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Casey Trees Urban Tree Selection Guide

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Casey Trees Urban Tree Selection Guide

  1. 1. CASEY TREES URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE A Designer’s List of Appropriate Trees for the Urban Mid-Atlantic
  2. 2. Casey Trees © 2015 Lead Authors Maisie Hughes - Casey Trees, Director of Planning & Design Emily Oaksford - Casey Trees, Planning Associate Mary Blakeslee - Casey Trees, Research Associate Reviewers Jessica Sanders, Ph.D. - Casey Trees, Director of Technical Services and Research Jim Woodworth - Casey Trees, Director of Tree Planting Sue Erhardt - Casey Trees, Director of Education Jim Sherald, Ph.D. - Casey Trees, Board of Directors Special Thanks Douglas Tallamy, Ph.D. - University of Delaware, Professor & Department Chair of the Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology Denny Townsend, Ph.D. - USDA Agricultural Research Service (retired), Plant Geneticist Guide available at caseytrees.org 2CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE About the Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Growing Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Physical Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Large Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Medium Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Small Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Suitable Landscape Locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Habitat Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 References + Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1
  3. 3. 2 About This Guide This Urban Tree Selection Guide provides key information for selecting trees suitable for landscapes in the urban Mid-Atlantic. This region includes Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia and the parts of New Jersey, New York and North Carolina that drain into related waterways of the central region. In this guide, trees are first grouped by size at maturity (Large, Medium and Small) and then alphabetically by scientific name. Each row provides information about the tree, including its growing conditions, physical characteristics, habitat indicators and recommended landscape locations. The guide also notes if the tree is native or evergreen. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service, only plants found in the United States before European settlement are considered to be native. Trees are considered evergreen if they keep their needles or leaves for more than one growing season. 2CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE22 Columnar Cylindrical, vertical axis greatly exceeding horizontalCOLUMNAR Suggested for narrow sites. Shade produced can be limited due to lack of wide crown. Top 3 for the DC Region Ouercus robur `Fastigiata' English Oak Juniperus virginiana Eastern Redcedar X Cupressocyparis leylandii Leyland Cypress Ouercus robur `Fastigiata' English Oak OVAL Preferred for street tree. Requires minimal pruning. Produces generous shade. Top 3 for the DC Region Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Poplar (mature) Franxinus pennsylvanica Green Ash (mature) Crataegus phaenopyrum Washington Hawthorn Platanus occidentalis Sycamore ROUND XX Top 3 for the DC Region XX OakRound Rounded circular form, vertical and horizontal axis about equal Oval Elliptic to egg-shaped, broadest at base, vertical axis exceeding horizontal by 2 to 1 ratio VASE Preferred for street tree. Requires minimal pruning. Produces generous shade. Top 2 for the DC Region Ulmus Americana American Elm Zelkova serrata Japanese Zelkova Ulmus Americana American Elm PYRAMIDAL Generally requires pruning on lower branches. Top 3 for the DC Region Tilia cordata Littleleaf Linden Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglasfir Taxodium distichum Baldcypress Tilia cordata Littleleaf Linden ROUND - SPREADING Produces ample shade. Generally requires pruning on lower branches. Top 3 for the DC Region Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum Acer rubrum Red Maple Quercus phellos Willow Oak Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum Vase Elliptic to egg-shaped, broadest at crown apex, vertical axis exceeding horizontal by 2 to 1 ratio Pyramidal Approaching triangular in outline, broadest at base Spreading Mature tree crown with a branch spread width of 35’ or greater Physical Characteristics Height. The approximate mature tree height from the ground to the top of the crown under normal landscape situations (Large: 50 feet and greater, Medium: 35 to 50 feet, Small: 35 feet and under). Spread. A tree’s crown diameter. In plan view, it is the horizontal distance from one edge of the crown (dripline) to the other. Crown Form. The shape of a tree at maturity based on the outline of the crown as perceived in silhouette. Six basic crown forms plus an irregular form are used in this document with two additional qualifiers: variable and multi-stemmed. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis The Hackberry can be found throughout the upper half of the eastern United States, the Great Plains, and southern Canada. It is a relative of the elm tree, and due to its rapid growth, it often makes a good street tree. Although the Hackberry’s bark is smooth during youth, it develops wart-like marks which later develop into rough corky, irregular ridges through maturity. The Hackberry is a lesser known tree, but a top performer that is also highly versatile in many urban landscape conditions. The tree is resistant to Dutch Elm Disease, can adapt to its soil types and withstand heavy winds and tough urban conditions. Ohio Growing Conditions Hardiness Zones. The USDA’s Hardiness Zone Map divides the U.S. into 11 zones based on average minimal winter temperature. A plant’s Hardiness Zone refers to a plant’s ability to thrive in the corresponding map location. Heat Zones. The American Horticultural Society defines 12 regions in the continental U.S. by the average number of “heat days” (temperatures over 86°F) each zone will experience per year. The Mid-Atlantic region includes areas in Heat Zones 4, 5, 6 and 7. Zone 4, the Northernmost areas of the region, experiences 14-30 days over 86°F. The Southernmost areas of the region (Zone 7) experience 60-90 days over 86°F. Soil Conditions. A tree’s preferred soil moisture level, drainage and pH level. Light Conditions. The amount of sun and/or shade required for a tree to grow and thrive (Full Sun: direct sunlight for at least 6 hours a day during the growing season, Partial Shade: approximately 3-6 hours of direct sunlight, Shade: less than 3 hours of sunlight). Drought Tolerant. Trees that can generally survive several weeks between deep waterings (after a three-year establishment period). Air Pollution Tolerant. Trees generally not harmed by airborne pollutants. Salt Tolerant. Trees generally not harmed by road and sidewalk deicers. USDA Hardiness Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Region This region includes Zones 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b and 8a. The coldest area in the region, Zone 5a, has average annual extreme minimum temperatures from -20°F to -15°F. The warmest area, Zone 8a, has an average minimum temperature range of 10°F to 15°F. Zone 7a Zone 7b Zone 8a 7a 7b 6b Zone 6b Zone 6a Zone 5b Zone 5a 6b 5b 5a 7a 7b Richmond Washington, DC Baltimore Pittsburgh Harrisburg Philadelphia Trenton New York City Dover 5b 2 About This Guide This Urban Tree Selection Guide provides key information for selecting trees suitable for landscapes in the urban Mid-Atlantic. This region includes Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia and the parts of New Jersey, New York and North Carolina that drain into related waterways of the central region. In this guide, trees are first grouped by size at maturity (Large, Medium and Small) and then alphabetically by scientific name. Each row provides information about the tree, including its growing conditions, physical characteristics, habitat indicators and recommended landscape locations. The guide also notes if the tree is native or evergreen. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service, only plants found in the United States before European settlement are considered to be native. Trees are considered evergreen if they keep their needles or leaves for more than one growing season. 2CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE22 Columnar Cylindrical, vertical axis greatly exceeding horizontalCOLUMNAR Suggested for narrow sites. Shade produced can be limited due to lack of wide crown. Top 3 for the DC Region Ouercus robur `Fastigiata' English Oak Juniperus virginiana Eastern Redcedar X Cupressocyparis leylandii Leyland Cypress Ouercus robur `Fastigiata' English Oak OVAL Preferred for street tree. Requires minimal pruning. Produces generous shade. Top 3 for the DC Region Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip Poplar (mature) Franxinus pennsylvanica Green Ash (mature) Crataegus phaenopyrum Washington Hawthorn Platanus occidentalis Sycamore ROUND XX Top 3 for the DC Region XX OakRound Rounded circular form, vertical and horizontal axis about equal Oval Elliptic to egg-shaped, broadest at base, vertical axis exceeding horizontal by 2 to 1 ratio VASE Preferred for street tree. Requires minimal pruning. Produces generous shade. Top 2 for the DC Region Ulmus Americana American Elm Zelkova serrata Japanese Zelkova Ulmus