Rapid Prototyping for Instructional Designover Time
Rapid Prototyping for
Nadine Edwards, Jeannie Mullins, and Lou Papai
Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy
Steven D. Tripp and Barbara Bichelmeyer
"There is a design methodology called rapid prototyping which has been used
successfully in software engineering. Given the similarities between software
design and instructional design, we argue that rapid prototyping is a viable model
for instructional design, especially for computer-based instruction. Additionally, we
argue that recent theories of design offer plausible explanations for the apparent
success of rapid prototyping in software design. Such theories also support the
notion that rapid prototyping is appropriate for instructional design. We offer
guidelines for the use of rapid prototyping and list possible tradeoffs in its
Theories, templates, and tools for designing and developing instructional hypermedia systems
Managing courseware production:
An instructional design model with a software engineering approach
Chia-Shing Yang, David M. Moore and John K. Burton
"To ensure the instructional appropriateness of courseware, an ID model is
proposed to remind producers of the important instructional factors and process."
"This model contains three stages. The analysis stage draws out and documents
background information. The development stage constructs content,
measurement, strategies, media, and settings. This stage can be further divided
into "prototype design" and "formal production." The last stage is the evaluation
stage which includes pilot testing and summative evaluation."
Rapid collaborative prototyping as an instructional development paradigm
Laura T. Dorsey, David A. Goodrum, and Thomas M. Schwen
"When compared to the traditional phased ISD model, analysis, design, and
evaluation are qualitatively different in rapid collaborative prototyping. The three
components no longer exist as distinct activities in separate phases, but occur
simultaneously. In fact, dissecting them for a one-to-one comparison between the
two approaches runs the risk of losing sight of a critical and defining characteristic
of the rapid collaborative prototyping process."
Rapid prototyping methodology in action: A developmental study
Toni Stokes Jones and Rita C. Richey
In trying to find out if RP can deliver on generating high quality products while
reducing design and development time, the authors found that: "In general, the
two projects studied show ID efforts that created products that were usable for a
conveniently long period of time without revision; delivered in a shorter period of
time than would have been expected using traditional techniques; and received by
satisfied customers who had been involved throughout their development. In other
words, the rapid prototyping methods lived up to their promised benefits."
A rapid prototyping model for the design and development of instructional systems in
theory and practice: A case study
David G. Twitchell
"This case study describes an instructional program developed with the U.S. A ir
Force to p rovide visual identification (VTD) training to pilots."
"Rapid prototyping models provided a speedy solution to these training needs. The
final product, produced in CD-ROM format, incorporates 3D aircraft models, virtual
3D rotations, and compressed video sequences. This learning tool resembles a
modern video game, allowing users to master difficult taxonomic classification and
discrimination tasks in an engaging, interactive, entertaining, and effective way."
Rapid prototyping in the instructional design process
Elizabeth Krick Nixon and Doris Lee
"Rapid Prototyping opens up the boundaries found in traditional models.“
"RP embraces complexity, encourages the exploration of multiple solutions through
the development of parallel models, and builds the reality of change, conflict, and
uncertainty into the process."
"Rapid Prototyping is also sensitive to resource management as part of the design
"Rapid Prototyping can produce fast, effective instruction, but designers must be
aware that the basic tenets of instructional design are not to be ignored but used in
a different way."
Rapid prototyping instructional design: Revisiting the ISD model
Jenny Daugherty, Ya-Ting Teng, and Edgard Cornachione
To solve the problem of "being able to develop a training product in less time
without loosing quality" the authors determined that:
“In this end, RP can be a useful method to increase the usability of training and to
reduce the cost and energy of revision."
An efficient way to collaboratively design and develop e-learning content
"This design method makes the design and development process open to new
emerging ideas; makes the design open to emerging needs from test and
evaluation phases; let's focus on pedagogical design (teaching) instead of course
materials preparation and technology; and stimulates discussion with external
partners" ("Rapid Prototyping" cited in Boulet, 2009, p. 5)
Rapid prototyping in instructional design: Creating competencies
Carolyn D. Fulton
This study was used to identify "knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs)" that are
used in an instructional design workplace.
"Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do
not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and
attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used
multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in
a rapid prototyping environment."
Rapid prototyping reconsidered
"Although in higher education rapid prototyping has been used primarily to design
interactive distance learning systems, the University of California Santa Cruz
Extension successfully employed this approach to produce an entire, new
curriculum at an unprecedented pace. The caliber of and response to the new
content, design, and delivery exceeded expectations on a variety of measures. This
experience indicates that rapid prototyping can be leveraged to not only produce
academic product on short time frames but also to meet institutional quality
standards while fulfilling marketplace needs for innovative new educational
Rapid prototyping of mobile learning games
Maija Federley, Timo Sorsa, Janne Paavilainen, Kimo Boissonnier, and Anu Seisto
In an ongoing project to explore RP to "efficiently produce digital learning solutions
that are commercially viable" the first phase, involving rapid game prototyping and
an iterative approach, saw positive results "as the first prototypes produced were
very useful as concrete presentations of the ideas for evaluation. In the next phase,
the game prototypes will be tested by teachers and pupils."
A qualitative case study of perceived value for instructional designers
Wilton Frank Dees
"The findings from the study strongly recommended the use of RP: 1) when the
instructional designer anticipated or predicted there would be implicit or explicit
pressure on the design team to save time and reduce costs; 2) when there was
ambiguity with respect to stakeholder goals or specifications; and 3) when it was
anticipated there would be communication difficulties between the stakeholders
and the design team."
Boulet, G. (2009). Rapid prototyping: An efficient way to collaboratively design and develop e-learning content. Retrieved August 14, 2016, from
Daugherty, J., Teng, Y., & Cornachione, E. (2007). Rapid prototyping instructional design: Revisiting the ISD model. ERIC. Retrieved August 14, 2016, from
Dees, W. F. (2015). Rapid-prototyping: A qualitative case study of perceived value for instructional designers (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University). ProQuest.
Desrosier, J. (2011). Rapid prototyping reconsidered. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education, 59(3), 135-145. doi:10.1080/07377363.2011.614881
Dorsey, L. T., Goodrum, D. A., & Schwen, T. M. (1997). Rapid collaborative prototyping as an instructional development paradigm. In C. R. Dills & A. J. Romiszowski (Eds.), Instructional
development paradigms (pp. 445-466). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Federley, M., Sorsa, T., Paavilainen, J., Boissonnier, K., & Seisto, A. (n.d.). Rapid prototyping of mobile learning games. 10th international conference mobile learning 2014 (pp. 294-298).
Fulton, C. D. (2010). Rapid prototyping in instructional design: Creating competencies (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University). ProQuest. Retrieved August 13, 2016, from
Gustafson, K. L., & Powell, G. C. (2002). The Dorsey, Goodrum and Schwen model. In Survey of instructional development models. Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information
Gutierrez, K. (2015). The Ins and Outs of Rapid Prototyping for eLearning. Retrieved August 8, 2016, from http://info.shiftelearning.com/blog/rapid-prototyping-for-elearning
Jones, T. S., & Richey, R. C. (2000). Rapid prototyping methodology in action: A developmental study. ETR&D Educational Technology Research and Development, 48(2), 63-80.
Nixon, E. K., & Lee, D. (2008). Rapid prototyping in the instructional design process. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 14(3), 95-116. doi:10.1111/j.1937-8327.2001.tb00220.x
Rapid prototyping. (n.d.). Retrieved August 14, 2016, from http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Rapid_prototyping
Tripp, S. D., & Bichelmeyer, B. (1990). Rapid prototyping: An alternative instructional design strategy. ETR&D Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 31-44.
Twitchell, D. (2001). A rapid prototyping model for the design and development of instructional systems in theory and practice: A case study (Ph.D. thesis, Utah State University).
Yang, C. (1994). Theories, templates, and tools for designing and developing instructional hypermedia systems (Unpublished master's thesis). Virginia Tech.
Yang, C., Moore, D. M., & Burton, J. K. (1995). Managing courseware production: An instructional design model with a software engineering approach. ETR&D Educational Technology
Research and Development, 43(4), 60-70. doi:10.1007/bf02300491
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