3. Workshop Goals 1. Insight (What is homosexuality? What is homophobia?) 2. Instruction (Homosexuality: The reality of our Public Schools) 3. Integration (Overcoming Homophobia in the classroom through curriculum strategies)
7. Urnings (homosexual males) “ a human being that is more or less perfectly, even distinctively, masculine, in physique; often a type of fine intellectual, oral and aesthetic sensibilities; but who, through an inborn developed preference feels sexual passion for the male human species. His sexual preference may quite exclude any desire for the female sex: or may exist concurrently that instinct.” Xavier Mayne (follower of Ulrich)
8. -- 1901 Oxford English Dictionary still hadn’t defined heterosexuality or homosexuality -- In 1901 Dorland’s Medical Dictionary defined heterosexuality as “Abnormal or perverted appetite toward the opposite Sex” (Katz, 1995)
9. -- 1923 “heterosexuality” was defined as, “morbid sexual passion for one of the opposite sex.” -- 1909 homosexuality appears and was defined as, “morbid sexual passion for one of the same sex.”
10. -- At the same time, homosexuality was defined as “Eroticism for one of the same sex.” -- 1934 heterosexuality was defined by Webster’s Second Edition Unabridged as “a manifest of sexual passion for one of the opposite sex; normal sexuality.”
11. -- It was also in this year that the National Ecumenical Society of America added the word “homosexual” to the Bible. -- 1941 A group of gay men referred to ceasing homosexual practices for heterosexual sex practices as “going Straight.”
16. -- Weinrich (1994) “either (1) as a genital act or (2) as a long-term sexuoerotic status.” -- LeVay (1993) “the direction of sexual feelings or behaviors toward individuals either opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or combination of the two (bisexuality).
17. -- Francoeur (1991) “The occurrence or existence of sexual attraction, interest, and general intimate activity between an individual and other members of the same gender.”
19. Dean Hammer’s Research Search for the “Gay Gene” 2. Matrilineal Heredity (X – Chromosome) 1. Methods used in the study 3. DNA Tests on left-handedness and color blindness 4. XQ 28 5. Implications for Dean Hammer’s Research
20. Simon LeVay’s Brain Research 2. Hypothalamus Gland and Sexual Behavior 1. Methods used in the study 3. Used Post-Mortem AIDS patients 4. INAH-3 was twice as large in heterosexual men as it was in heterosexual females, lesbians, and gay men. 5. Implications for Simon LeVay’s Research
21. Ekman Tam’s Ethics in Religious Counseling 2. Conversion Therapy has no research to support it 1. Methods used in the study 3. At best, Conversion Therapy is Unethical 4. At worst, Conversion Therapy may actually go Against the Bible and God’s Master Plan 5. Implications for Simon LeVay’s Research
23. “ Homophobia is a hatred of gay people based in fear.” (Carter, 1996) Often referred to as Heterosexism as well.
24. Adams, Wright, & Lohr (1996) Homophobia Questionnaire 2. Scores from 25-50 are high-grade non-homophobic 1. Scores range from 25-125 3. Scores from 51-75 are moderately non-homophobic 4. Scores from 76-100 are moderately homophobic 5. Scores from 100-125 are high-grade homophobic
26. Highly Homophobic People tend to: 2. Less likely to have engaged in homosexual behavior 1. Have less personal contact with GLB people 3. Lived in areas known for bigotry during adolescence 4. Older and less well educated 5. More church going and conservative 6. Express traditional, restrictive sex roles 7. Less permissive Sexually 8. Highly authoritarian
27. Prejudice (Allport – 1954) 1) An antipathy based on faulty and inflexible generalizations 2) Can be felt covertly or expressed overtly 3) Can be direct towards a group as a whole, or toward an individual because s/he is a member of that group
29. Exploitation Theory 1) Power is a Scarce Source 2) People innately want to keep their power and status 3) So people suppress the social mobility of the out-group
30. Scapegoating Theory 1) Prejudiced People are the True Victims 2) They refuse to accept basic responsibility for some society failure (defeat in war / depression) 3) So they shift focus of responsibility to an out-group
31. Authoritarian Personality Theory 1) Person comes from a strict authoritarian background 2) When that person grows up s/he wants to be the authoritarian of those around them 3) So this person subjects people in an out-group (who are seen as weaker) to their will
32. Structural Theory 1) Social climate either promotes cultural and ethnic tolerance or intolerance 2) Is their obvious equality – if not people will subjugate others around them 3) Is there a definite hierarchy with a clear pecking order?
41. 1) We must be honest with ourselves – confront our on biases and ethnocentric attitudes 2) We should question the contents of our stereotypes and check against our actual interactions with out-group members 3) We should understand how our negative images concerning out-group members affects our biased attitudes and interactions
42. 4) Use the principle of heterogeneity to break down the broad social categories 5) We should use mindful qualifying language when describing out-group/others’ behaviors. 6) We should put ourselves in frequent inter-group contact situations to become comfortable with group-based differences
43. 1. Institutional – Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell 2. Collectivism – Religious Organizations 3. Individual – One person’s homophobia 3 Levels of Homophobia
53. “ I don’t know what they thought they were giving us, but it wasn’t an education. My self-esteem has never been at such an extreme low . . . . My post-high school plans were simple. I planned to either commit suicide, or become a prostitute . . . .” An Anonymous Gay Teen