Americana American Elm PYRAMIDAL Generally requires pruning on lower branches. Top 3 for the DC Region Tilia cordata Littleleaf Linden Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglasfir Taxodium distichum Baldcypress Tilia cordata Littleleaf Linden ROUND - SPREADING Produces ample shade. Generally requires pruning on lower branches. Top 3 for the DC Region Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum Acer rubrum Red Maple Quercus phellos Willow Oak Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum Vase Elliptic to egg-shaped, broadest at crown apex, vertical axis exceeding horizontal by 2 to 1 ratio Pyramidal Approaching triangular in outline, broadest at base Spreading Mature tree crown with a branch spread width of 35’ or greater Physical Characteristics Height. The approximate mature tree height from the ground to the top of the crown under normal landscape situations (Large: 50 feet and greater, Medium: 35 to 50 feet, Small: 35 feet and under). Spread. A tree’s crown diameter. In plan view, it is the horizontal distance from one edge of the crown (dripline) to the other. Crown Form. The shape of a tree at maturity based on the outline of the crown as perceived in silhouette. Six basic crown forms plus an irregular form are used in this document with two additional qualifiers: variable and multi-stemmed. Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis The Hackberry can be found throughout the upper half of the eastern United States, the Great Plains, and southern Canada. It is a relative of the elm tree, and due to its rapid growth, it often makes a good street tree. Although the Hackberry’s bark is smooth during youth, it develops wart-like marks which later develop into rough corky, irregular ridges through maturity. The Hackberry is a lesser known tree, but a top performer that is also highly versatile in many urban landscape conditions. The tree is resistant to Dutch Elm Disease, can adapt to its soil types and withstand heavy winds and tough urban conditions. Ohio Growing Conditions Hardiness Zones. The USDA’s Hardiness Zone Map divides the U.S. into 11 zones based on average minimal winter temperature. A plant’s Hardiness Zone refers to a plant’s ability to thrive in the corresponding map location. Heat Zones. The American Horticultural Society defines 12 regions in the continental U.S. by the average number of “heat days” (temperatures over 86°F) each zone will experience per year. The Mid-Atlantic region includes areas in Heat Zones 4, 5, 6 and 7. Zone 4, the Northernmost areas of the region, experiences 14-30 days over 86°F. The Southernmost areas of the region (Zone 7) experience 60-90 days over 86°F. Soil Conditions. A tree’s preferred soil moisture level, drainage and pH level. Light Conditions. The amount of sun and/or shade required for a tree to grow and thrive (Full Sun: direct sunlight for at least 6 hours a day during the growing season, Partial Shade: approximately 3-6 hours of direct sunlight, Shade: less than 3 hours of sunlight). Drought Tolerant. Trees that can generally survive several weeks between deep waterings (after a three-year establishment period). Air Pollution Tolerant. Trees generally not harmed by airborne pollutants. Salt Tolerant. Trees generally not harmed by road and sidewalk deicers. USDA Hardiness Zones of the Mid-Atlantic Region This region includes Zones 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b and 8a. The coldest area in the region, Zone 5a, has average annual extreme minimum temperatures from -20°F to -15°F. The warmest area, Zone 8a, has an average minimum temperature range of 10°F to 15°F. Zone 7a Zone 7b Zone 8a 7a 7b 6b Zone 6b Zone 6a Zone 5b Zone 5a 6b 5b 5a 7a 7b Richmond Washington, DC Baltimore Pittsburgh Harrisburg Philadelphia Trenton New York City Dover 5b CASEY TREES: Urban Tree selection Guide 2 Hackberry, Celtis occidentalis The Hackberry is a rapidly growing tree native to North America. It can be found throughout the upper half of the Eastern United States, the Great Plains and Southern Canada. The Hackberry’s bark is smooth during youth. As it matures, the bark develops wart-like marks which later turn into rough, corky, irregular ridges. The female tree produces an abundance of drupes, or berry-like fruits. These fruits ripen to deep purple and attract a variety of wildlife. The Hackberry can endure tough urban conditions, withstand heavy winds and adapt to various soil types. It makes a good street tree and can be used in bioretention or park landscapes.
