RASHTRASANT TUKDOJI MAHARAJ NAGPUR UNIVERSITY
SPECIALIZATION – HR
MODULE NO 5
STRATEGIES FOR TEAM BUILDING & OD
- Jayanti R Pande
Q1. Define team building. State the strategies for Team Building.
Team building is the process of creating a group of individuals who work together effectively and cohesively
towards achieving a common goal.
It involves activities and strategies that enhance communication, trust, respect, and cooperation among team
DEFINITION OF TEAM BUILDING
Team building is the process of improving team dynamics through activities and strategies that enhance
communication, collaboration, and trust among team members.
Johnson- “Team Building is defined as any planned event with a group of people who have or may have
common organisation relationships and/or goals which are designed to improve the way in which work gets
done by them in some way or another.”
STRATEGIES FOR TEAM BUILDING
STRATEGIES FOR TEAM BUILDING
1 Setting clear expectations:Teams work better when they have a clear understanding of what is
expected of them. Setting specific goals, roles, and responsibilities helps to establish a common purpose
2 Saying good things about other people:This involves giving positive feedback and recognition to
team members for their contributions. It helps to boost morale, motivation, and creates a positive
3 Encouraging collaboration: Encouraging teamwork and collaboration promotes the sharing of ideas,
knowledge, and skills. It also helps to build trust and respect among team members.
4 Asking questions: Asking questions helps to clarify issues, generate new ideas, and encourages
participation from all team members. It also helps to foster a culture of openness and transparency.
5 Developing friendships: Building friendships among team members outside of work through team
outings and social events can foster trust, rapport, and a positive team culture.
Q2. Explain the concept of OD. Give the process of OD.
CONCEPT OF OD [ Organisational Development ]
• Organizational development is a planned and systematic approach to improve an organization's
effectiveness and health.
• It involves a series of interventions, activities, and strategies designed to enhance the organization's
capacity to achieve its goals and adapt to changing environments.
• The goal of organizational development is to create a healthy and productive work environment that
promotes employee engagement, satisfaction, and growth while also improving organizational
performance and sustainability.
• It involves the use of behavioural science theories, techniques, and tools to diagnose organizational
problems, develop solutions, and facilitate change.
DEFINITION OF OD
Organizational Development (OD) is a planned and systematic approach to improve an organization's
effectiveness, health, and adaptability through behavioural science theories and techniques.
Lippitt G.L – “OD is the strengthening of those human processes in organisations, which improve the
functioning of the organic systems, so as to achieve it’s objectives.”
ENTRY & CONTRACTING
COLLECTING & ANALYSING DATA
FEEDBACK THE DIAGNOSED
DESIGNING OD INTERVENTIONS
LEADING & MANAGING CHANGE
EVALUATING & INSTITUTIONALISING
PROCESS OF OD
1 Entry and Contracting: Establishing a relationship with the client organization, defining the scope of work,
and outlining the objectives and expected outcomes.
2 Diagnosis: Collecting and analysing data to identify organizational issues and opportunities for
3 Data Collection and Analysis: Collecting data through various methods such as surveys, interviews, and
focus groups, and analyzing the information to identify the root causes of organizational problems.
4 Feedback: Presenting the diagnosed information to the client organization and gaining their
understanding and acceptance of the data.
5 Designing OD Interventions: Developing and implementing interventions to address the identified
issues and opportunities for improvement.
6 Leading and Managing Change: Facilitating the change process and ensuring the interventions are
7 Evaluation and Institutionalizing OD Interventions: Evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions
and institutionalizing the changes made to ensure that they become a permanent part of the organization's
culture and systems.
Q3. Explain different OD Techniques.
OD TECHNIQUES OR STRATEGIES
1 Survey Feedback Activities: Collecting and analyzing data from surveys to provide feedback to
employees and leaders about organizational issues and opportunities for improvement.
2 Process Consultation: Providing guidance and support to individuals and groups to improve their
ability to identify, analyse, and solve problems in the workplace.
3 Grid Organization Development Activities: A team-building technique that involves individuals
working together to complete a task, such as building a model, to improve communication,
collaboration, and problem-solving skills.
4 Coaching and Counselling Activities: One-on-one sessions with employees to help them develop
skills, overcome obstacles, and achieve their goals.
5 Life and Career Planning Activities: Programs designed to help employees plan and manage their
careers, including job search techniques, resume writing, and interviewing skills.
6 Planning and Goal Setting Activities: Collaborative activities to set goals and develop plans to
achieve them, including action plans and performance metrics.
7 Third-Party Interventions: Bringing in an outside consultant or mediator to help resolve conflicts or
address organizational issues.
8 Team Building Interventions: Activities and exercises designed to build trust, communication, and
collaboration among team members.
9 Diagnostic Activities: Collecting and analyzing data to identify organizational issues and opportunities
10 Education and Training Activities: Programs designed to improve employee knowledge, skills, and
abilities, including training on new technology or software.
11 Organizational Transformation Activities: Large-scale initiatives to transform the organization, such
as restructuring, mergers and acquisitions, or cultural change.
