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Construction & E.M.F. eqn. of transformer

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Construction & E.M.F. eqn. of transformer

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In this ppt, construction and emf equation of transformer is shown and also the types of transformer and its various losses and its application is given in the presentation.

In this ppt, construction and emf equation of transformer is shown and also the types of transformer and its various losses and its application is given in the presentation.

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Construction & E.M.F. eqn. of transformer

  1. 1. Laxmi Institute Of Technology, Sarigam 3rd semester :- Electronics & Communication Engineering Presentation On :- Construction & E.M.F eqn. of Transformer Professor name :- Narendra Bhilwala PREPARED BY :- 1. Jay Baria - 150860111003
  2. 2. -: Transformer :-
  3. 3. introduction • A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. • There are two or more stationary electric circuits that are coupled magnetically. • It involves interchange of electric energy between two or more electric systems • Transformers provide much needed capability of changing the voltage and current levels easily. – They are used to step-up generator voltage to an appropriate voltage level for power transfer. – Stepping down the transmission voltage at various levels for distribution and power utilization.
  4. 4. What is transformer ? • A transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which an electrical power is transferred from one alternating current circuit to another electrical circuit • There is no electrical contact between them • The desire change in voltage or current without any change in frequency NOTE : It works on the principle of mutual induction
  5. 5. Construction of transformer • The transformer two inductive coils ,these are electrical separated but linked through a common magnetic current circuit • These two coils have a high mutual induction • One of the two coils is connected of alternating voltage .this coil in which electrical energy is fed with the help of source called primary winding (P) shown in fig. • The other winding is connected to a load the electrical energy is transformed to this winding drawn out to the load .this winding is called secondary winding(S) shown in fig.
  6. 6. • The primary and secondary coil wound on a ferromagnetic metal core • The function of the core is to transfer the changing magnetic flux from the primary coil to the secondary coil • The primary has N1 no of turns and the secondary has N2 no of turns the of turns plays major important role in the function of transformer
  7. 7. Working principle • The transformer works in the principle of mutual induction • When the alternating current flows in the primary coils, a changing magnetic flux is generated around the primary coil. • The changing magnetic flux is transferred to the secondary coil through the iron core • The changing magnetic flux is cut by the secondary coil, hence induces an e.m.f in the secondary coil “The principle of mutual induction states that when the two coils are inductively coupled and if the current in coil change uniformly then the e.m.f. induced in the other coils. This e.m.f can drive a current when a closed path is provide to it.”
  8. 8. • Now if load is connected to a secondary winding, this e.m.f drives a current through it • The magnitude of the output voltage can be controlled by the ratio of the no. of primary coil and secondary coil The frequency of mutually induced e.m.f as same that of the alternating source which supplying to the primary winding b
  9. 9. -:Transformer Construction:-
  10. 10. Constructionof transformer • These are two basic of transformer construction …… • Magnetic core • Windings or coils Magnetic core • The core of transformer either square or rectangular type in size . • It is further divided into two parts vertical and horizontal. • The vertical portion on which coils are wounds called limb while horizontal portion is called yoke. • Core is made of laminated core type constructions, eddy current losses get minimize. • Generally high grade silicon steel laminations (0.3 to 0.5mm) are used.
  11. 11. winding • Conducting material is used in the winding of the transformer • The coils are used are wound on the limbs and insulated from each other • The two different windings are wounds on two different limbs • The leakage flux increases which affects the performance and efficiency of transformer • To reduce the leakage flux it is necessary that the windings should be very close to each other to have high mutual induction
  12. 12. Core-type Transformers :- The coils used are form-wound and are of the cylindrical type. The general form of these coils may be circular or oval or rectangular. In small size core- type transformers, a simple rectangular core is used with cylindrical coils which are either circular or rectangular in form.
  13. 13. But for large-size core-type transformers, round or circular cylindrical coils are used which are so wound as to fit over a cruciform core section as shown in Fig. The circular cylindrical coils are used in most of the core- type transformers because of their mechanical strength. Such cylindrical coils are wound in helical layers with the different layers insulated from each other by paper, cloth, micarta board or cooling ducts. Fig. shows the general arrangement of these coils with respect to the core.
  14. 14. Shell-type Transformers:- In these case also, the coils are form-would but are multi-layer disc type usually wound in the form of pancakes. The different layers of such multi- layer discs are insulated from each other by paper. The complete winding consists of stacked discs with insulation space between the coils–the spaces forming horizontal cooling and insulating ducts.
  15. 15. A very commonly-used shell-type transformer is the one known as Berry Transformer–so called after the name of its designer and is cylindrical in form. The transformer core consists of laminations arranged in groups which radiate out from the centre. It may be pointed out that cores and coils of transformers must be provided with rigid mechanical bracing in order to prevent movement and possible insulation damage. Good bracing reduces vibration and the objectionable noise–a humming sound– during operation.
  16. 16. -:EMF Equation of Transformer:- Let N1 = No. of turns in primary N2 = No. of turns in secondary Φm = Maximum flux in core in webers = Bm × A f = Frequency of a.c. input in Hz flux increases from its zero value to maximum value Φm in one quarter of the cycle i.e. in 1/4 f second.
  17. 17. ∴ Average rate of change of flux =1/ 4fΦm = 4 f Φm Wb/s or volt Now, rate of change of flux per turn means induced e.m.f. in volts. ∴ Average e.m.f./turn = 4 f Φm volt If flux Φ varies sinusoidally, then r.m.s. value of induced e.m.f. is obtained by multiplying the averagevalue with form factor. Form factor =r.m.s. value/ avg. value = 1.11
  18. 18. ∴ r.m.s. value of e.m.f./turn = 1.11 × 4 f Φm = 4.44 f Φm volt • Now, r.m.s. value of the induced e.m.f. in the whole of primary winding = (induced e.m.f/turn) × No. of primary turns •E1 = 4.44 f N1 Φm = 4.44 f N1 BmA.........(1) Similarly, r.m.s. value of the e.m.f. induced in secondary is, •E2 = 4.44 f N2 Φm = 4.44 f N2 BmA..........(2) •Equation 1,2 represents the e.m.f equation.
  19. 19. Losses in transformer • Copper losses : It is due to power wasted in the form of I2Rdue to resistance of primary and secondary. The magnitude of copper losses depend upon the current flowing through these coils. The iron losses depend on the supply voltage while the copper depend on the current .the losses are not dependent on the phase angle between current and voltage .hence the rating of the transformer is expressed as a product o f voltage and current called VA rating of transformer. It is not expressed in watts or kilowatts. Most of the timer, is rating is expressed in KVA.
  20. 20. Hysteresis loss : During magnetization and demagnetization ,due to hysteresis effect some energy losses in the core called hysteresis loss Eddy current loss : The leakage magnetic flux generates the E.M.F in the core produces current is called of eddy current loss.
  21. 21. Ideal V/S practical transformer • A transformer is said to be ideal if it satisfies the following properties, but no transformer is ideal in practice. • It has no losses • Windings resistance are zero • There is no flux leakage • Small current is required to produce the magnetic field While the practical transformer has windings resistance , some leakage flux and has lit bit losses
  22. 22. Application and uses • The transformer used in television and photocopy machines • The transmission and distribution of alternating power is possible by transformer • Simple camera flash uses fly back transformer • Signal and audio transformer are used couple in amplifier Todays transformer is become an essential part of electrical engineering

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