  4. 4. Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide Physical Characteristics Growing Conditions Habitat Indicators Suitable Landscape Locations Legend applicable information Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade Mature Crown Form columnar Round oval vase pyramidal spreading irregular multi-stemmed variable Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut M * N/A not available Swamp White Oak, Quercus bicolor The Swamp White Oak grows naturally in swamps, lowland forests and along streams. It has a shallow root system that does well in both moist and compacted soils. Planting this tree along rivers can help stabilize soils and establish wildlife habitats. The Swamp White Oak is well-suited for bioretention, is a beautiful specimen tree for parks and lawns, and it can also be used as a large street tree. The Swamp White Oak has a round crown and interesting bark: when young, its bark is flaky and peels back to reveal orange colors of the inner bark. The tree has dark green leaves that are silvery white on the bottom. 3 Scientific Name Common Name Native Evergreen Height Spread CrownForm Hardiness Zones Heat Zones Light Conditions Soil Conditions Drought Tolerant AirPollution Tolerant SaltTolerant Fruit/Nut Producing Numberof Caterpillar Species Streets PavedPlazas Parking Islands Parks/Lawns Buffers/ Screening Bioretention Carya ovata Shagbark Hickory 60 - 80’ 35 - 50’ 4 to 8 8 to 1 Adaptable 235 Catalpa speciosa Northern Catalpa 40 - 60’ 20 - 40’ 4 to 8 8 to 1 Deep, moist, well- drained 8 Fagus grandifolia American Beech 50 - 70’ 50 - 70’ 4 to 9 9 to 1 Well-drained, acidic 127 Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo 50 - 80’ 30 - 40’ 4 to 8 9 to 3 Adaptable 5 Gleditsia triacanthos Honey Locust 30 - 70’ 30 - 70’ 4 to 9 9 to 1 Adaptable 46 Gymnocladus dioicus ‘Stately Manor’ Fruitless Kentucky Coffee Tree 50 - 70’ 30 - 50’ 3b to 8 9 to 2 Adaptable 5 Liquidambar styraciflua American Sweetgum 60 - 75’ 60 - 75’ 5 to 9 10 to 1 Deep, moist, slightly acidic N/A 35 Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Cherokee’ Cherokee Sweetgum 40 - 50’ 25 - 30’ 5 to 9 N/A Deep, moist, slightly acidic N/A 35 Liquidambar styraciflua ‘Rotundiloba’ Low Fruiting Sweetgum 60 - 75’ 40 - 50’ 6 to 9 N/A Deep, moist, slightly acidic N/A 35 Liriodendron tulipifera Tuliptree, Tulip Poplar 60 - 90’ 35 - 50’ 4 to 9 9 to 2 Deep, moist, well- drained N/A N/A 21 Magnolia grandiflora Southern Magnolia 60 - 80’ 30 - 50’ 7 to 9 11 to 1 Well-drained, rich, porous, acidic N/A 21 Metasequoia glyptostroboides Dawn Redwood 70 - 100’ 15 - 25’ 5 to 8 10 to 5 Moist, well-drained, slightly acidic N/A 0 Pinus strobus Eastern White Pine 50 - 80’ 20 - 40’ 3 to 7 7 to 1 Moist, well-drained 201 Platanus occidentalis Sycamore 75 - 100’ 75 - 100’ 4 to 9 5 to 9 Deep, moist, well- drained soils 45 Platanus x acerifolia London Planetree 70 - 100’ 65 - 80’ 5 to 8 N/A Adaptable 0 Quercus alba White Oak 50 - 80’ 50 - 80’ 3b to 9 8 to 1 Moist, well-drained, acidic N/A 532 Quercus bicolor Swamp White Oak 50 - 60’ 50 - 60’ 4 to 8 8 to 1 Acidic 532 Quercus coccinea Scarlet Oak 60 - 80’ 40 - 50’ 5 to 8 9 to 4 Adaptable N/A 532 Large Trees (50’ and over)
  5. 5. Ginkgo, Ginkgo biloba This attractive tree has a pyramidal shape when young that spreads as it matures. Because of its form and tolerance to road salt, vehicular exhaust, nutrient-deficient soils and urban pollution, it performs well as a street tree. It is also good for urban parks and bioretention areas. The unique dichotomous fan-shaped leaves have extraordinary yellow color in the fall. Some people prefer the male Ginkgo tree because the female bears a malodorous fruit. However, the female tree’s fruit yields a nut meat that is edible and often used in herbal remedies. Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide Physical Characteristics Growing Conditions Habitat Indicators Suitable Landscape Locations Legend applicable information Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade Mature Crown Form columnar Round oval vase pyramidal spreading irregular multi-stemmed variable Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut M * N/A not available 4 Scientific Name Common Name Native Evergreen Height Spread CrownForm Hardiness Zones Heat Zones Light Conditions Soil Conditions Drought Tolerant AirPollution Tolerant SaltTolerant Fruit/Nut Producing Numberof Caterpillar Species Streets PavedPlazas Parking Islands Parks/Lawns Buffers/ Screening Bioretention Quercus falcata Southern Red Oak 70 - 80’ 70 - 100’ 7 to 9 9 to 5 Adaptable 532 Quercus imbricaria Shingle Oak 50 - 60’ 50 - 60’ 4 to 8 8 to 4 Adaptable N/A 532 Quercus lyrata Overcup Oak 45 - 50’ 40 - 50’ 5 to 9 8 to 4 Moist to wet loams N/A 532 Quercus macrocarpa Bur Oak 70 - 80’ 70 - 80’ 3 to 8 9 to 1 Adaptable N/A 532 Quercus palustris Pin Oak 65 - 70’ 25 - 40’ 4 to 8 7 to 3 Moist, rich, well drained, acidic 532 Quercus phellos Willow Oak 40 - 60’ 30 - 40’ 5 to 9 9 to 3 Adaptable 532 Quercus rubra Northern