12 Techno Structural Interventions: Interventions focused on improving the organization's structure,
systems, and processes, such as reengineering or process improvement initiatives.
Q4. Highlight the significance and limitation of OD.
SIGNIFICANCE OF OD
1.Development of a Challenging Environment: OD interventions can create a challenging and
stimulating work environment that encourages employees to grow, learn, and develop new skills.
2.Facilitation of Organizational Change: OD interventions can facilitate organizational change by
identifying and addressing areas in need of improvement, and implementing new processes, systems, or
3.Effective Performance of Tasks: OD interventions can improve the performance of tasks by
streamlining processes, reducing errors, and optimizing resources.
4.Assistance in Attainment of Objectives: OD interventions can assist organizations in achieving their
objectives by aligning the organization's strategy, goals, and culture with its external environment and
5.Optimum Utilization of Individual Potential: OD interventions can help organizations maximize the
potential of their employees by providing opportunities for growth, development, and career
LIMITATIONS OF OD
1 Time-consuming: OD interventions can be time-consuming and require a significant investment of
resources, which may not be feasible for all organizations.
2 Requires Initiators: OD requires committed and knowledgeable initiators who can lead the change
process and maintain momentum, which may not always be present in an organization.
3 Based on Behavioural Science Concepts: OD interventions are based on behavioural science
concepts and may not be suitable for organizations that do not value or understand the importance of
employee engagement and development.
4 Large Expenditures: OD interventions may require significant expenditures, such as hiring
consultants, providing training, or implementing new systems or processes, which may not be financially
feasible for all organizations.
5 Chances of Being Unsuccessful: Despite its best efforts, OD interventions may not always be
successful in achieving the desired outcomes due to resistance from employees or other factors beyond
the control of the organization.
Q5.What is OD intervention? Give the nature & importance of OD intervention.
• OD intervention refers to a planned and structured process of applying OD techniques and strategies to
improve an organization's performance, effectiveness, and overall health.
• An OD intervention is typically designed to address specific issues or challenges within an organization,
such as poor communication, low employee morale, or inefficient processes.
• The goal of an OD intervention is to bring about positive change in the organization by involving
employees at all levels and empowering them to be part of the change process.
• Some examples of OD interventions include team-building activities, leadership development
programs, process improvement initiatives, and organizational restructuring efforts.
DEFINITION OF OD INTERVENTION
OD intervention is a structured process of applying OD techniques and strategies to bring about positive
change within an organization.
Prasad – “OD intervention refers to an activity that is carried on in an organisation with the help of an
internal or external OD consultant for achieving a given goal or objective.”
NATURE OF OD INTERVENTIONS
1 Target Real Problems: OD interventions are designed to address real and specific problems or
challenges within an organization.
2 Planning, Implementation & Analysis: OD interventions involve a structured process that includes
planning, implementation, and analysis of results.
3 Develops as an Event Progresses: OD interventions are often dynamic and evolve as the intervention
progresses, based on feedback and learning.
4 Presence of Change Agent: OD interventions typically involve a change agent or facilitator who guides
the process and ensures that the intervention stays on track.
5 Relies on Learning Models: OD interventions are based on learning models and seek to empower
individuals and groups to identify and solve problems through collaboration and open communication.
IMPORTANCE OF OD INTERVENTIONS
1 Improved Interaction Among Employees: OD interventions can help improve communication and
collaboration among employees, leading to more effective teamwork and problem-solving.
2 Employee Skill Development in a Dynamic Environment: OD interventions can provide
opportunities for employee development and skill-building in a rapidly changing business environment.
3 Employee Appraisal & Feedback: OD interventions can include processes for employee appraisal
and feedback, which can help individuals understand their strengths and weaknesses and identify
opportunities for improvement.
4 Prevention Rather Than Correction: OD interventions are designed to identify and address issues
proactively, before they become major problems, which can help prevent costly and disruptive crises.
5 Systematizing Change Management Processes: OD interventions can help organizations develop
structured and effective processes for managing change, which can be essential in today's fast-paced
and rapidly changing business environment. By adopting a systematic approach to change management,
organizations can ensure that changes are effectively planned, communicated, and implemented,
minimizing disruption and maximizing the chances of success.
Q6. Explain experiential learning methodology & Kolb’s experimental learning styles.
KOLB’S EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CYCLE
This cycle suggests that individuals learn through a continuous process of experience, reflection,
conceptualization, and experimentation, and that each stage is necessary for effective learning and
development. By experiencing and reflecting on their experiences, individuals can gain new insights and
knowledge, which they can then apply in new situations through experimentation.
KOLB’S EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING CYCLE
1 Experiencing:This stage involves actively engaging in an experience or activity.This can include
hands-on learning, immersion in a new environment, or encountering a new situation.Through this
experience, the individual gains new information and learns through direct involvement.
2 Reflecting: In this stage, the individual reflects on the experience and considers what was learned from
it.This can include thinking about emotions, reactions, and observations during the experience. By
reflecting on the experience, the individual gains new insights and knowledge.
