RASHTRASANT TUKDOJI MAHARAJ NAGPUR UNIVERSITY
SPECIALIZATION – HR
MODULE NO 4
- Jayanti R Pande
Q1. What is Conflict? Explain the types or levels of Conflict.
• Conflict is a state of disagreement or discord between two or more parties.
• It occurs when individuals or groups have incompatible goals, interests, or beliefs, and feel that they need
to take action to protect or advance their own interests.
• Conflict can take many forms, from minor disagreements and disputes to large-scale violent conflicts.
• Conflict can arise in personal, social, or political settings, and can be caused by a range of factors,
including differences in values, culture, religion, ethnicity, power, resources, or ideology.
• How conflict is managed or resolved can have a significant impact on the outcome and the relationship
between the parties involved.
DEFINITION OF CONFLICT
Joe Kelly – “Conflict is defined as opposition or dispute between persons, groups or ideas.”
INDIVIDUAL LEVEL CONFLICT
GROUP LEVEL CONFLICT
ORGANISATIONAL LEVEL CONFLICT
1] INTRA INDIVIDUAL CONFLICT
2] INTER INDIVIDUAL CONFLICT
1] INTRA GROUP CONFLICT
2] INTER GROUP CONFLICT
1] INTRA ORGANISATIONAL CONFLICT
2] INTER ORGANISATIONAL CONFLICT
1.Individual level conflict: Individual level conflicts are conflicts that occur between individuals, often in
personal or work-related situations.There are two types of individual level conflicts:
A. Intra-individual conflict:
•A conflict that arises within an individual when they are experiencing competing demands or values,
leading to feelings of stress or anxiety.
•It can occur due to various factors such as personal goals, priorities, and values.
B. Inter-individual conflict:
•A conflict that arises between two or more individuals due to differences in opinion, values, or goals.
•It can occur in personal or professional relationships.
2.Group level conflict: Group level conflicts are conflicts that occur between members of a group or between
different groups.There are two types of group level conflicts:
A. Intra-group conflict:
•A conflict that occurs within a group due to differences in opinion, values, or goals.
•It can lead to reduced group cohesiveness, poor communication, and decreased productivity.
B. Inter-group conflict:
•A conflict that occurs between two or more groups due to differences in opinion, values, or goals.
•It can occur in the workplace, between different departments or teams, or in social or political contexts.
3.Organizational level conflict: Organizational level conflicts are conflicts that occur within or between
organizations.There are two types of organizational level conflicts:
A. Intra-organizational conflict:
•A conflict that arises within an organization due to differences in opinion, values, or goals among its members.
•It can occur between different departments or teams within the organization.
B. Inter-organizational conflict:
•A conflict that occurs between two or more organizations due to differences in opinion, values, or goals.
•It can occur due to competition for resources, market share, or customers.
Q2. What are the sources of conflict. Explain the process of conflict.
LACK OF TRUST
SOURCES/BASES OF CONFLICT
1 Organizational change: Change can be disruptive and can create uncertainty among employees.
Whether it's a change in leadership, a reorganization, or a change in policies or procedures, it can lead to
conflicts between employees who may have different opinions or feelings about the change.
2 Difference in values: Employees may have different values, beliefs, and priorities, which can lead to
conflicts. For example, employees who value work-life balance may feel at odds with colleagues who
prioritize working long hours.
3 Different perceptions: Different people may have different perceptions of the same situation, which can
lead to misunderstandings and conflicts. For example, one employee may feel that another employee is
being disrespectful, while the other employee may not have intended to come across that way.
4 Lack of trust: A lack of trust between employees or between employees and management can lead to
conflicts.When people don't trust each other, it's harder to communicate effectively and work together as a
5 Interdepartmental disputes: Conflicts can arise between different departments or teams in an
organization. For example, one department may feel that another department is not doing their job
properly, or there may be disagreements about how resources should be allocated.
PROCESS OF CONFLICT
1 Latent conflict:This stage refers to a situation in which a potential conflict exists but has not yet been
expressed or acknowledged.There may be underlying tensions or differences between individuals or
groups, but these are not yet visible or actively causing problems.
2 Perceived conflict: At this stage, one or more parties become aware of the conflict and begin to perceive
it as a problem.This may happen when someone feels that their needs or interests are not being met, or
when there is a disagreement about how to approach a particular issue.