Red Oak 60 - 75’ 60 -75’ 3b to 7 9 to 5 Well-drained, sandy loam, slightly acidic 532 Robinia pseudoacacia Black Locust 30 - 50’ 10 -15’ 4 to 8 9 to 3 Adaptable 72 Sophora japonica Japanese Pagoda Tree 50 - 75’ 50 - 75’ 4 to 7 9 to 5 Loamy, well-drained 0 Taxodium distichum Common Bald Cypress 50 - 70’ 20 - 30’ 4 to 11 12 to 5 Moist, well-drained acidic 16 Tilia americana American Linden, Basswood 60 - 80’ 30 - 55’ 3b to 8 8 to 1 Moist, well drained 149 Tilia cordata Littleleaf Linden 60 - 80’ 30 - 50’ 3b to 8 8 to 1 Deep, moist, fertile 149 Tilia tomentosa Silver Linden 50 - 70’ 35 - 45’ 4 to 7 9 to 1 Deep, moist, fertile 149 Ulmus americana ‘Jefferson’ Jefferson American Elm 60 - 80’ 30 - 50’ 4 to 7 8 to 2 Rich, moist preferred but adaptable 215 Ulmus americana ‘New Harmony’ New Harmony American Elm 60 - 70’ 60 - 70’ 5 to10 8 to 2 Rich, moist preferred but adaptable 215 Ulmus americana ‘Valley Forge’ Valley Forge American Elm 60 - 70’ 60 - 70’ 4 to 9 8 to 2 Rich, moist preferred but adaptable 215 Zelkova serrata Japanese Zelkova 50 - 80’ 50 - 80’ 5 to 8 9 to 5 Moist, deep, pH adaptable N/A 0 Zelkova serrata ‘Green Vase’ Green Vase Zelkova 60 - 70’ 40 - 50’ 5 to 8 9 to 5 Moist, deep, pH adaptable 0 Large Trees (50’ and over)
  6. 6. American Yellowwood, Cladrastis lutea/kentukea The Yellowwood is native to the United States from the Carolinas to Oklahoma. The tree is adapted to air pollution and other urban conditions, making it a desirable, multi-functional tree that thrives in many landscapes. This tree has a broad rounded crown with spectacular cascading flowers. Its smooth gray bark and yellow autumn leaves also provide visual interest. Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide Physical Characteristics Growing Conditions Habitat Indicators Suitable Landscape Locations Legend applicable information Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade Mature Crown Form columnar Round oval vase pyramidal spreading irregular multi-stemmed variable Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut M * N/A not available 5 Scientific Name Common Name Native Evergreen Height Spread CrownForm Hardiness Zones Heat Zones Light Conditions Soil Conditions Drought Tolerant AirPollution Tolerant SaltTolerant Fruit/Nut Producing Numberof Caterpillar Species Streets PavedPlazas Parking Islands Parks/Lawns Buffers/ Screening Bioretention Acer rubrum Red Maple 40 - 60’ 40 - 60’ 3b to 9 9 to 1 Moist, well-drained N/A 297 Betula nigra River Birch 40 - 70’ 40 - 60’ 3b to 9 9 to 1 Moist, well-drained, acidic 12 Cedrus deodara Deodar Cedar 40 - 70’ 150’ 7 to 8 9 to 7 Well-drained to dry N/A N/A 0 Celtis occidentalis Hackberry 40 - 60’ 40 - 60’ 3 to 9 9 to 1 Rich, moist, withstands alkaline conditions 43 Cercidiphyllum japonicum Katsura 40 - 60’ 20 - 30’ 4 to 8 8 to 1 Rich, moist, well- drained 0 Cladrastis kentukea American Yellowwood 30 - 50’ 40 - 55’ 4 to 8 9 to 1 Adaptable, well- drained N/A 0 Cryptomeria japonica Japanese Cedar 40 - 60’ 30 - 40’ 5 to 8 9 to 4 Moist, rich, well- drained N/A N/A 0 Diospyros virginiana Common Persimmon 35 - 60’ 25 - 35’ 7 to 10 9 to 1 Adaptable, well- drained N/A N/A 46 No No Yes Yes Yes Ilex opaca American Holly 40 - 50’ 20 - 40’ 5 to 9 9 to 1 Average, medium, well-drained N/A 39 Juniperus virginiana Eastern Red Cedar 40 - 50’ 10 - 20’ 3b to 9 9 to 1 Adaptable 42 Maclura pomifera ‘White Shield’ White Shield Osage Orange 20 - 40’ 20 - 40’ 4 to 9 10 to 1 Adaptable N/A 8 Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum, Black Tupelo 30 - 50’ 20 - 30’ 4 to 9 9 to 7 Moist, well-drained, acidic 26 Pistacia chinensis Chinese Pistache 30 - 35’ 25 - 35’ 6 to 9 9 to 6 Moist, well-drained, drought resistant 0 Prunus x yeodensis Yoshino Cherry 35 - 45’ 30 - 40’ 5b to 8a 8 to 3 Well-drained, acidic N/A 0 Quercus muehlenbergii Chinkapin Oak 40 - 50’ 50 - 60’ 5 to 7 8 to 2 Well-drained upland, weakly acidic to alkaline N/A 532 Quercus nuttalli Nuttall Oak 40 - 60’ 40 - 50’ 6b to 8b N/A Well-drained, acidic, extended flooding N/A N/A 532 medium trees (35’-50’) M
  7. 7. Green Vase Zelkova, Zelkova serrata ‘Green Vase’ This winner of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society’s Styer Award, the Green Vase Zelkova is a fast growing cultivar of the Japanese Zelkova. Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease, it has been promoted as a substitute for the American Elm. It is also resistant to drought and harsh winters. The Green Vase Zelkova has a unique grayish white to grayish brown bark. The tree’s young bark is smooth with lenticels. As the tree matures, its bark exfoliates to reveal an orange-brown inner bark. The ascending branch structure makes it an excellent street tree and a nice addition to parks and lawns. Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide Physical Characteristics Growing Conditions Habitat Indicators Suitable Landscape Locations Legend applicable information Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade Mature Crown Form columnar Round oval vase pyramidal spreading irregular multi-stemmed variable Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut M * N/A not available 6 small trees (35’ and under) Scientific Name Common Name Native Evergreen Height Spread CrownForm Hardiness Zones Heat Zones Light Conditions Soil Conditions Drought Tolerant AirPollution Tolerant SaltTolerant Fruit/Nut Producing Numberof Caterpillar Species Streets PavedPlazas Parking Islands Parks/Lawns Buffers/ Screening Bioretention Amelanchier arborea Downy Serviceberry 15 - 25’ 15 - 25’ 4 to 9 9 to1 Moist, well-drained, acidic N/A 124 Amelanchier canadensis Shadblow Serviceberry 5 - 20’ 15 - 20’ 3 to 7 7 to 1 Bogs, swamps 124 Amelanchier x grandiflora Apple Serviceberry 15 - 25’ 15 - 20’ 4 to 9 7 to 1 Moist, well-drained, acidic 124 Amelanchier laevis Allegheny Serviceberry 15 - 25’ 15 - 25’ 4 to 9 9 to 1 Moist, well-drained, acidic 124 Asimina triloba Pawpaw 15 - 20’ 30 - 40’ 5 to 8 8 to 6 Moist, well-drained, acidic Carpinus caroliniana American Hornbeam 20 - 30’ 20 - 30’ 3b to 9 9 to 1 Moist, well-drained, acidic N/A N/A 68 Cercis canadensis Eastern Redbud 25 - 30’ 25 - 35’ 4 to 9 9 to 6 Moist, well-drained 19 Chionanthus retusus Chinese Fringetree 15 - 25’ 20 - 25’ 6 to 8 9 to 3 Adaptable, good drainage N/A N/A 0 Chionanthus virginicus White Fringetree 25 - 30’ 25 - 30’ 4 to 9 9 to 1 Deep, moist, acidic 8 Cornus florida Flowering Dogwood 20 - 30’ 20 - 30’ 5 to 9 9 to 3 Wet, acidic, well- drained 118 Cornus kousa Kousa Dogwood 20 - 30’ 20 - 30’ 5 to 8 8 to 5 Well-drained, acidic N/A 0 Yes No Yes No No Crataegus phaenopyrum Washington Hawthorn 25 - 30’ 20 - 25’ 4 to 8 10 to 1 Moist, fertile 168 No No Yes No No Crataegus spp. Hawthorn 20 - 30’ 20 - 35’ 3 to 8 10 to 1 Adaptable 168 Ficus carica Fig 10 - 15’ 10 - 20’ 7b to 11 N/A Well-drained, light to medium soils N/A N/A 8 No No Yes Yes No Halesia monticola Mountain Silverbell 20 - 40’ 15 - 35’ 5 to 8 8 to 4 Medium moist, well- drained, acidic 7 Hamamelis virginiana Common Witch Hazel 20 - 30’ 20 - 25’ 3b to 8 8 to 1 Most, well-drained N/A 63 Ilex x attenuata ‘Fosteri #2’ Fosters Holly 20 - 30’ 10 - 20’ 6 to 9 9 to 4 Medium moist, well- drained, slightly acidic M M M M M M M
  8. 8. Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida The Flowering Dogwood is native to the mid-Atlantic region but can be found from Southern Maine to Northern Florida and from Eastern Kansas and Eastern Texas. The tree is well-loved for its beautiful white, pink or red bracts, which are smaller specialized leaves that are arranged in groups of four around the tree’s true flowers. The bracts are often mistaken for flowers, but the tree’s flowers are small and greenish yellow. In the spring, the flowers and bracts open before the leaves, creating a stunning show. The Flowering Dogwood thrives on a site with some afternoon shade, and it does not do well in extreme heat. Casey Trees: Urban Tree selection Guide Physical Characteristics Growing Conditions Habitat Indicators Suitable Landscape Locations Legend applicable information Light Conditions Full Sun Part Shade shade Mature Crown Form columnar Round oval vase pyramidal spreading irregular multi-stemmed variable Fruit / Nut Producing fruit berry nut M * N/A not available 7 small Trees (35’ and under) Scientific Name Common Name Native Evergreen Height Spread CrownForm Hardiness Zones Heat Zones Light Conditions Soil Conditions Drought Tolerant AirPollution Tolerant SaltTolerant Fruit/Nut Producing Numberof Caterpillar Species Streets PavedPlazas Parking Islands Parks/Lawns Buffers/ Screening Bioretention Lagerstroemia indica ‘Muskogee’ Muskogee Crapemyrtle 20’ 15’ 6 to 9 11 to 7 Well-drained 3 Lagerstroemia indica ‘Natchez’ Natchez Crapemyrtle 20’ 20’ 6 to 9 11 to 6 Well-drained 3 Lagerstroemia indica ‘Tuscarora’ Tuscarora Crapemyrtle 15’ 15’ 6 to 9 11 to 6 Well-drained 3 Magnolia soulangiana Saucer Magnolia 20 - 30’ 20 - 30’ 4 to 9 9 to 5 Well-drained, rich, porous, acidic N/A 21 Magnolia virginiana Sweetbay Magnolia 10 - 20’ 10 - 20’ 5 to 9 9 to 6 Wet, swampy acidic N/A 21 Malus domestica Apple - edible 10 - 35’ Variable Many different 4 to 8 9 to 1 Well-drained, adaptable N/A 308 Malus spp. Flowering Crabapple 15 - 25’ 10 - 20’ 4a to 8a N/A Moist, well-drained, acidic 308 Ostrya virginiana American Hophornbeam 25 - 40’ 15 - 25’ 3b to 9 9 to 5 Moist, well-drained, acidic 94 Prunus x ‘Okame’ Okame Cherry 15 - 25’ 20’ 6b to 9b 9 to 5 Adaptable N/A 0 Prunus avium Sweet Cherry 15 - 30’ 15 - 30’ 3 to 8 8 to 1 Moist well-drained, moderately acidic pH N/A 456 Prunus cerasus Sour Cherry 10 - 30’ 10 - 20’ 4 to 8 8 to 1 Moist well-drained, moderately acidic pH N/A 456 Prunus domestica Plum 15 - 25’ 15 - 25’ 5 to 8 8 to 3 Moist, well-drained N/A 0 Prunus persica Peach 10 - 25’ 10 - 25’ 4 to 9 9 to 5 Moist, well-drained, sandy, neutral pH 0 Prunus serrulata ‘Kanzan’ Kwanzan Cherry 15 - 25’ 20 - 25’ 5 to 8 9 to 4 Damp, well-drained fertile 0 Pyrus pyrifolia Asian Pear 30’ 20’ 4 to 9 9 to 1 Moist, well-drained, slightly acidic N/A N/A N/A 138 Syringa reticulata Japanese Tree Lilac 20 - 30’ 15 - 25’ 3 to 7 8 to 3 Loose, well-drained, slightly acidic 0 Viburnum prunifolium Blackhaw Viburnum 10 - 15’ 10 - 15’ 3 to 9 N/A Adaptable 104 * M * M * *
