues raised.
Chain of events:
The school gives the Case Study to the student in advance
The student must read the case and imagine themselves as the
protagonist & decision maker.
They study the case, reflect on it, discuss it with their peers, consider the
pros and cons and arrive/analyze a potential decision
In the class, the professor guides the discussion
Learning happens by way of the different perspectives
This provides a risk free environment to practice decision making and to take
on complex concepts and realities of business
12. Syndicate Method
This method is similar to the case method, but there are multiple groups or syndicates as
against one large group.
The learning audience is split into 5-6 groups of 10-12 people.
The formation of the groups is done as to enhance the learning
The groups are given assignments
Each group has to select a leader and a secretary and with each task the position is taken
on by different members of the group.
The leader leads the discussion and makes it simple and easy to follow – the secretary
records the proceedings.
The leader uses these notes to present these results to the rest.
The report prepared and submitted is circulated among the other groups for comparative
study and critical evaluation.
The leader of the group presents his group’s views in the joint session and justifies it in
case of criticism or questions
13. Programmed Learning
It includes learning machines, auto instruction, automatic instruction and
This is a system of teaching and learning which has been applied to
training and education now.
In this the subject-matter is broken down into small, discrete steps and
carefully organized into a logical sequence in which it can be learned
readily by the students.
Each step builds upon the previous one.
Basic Purpose: To give sufficient information to the learners and then
test their authority on that before moving on.
This ensures full participation by the trainee and immediate feedback to
14. Business Games
A classroom exercise where usually teams
compete against one another.
The design of the games is such that it represents
real life conditions.
Under this method trainees learn to work in a
team in a simulated business environment.
15. Role Plays
Used for training purposes, it is a simulation in which trainees are required to act out
the role of an individual in any scenario whatsoever.
It provides participation, involvement and the opportunity for action learning. They
act scenes out in a protected environment.
Their behaviour, speech and feelings for that duration forms the basis for self
appraisal and feedback from others who are observing; from this they learn which
behaviour, words and approaches are effective.
A role play can be used to:
Practice effective communication and interpersonal skills
Practice approaches to forthcoming real life situations
Replay a situation that wasn’t successfully handled and learn from it
Recognize a change in attitude and then practice it
Positive and well handled feedback can reinforce effective behaviour, instill
confidence and highlight specific areas for improvement
16. In-basket Exercise
It is a simulation activity, where the participants must sort and act on letters, reports,
notes, memos etc.
The participant has to respond in writing within a crucial, specified time limit.
Major component : To train the participant to respond to pressures at work place
and respond to deadlines
The following tips for writing in-basket items :
Bury a critical item at the end of the sequence of items
Put an important meeting on the calendar and have another important person
set another meeting at the same time.
Include a memo from a superior who requests that the trainee take some
action that is ethically or professionally questionable.
Include instances of inappropriate upward delegation.
Have a superior suggest a particular employee be delegated an assignment,
yet have other evidence in other items which indicate that the employee is not
17. Behaviour Modelling
Learning model behaviour.
First, the participants are shown model behaviour with the
help of a video in which the protagonist is handling a
certain situation in a model manner. (The choice of the
video depends on the objective of the training
After the participants have watched the video they are
given role plays in which they have to model the
behaviour which they have seen on the video.
This is followed by a feedback from the other participants
and then facilitator of the programme.
This process helps the participant internalize the learning
8 – 15 participants who learn about themselves through mutual interaction in
absolutely unfamiliar surroundings
No formalized agenda. Participants are encouraged to share their emotional
reactions under the guidance of a facilitator .
The stress is on sharing feelings and not evaluative judgments.
This helps them observe and learn how their words and actions trigger emotional
responses in people they communicate with.
The aim of the programme is to recognize and understand group processes, come
to terms with their own behaviour based on non judgmental feedback from the
facilitator and be more sensitive to others’ emotions.
Useful in areas as to resolve conflicts, ability to empathize with others, increasing
openness and tolerance to diverse points of view, improving listening skills and
opinions and people.
20. Fishbowl Exercise
There are two groups which have to be involved
One group; the discussion group are made to sit in an "inner ring”,
surrounded by the observation group, the "outer ring”
The inner ring is given an activity which may be a discussion or any other
activity while the outer ring observes.
Once the inner ring has completed the activity both rings swap positions.
The same process is repeated
The learning happens through the process of constructive feedback by the
groups to one another.
This could be used as a part of behaviour training or as a Training
It overcomes barriers to communication such as pressure to conform from
peers, ‘professional detachment’ and intimidation.
22. Job Instruction
An instructor first “Tells” and verbally explains to the trainee what he is
going to be training him to do.
Then he “Shows” and demonstrates the activity whilst giving verbal
After he has demonstrated, he lets the trainee “Try” and practice the new
skill. He supervises, assists and gives feedback.
Now the trainee is confident to carry out the new skill and the trainer
leaves him to do that
He may be around for help/advice if he sees the requirement to do so or
when the trainee seeks active help
A method in which trainees learn a craft
or trade by hands on experience while working with
a skilled worker, usually under a written or implied
An apprentice is selected by the employer to work for
a pre agreed time frame in return for the opportunity
to learn a trade or a skill.
The training is a combination of formal classroom
sessions and on-the-job training under the supervision
of an expert.
The trainees’ basic expenses are taken care of and they
are given a stipend during this period
Coaching is a one-on-one process that enables development to occur and
Two Major Types:
Personal Coaching improves life
Executive Coaching enhances executives’ performance
At first, the coach first assesses the personality traits and sees how he reacts
and handles various situations.
This creates a collaborative alliance with employees to establish goals and
pursue systematic and structured action plans until the goals are achieved.
The 4 Types are:
Coaching for Skills
Coaching for Performance
Coaching for Development
Coaching for an Executive’s Agenda
This refers to a personal developmental relationship in
which a more experienced or knowledgeable person
helps a less knowledgeable or experienced person.
It is the act of helping another learn and realize his
dreams by helping him discover his strengths and how to
leverage them; identify his shortcomings and how to
A good mentor can guide a mentee in all walks of life to
have a more fruitful experience and reinforce rapport at
each discussion .
The concept of mentoring finds it roots in the Indian
concepts of Shiksha, or learning through communication ,
Define the learning objective
Learners’ entry behavior needs to be articulated.
The learning programme has to be divided into learning steps which then need to be
sequenced. Some of the ways used:
Known to unknown
Simple to complex
Theory to practice
Concrete to general
General to particular
Part to whole
Rule to example (or vice versa)
Logical, thematic, chronological, building on previous knowledge (or one of the following)
• The training should be designed in a way to leave nothing to
• Steps must be well-documented –to ensure accurate delivery
• 'Train the trainers’ should be designed and conducted, and an
invigorating learning environment should be brought about.
A systemic determination of the attainment of
objectives set out for each sub-process of the
training design process
This will check if learners have achieved the
learning objective or not
33. Evaluation of Learning and
Kirkpatrick Model – used to measure the effectiveness by measuring the:
Training Metrics: Scorecard
A training scorecard measures the performance of the training function in
providing training programmes to the employees.
35. Management Development
Mintzberg (1973) groups managerial activities into:
Interpersonal roles Information processing
Then: Manager= Figurehead, Liaison, Leader, Monitor, Disseminator Of
Information, Spokesperson, Change Agent, Conflict Resolver, Resource
Allocator and Negotiator
Today: Manager=coaches ,Counsellors, Team Builders, Leaders and Project
New skills required: Project Management, Staff Development, IT Management,
Customer Orientation, Languages, Process Improvement, Cross Cultural Team
Learning initiatives built around these themes will constitute management