3 Felt conflict: Felt conflict refers to the emotional response that individuals have to the conflict.This may
include feelings of frustration, anger, anxiety, or sadness.These emotions can make it difficult to
communicate effectively and can lead to further escalation of the conflict.
4 Manifest conflict: At this stage, the conflict becomes more overt and visible.This may involve open
disagreement, arguing, or other forms of conflict behaviour.The conflict may become more intense and may
involve more people as it escalates.
5 Conflict outcome:This stage involves the parties involved in the conflict working towards a solution that
addresses the underlying issues and resolves the conflict.The outcome of the conflict may be a
compromise, a win-win solution, or a decision to agree to disagree.
Q3.What is Conflict management? Discuss the types of team conflict & their resolution strategies.
• Conflict management is the process of identifying and resolving conflicts in a constructive and productive
It involves effective communication, active listening, collaboration, compromise, and respect.
• Conflict management can help to prevent conflicts from escalating and causing further problems.
• Effective conflict management can improve relationships and increase productivity in the workplace.
• Conflict management may involve mediation, negotiation, or other forms of dispute resolution.
• HR professionals and managers play an important role in conflict management in the workplace.
• Conflict management may require the use of specific tools or techniques, such as conflict resolution training
or conflict mapping.
• It is important to address conflicts in a timely manner to prevent them from becoming more serious.
Successful conflict management requires a willingness to be flexible and to consider different perspectives.
Conflict management can help to promote a positive workplace culture by encouraging open communication
TYPES OF TEAM CONFLICT
1 Task-based conflicts:These are conflicts that arise when team members have differing opinions or
ideas about how to approach a task or project. For example, one team member may feel that a particular
strategy is the best way to approach a problem, while another team member may disagree.
2 Leadership conflicts:These are conflicts that arise when team members have differing opinions or
ideas about how the team should be led or managed. For example, team members may have different
ideas about the best way to delegate tasks or make decisions.
3Work style conflicts:These are conflicts that arise when team members have different work styles or
ways of approaching tasks. For example, one team member may prefer to work independently, while
another may prefer to work collaboratively.
4 Personality clashes:These are conflicts that arise when team members have personality differences
that lead to tension or disagreements. For example, one team member may be very outgoing and
extroverted, while another team member may be more introverted and reserved.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION/MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES [By Kenneth Thomas]
1 Avoiding:This strategy involves ignoring or avoiding the conflict in hopes that it will go away or resolve
itself.This approach can be effective in situations where the conflict is minor and not worth the effort of
addressing directly, but can be problematic if the conflict persists and becomes more serious.
2 Accommodating:This strategy involves prioritizing the needs and wants of the other party in the conflict,
and making concessions in order to maintain a good relationship.This approach can be effective when the
relationship is more important than the issue at hand, but can be problematic if it leads to resentment or
dissatisfaction on the part of the accommodating party.
3 Competing:This strategy involves taking a firm stand and pursuing one's own interests at the expense of
the other party.This approach can be effective when quick and decisive action is needed, but can be
problematic if it leads to a win-lose situation or damages the relationship between the parties.
4 Compromising:This strategy involves finding a middle ground or mutually acceptable solution that both
parties can agree on.This approach can be effective when both parties have legitimate concerns and neither
is willing to concede completely, but can be problematic if the compromise is not satisfactory to either party.
5 Collaborating:This strategy involves working together with the other party to identify and address the
underlying issues and interests, in order to create a mutually beneficial solution.This approach can be
effective when both parties are committed to finding a win-win solution and are willing to invest time and
effort in the process, but can be problematic if one party is not willing to collaborate or compromise.
Q4. Explain the positive and negative effect of conflict.
Positive effects of conflict:
Stimulates creativity: Conflict can lead to the exchange of ideas and perspectives, which can stimulate
creativity and innovation.
Improves decision-making: Conflict can bring up different perspectives and ideas, which can improve
decision-making by considering all options.
Enhances relationships: Conflict can provide an opportunity to understand others' perspectives and build
stronger relationships based on mutual understanding and respect.
Promotes personal growth: Conflict can challenge individuals to reflect on their own beliefs and values,
and promote personal growth and development.
Negative effects of conflict:
Damages relationships: Conflict can damage relationships if not resolved properly, leading to distrust and
Reduces productivity: Conflict can lead to a decrease in productivity if it consumes too much time and
energy that could be spent on other tasks.