  9. 9. CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE Common Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum The Bald Cypress grows naturally from Southern Maryland to Florida, to Eastern Texas and up the Mississippi River Valley. While the tree is at home in swamps, it also does well on dry sites, streets and in bioretention. The Bald Cypress is a deciduous conifer and loses its leaves in the fall. The mature Bald Cypress has a wide trunk flare, which helps to stabilize it in waterlogged or flooded soils. The bark is gray brown to reddish brown with a stringy vertical texture. The Bald Cypress is known for its woody protrusions, or “knees,” that grow up from its roots. In wet sites, the knees are believed to help oxygenate the trees roots. Suitable Landscape Locations Streets. The planting space between the street and the sidewalk. Trees with columnar, oval or vase-shaped crowns that are resistant to compacted soils, road deicers and the heat reflected off dark roadways make good street trees. Paved Plazas. Spaces near or adjacent to office and retail buildings that are surrounded by paving. Trees that are low-maintenance and salt and pollutant tolerant perform best in these areas. Parking Islands. Parking lot tree spaces. Trees with an upright form that are heat, salt and drought tolerant are recommended. Trees that can litter the parking lot with fruit, branches or large leaves are avoided. Small or medium trees are best, unless the parking lot is designed to provide substantial soil volume for larger trees. Habitat Indicators Fruit or Nut Producing: trees that produce fruits or nuts. Berries (which are a type of fruit) and nuts provide a food source for songbirds and other animals. In this guide, trees that produce fruits are edible by humans. Species Hosted: the number of different butterfly, skipper, and moth caterpillar species that a tree supports (a potential indicator of tree’s ability to support biodiversity). 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Tot Numberofmothsandbutterflies Tree Genus; Common Name Quercus;Oak557 Prunus;Cherry,peach,plum,almond456 Salix;Willow455 Betula;Birch411 Populus;Aspen,cottonwood,poplar358 500 400 300 200 100 0 Trees and Biodiversity Trees and plants can serve as a home for bees, butterflies, birds, or squirrels; the vegetation itself serves as food for herbivores, and the herbivores serve as food for larger animals. Doug Tallamy, entomologist at the University of Delaware, has shown that most insects prefer plants native to the region/climate in which their species evolved. In an on-going study, Tallamy has ranked plant genera based on the number of moths and butterflies found developing on vegetation (both native and non-native). Suggested Trees for Biodiversity (Genus) - Quercus, Oak - Prunus, Fruit Trees - Salix, Willow - Betula, Birch - Populus, Aspen, Poplar 8 Parks / Lawns. Parks (land for public use and recreation) and lawns (private property) are open spaces that provide ample and healthy rooting space for trees. Due to their generally non-compacted, nutrient and moisture rich soil, they are prime locations for larger canopy trees and trees with shallow root systems. Buffers / Screening. A landscaping strategy that often uses evergreen trees to naturally reduce noise or visual pollution and create privacy between dwellings or differing land uses. Evergreen trees used as buffers should be pruned according to spacing and desired level of privacy. This guide recommends both evergreen and deciduous trees for this category. Bioretention. Depressions or shallow basins in the landscape that slow and treat stormwater runoff onsite. Trees that perform best in bioretention require little maintenance, are salt and drought tolerant and can survive up to three days of standing water. Trees and Bioretention Trees help to mitigate stormwater runoff, absorb pollutants, prevent erosion and improve infiltration. By directing stormwater runoff into infiltration planters that feature trees, designers can create spaces where trees can thrive and help