3 Generalizing: In this stage, the individual connects the experience to broader concepts or theories.
They analyse and interpret the experience and begin to understand the underlying principles that
govern it.This stage involves forming abstract ideas and concepts from the experience.
4 Applying: In this final stage, the individual applies what they have learned to new situations.This
involves testing out the knowledge and ideas gained from the experience in a new context.Through
experimentation, the individual can refine their understanding and continue to learn and develop.
KOLBS EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING STYLES- David Kolb identified four learning styles
1 Diverging (feeling and watching) - people who prefer to learn through concrete experience and reflective
observation.They tend to be imaginative and empathetic, and enjoy generating ideas and considering
2 Assimilating (watching and thinking) - people who prefer to learn through reflective observation and
abstract conceptualization.They tend to be analytical and logical, and enjoy organizing and synthesizing
3 Converging (thinking and doing) - people who prefer to learn through abstract conceptualization and active
experimentation.They tend to be practical and results-oriented, and enjoy solving problems and making
4 Accommodating (doing and feeling) - people who prefer to learn through concrete experience and active
experimentation.They tend to be hands-on and intuitive, and enjoy trying new things and taking risks.
DIVERGING ASSIMILATING CONVERGING ACCOMODATING
Q7.What is T-group training? Describe the procedure of T-group training and its importance.
T-group training is a type of experiential learning program that focuses on improving interpersonal skills,
communication abilities, and self-awareness.
The "T" in T-group stands for "training," and the program typically involves a group of individuals coming
together in a structured setting to engage in various activities and exercises.
The training is facilitated by a trained professional, such as a psychologist or organizational development
consultant, who guides the group through the activities and exercises.
Some common activities in T-group training might include group discussions, role-playing exercises,
problem-solving challenges, and feedback sessions.
T-group training has been criticized by some as being too confrontational or invasive, but it remains a
popular approach in some organizational development and management training programs, as well as in
some personal growth and therapy contexts.
T-group training is also known by other names, such as sensitivity training, human relations training, or
laboratory training.These terms all refer to similar types of experiential learning programs that aim to
improve interpersonal skills, communication, and self-awareness through group activities and exercises.
PROCEDURE OF T-GROUP TRAINING
UNFREEZING THE OLD
DEVELOPMENT OF NEW
RE-FREEZING THE NEW
1 Unfreezing: In this stage, participants are encouraged to become aware of their existing values, beliefs,
and behaviours, and to challenge them.This involves creating a safe and supportive learning
environment where participants can engage in activities that promote self-reflection, feedback, and
exploration of new ideas and perspectives.
2 Development of new values: In this stage, participants are encouraged to experiment with new
behaviours and ways of thinking, and to explore new values and attitudes that are more effective in group
settings.This is done through a variety of experiential learning activities such as role-playing, problem-
solving exercises, and feedback sessions.
3 Re-freezing the new ones: In this stage, participants are encouraged to integrate their new
behaviours, values, and attitudes into their daily lives and work environments.This involves developing
action plans, setting goals, and practicing new behaviours in real-world situations. Follow-up sessions
and ongoing support are often provided to help participants maintain their new behaviours and values
IMPORTANCE OF T-GROUP TRAINING
1 Improved interpersonal skills:T-group training helps individuals to develop stronger communication
and collaboration skills, which can improve their ability to work effectively with others in both personal
and professional settings.
2 Enhanced self-awareness:T-group training encourages individuals to explore their own thoughts,
emotions, and behaviours, which can help them to better understand themselves and their impact on
3 More effective leadership:T-group training provides individuals with the skills and confidence they
need to become more effective leaders, whether in a formal or informal capacity.
4 Increased empathy and understanding:T-group training promotes empathy and understanding among
participants,breaking down barriers and fostering greater acceptance and appreciation of diversity.
5 Personal growth and fulfilment:T-group training can be a transformative experience, leading to
personal growth, increased confidence, and a greater sense of purpose and fulfilment. It can provide
individuals with the tools they need to overcome personal challenges and achieve their goals.
Q8.What is appreciative inquiry? Discuss the appreciative inquiry method.
Appreciative inquiry (AI)
AI is a strengths-based approach to organizational change and development that focuses on identifying
and building upon existing strengths, successes, and positive experiences within an organization. AI
emphasizes collaboration, dialogue, and storytelling to create a shared vision of the future and inspire
action towards positive change.
The appreciative inquiry method consists of four stages:
A. Discovery: In this stage, participants engage in dialogue and storytelling to identify the organization's
positive experiences, strengths, and successes.This is done through a series of interviews, focus groups,
and other data collection methods.
B. Dream: In this stage, participants use the insights and information gathered in the discovery phase to
imagine a shared vision of the future.This involves identifying the organization's core values, purpose, and
goals, and envisioning what success looks like.
C. Design: In this stage, participants develop strategies and action plans to achieve the shared vision of
the future.This involves identifying specific actions, resources, and timelines necessary to bring the vision
D. Destiny: In this final stage, participants implement the action plans developed in the design phase and
monitor progress towards achieving the shared vision of the future.This involves ongoing evaluation,
learning, and adaptation to ensure the organization continues to evolve and grow in a positive direction.