Increases stress: Conflict can increase stress levels, leading to negative physical and emotional effects on
Creates a negative work environment: Conflict can create a negative work environment if it is not
managed effectively, leading to a decrease in employee satisfaction and morale.
Q5. Define collaboration.What are the bases of collaboration?
Collaboration is a process of working together with others to achieve a common goal or objective.
Collaboration involves individuals or groups working together in a coordinated and cooperative manner,
pooling their knowledge, skills, and resources to achieve a shared outcome.
Collaboration can take place within a team or between teams, organizations, or even across different
sectors or industries.
Collaboration typically requires communication, coordination, and cooperation among team members, and
may involve the use of technology to facilitate communication and collaboration across geographic
Collaboration is increasingly important in many industries, as organizations seek to tap into the collective
knowledge and expertise of their employees and partners to drive innovation, improve efficiency, and
achieve strategic goals.
DEFINITION OF COLLABORATION
Wood and Gray - “Collaboration is an interactive process, using shared rules, norms & structure to act or
decide on issues related to domain.”
BASES OF COLLABORATION
1.Group Norms: Collaboration may be more successful when the group has established norms or
guidelines for how members are expected to communicate and work together.This can help ensure that
everyone is on the same page and that there is a shared understanding of how collaboration should happen.
2.Payoff: Collaborating can lead to benefits for individuals or the group as a whole, such as increased
efficiency, improved quality of work, or increased creativity.When members believe that there is a payoff for
collaborating, they may be more likely to engage in and contribute to the collaboration process.
3.Perceived Power: Collaboration may be influenced by the perceived power dynamics within the group. If
members feel that they have an equal voice and influence, they may be more likely to engage in
collaboration. However, if some members feel that they have less power or influence, they may be less likely
4.Mutual Trust: Collaboration often requires a high level of mutual trust among group members.Trust can
be built through open communication, shared goals, and a track record of successful collaboration.When
members trust one another, they may be more willing to take risks, share ideas, and work together to achieve
Q6. Differentiate between competitive and collaborative behaviour.
1. Focus on individual goals: Competitive behaviour is often focused on individual goals and
achievements, rather than on working together with others.
2. Win-lose mentality: In competitive situations, there is often a win-lose mentality, where one person or
team's success means another's failure.
3. Limited communication: Competitive behaviour can involve limited communication, as individuals
may be focused on their own success rather than on sharing information and working together.
4. Limited collaboration: Competitive behaviour may involve limited collaboration, as individuals may
be hesitant to work together if it doesn't directly benefit their own goals.
5. Conflict and tension: Competitive behaviour can create conflict and tension among team members,
especially if the goals of different individuals or teams are in direct opposition.
6. Limited innovation: Competitive behaviour may limit innovation, as individuals may be hesitant to
share new ideas or collaborate on new approaches if they feel it gives others an advantage.
1. Focus on shared goals: Collaborative behaviour is focused on working together to achieve shared
goals, rather than on individual achievement.
2. Win-win mentality: In collaborative situations, the focus is on achieving success for everyone
involved, rather than on one person or team winning at the expense of another.
3. Open communication: Collaborative behaviour involves open communication, as individuals share
information and work together to solve problems and achieve goals.
4. Active collaboration: Collaboration involves active collaboration, as individuals work together to
achieve shared goals, share resources and ideas, and support each other.
5. Positive relationships: Collaboration can create positive relationships among team members, as they
work together toward a common purpose and build trust and respect for one another.
6. Innovation: Collaboration can foster innovation, as team members share diverse perspectives and
ideas, and work together to create new solutions and approaches.
Q7. How to develop collaboration?
1 Team building games:Team building games and activities can help team members to develop trust and
improve communication, while also encouraging collaboration and teamwork.
2 Streamlining the process: Streamlining processes can help to reduce confusion and ambiguity, and
enable team members to work together more effectively and efficiently.
3 Improving employee communication: Improving communication among team members can help to
build trust, foster collaboration, and ensure that everyone is working towards the same goals.
4 Improving engagement: Improving employee engagement can help to increase motivation and
productivity, and encourage team members to work together more effectively.
5 Using team collaboration with interdependence: Encouraging team members to work together in an
interdependent way can help to foster collaboration, build trust, and ensure that everyone is working
towards the same goals.
6 Use a team collaboration portal: Using a team collaboration portal can help to streamline
communication, enable team members to share information and ideas more easily, and encourage
collaboration and teamwork.