keep streams and rivers cleaner. Suggested Trees for Bioretention (Species) - Liquidambar styraciflua, American Sweetgum LARGE - Taxodium distichum, Common Baldcypress LARGE - Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak LARGE - Betula nigra, River Birch MEDIUM - Quercus nuttalli, Nuttall Oak MEDIUM Habitat Indicators Fruit or Nut Producing. Trees that produce fruits or nuts. Berries (which are a type of fruit) and nuts provide a food source for songbirds and other animals. In this guide, the term “fruit” refers to trees that produce fruits that are edible for humans. Number of Caterpillar Species. The number of butterfly, skipper and moth caterpillar species that a tree supports, which can be an indicator of a tree’s ability to support biodiversity. Trees and Biodiversity Trees serve as habitats and food sources for beneficial animals and insects. In an ongoing study, Dr. Doug Tallamy, entomologist at the University of Delaware, examined plant genera and the moth and butterfly caterpillar species they attracted. Through this study, native trees have been found to host a more diverse range of caterpillar species. Due to these initial findings, Tallamy’s research can be used as an indicator of a tree’s ability to support biodiversity. Suggested Trees for Biodiversity (Genus) - Quercus; Oak - Prunus; Cherry, Plum, Peach - Salix; Willow - Betula; Birch - Populus; Poplar 8 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Tot Numberofcaterpillarspecies Tree Genus Quercus;Oak557 Prunus;Cherry,Plum,Peach456 Salix;Willow455 Betula;Birch411 Populus;Poplar358 500 400 300 200 100 0 CASEY TREES: Urban Tree selection Guide 8CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE Common Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum The Bald Cypress grows naturally from Southern Maryland to Florida, to Eastern Texas and up the Mississippi River Valley. While the tree is at home in swamps, it also does well on dry sites, streets and in bioretention. The Bald Cypress is a deciduous conifer and loses its leaves in the fall. The mature Bald Cypress has a wide trunk flare, which helps to stabilize it in waterlogged or flooded soils. The bark is gray brown to reddish brown with a stringy vertical texture. The Bald Cypress is known for its woody protrusions, or “knees,” that grow up from its roots. In wet sites, the knees are believed to help oxygenate the trees roots. Suitable Landscape Locations Streets. The planting space between the street and the sidewalk. Trees with columnar, oval or vase-shaped crowns that are resistant to compacted soils, road deicers and the heat reflected off dark roadways make good street trees. Paved Plazas. Spaces near or adjacent to office and retail buildings that are surrounded by paving. Trees that are low-maintenance and salt and pollutant tolerant perform best in these areas. Parking Islands. Parking lot tree spaces. Trees with an upright form that are heat, salt and drought tolerant are recommended. Trees that can litter the parking lot with fruit, branches or large leaves are avoided. Small or medium trees are best, unless the parking lot is designed to provide substantial soil volume for larger trees. Habitat Indicators Fruit or Nut Producing: trees that produce fruits or nuts. Berries (which are a type of fruit) and nuts provide a food source for songbirds and other animals. In this guide, trees that produce fruits are edible by humans. Species Hosted: the number of different butterfly, skipper, and moth caterpillar species that a tree supports (a potential indicator of tree’s ability to support biodiversity). 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Tot Numberofmothsandbutterflies Tree Genus; Common Name Quercus;Oak557 Prunus;Cherry,peach,plum,almond456 Salix;Willow455 Betula;Birch411 Populus;Aspen,cottonwood,poplar358 500 400 300 200 100 0 Trees and Biodiversity Trees and plants can serve as a home for bees, butterflies, birds, or squirrels; the vegetation itself serves as food for herbivores, and the herbivores serve as food for larger animals. Doug Tallamy, entomologist at the University of Delaware, has shown that most insects prefer plants native to the region/climate in which their species evolved. In an on-going study, Tallamy has ranked plant genera based on the number of moths and butterflies found developing on vegetation (both native and non-native). Suggested Trees for Biodiversity (Genus) - Quercus, Oak - Prunus, Fruit Trees - Salix, Willow - Betula, Birch - Populus, Aspen, Poplar 8 Parks / Lawns. Parks (land for public use and recreation) and lawns (private property) are open spaces that provide ample and healthy rooting space for trees. Due to their generally non-compacted, nutrient and moisture rich soil, they are prime locations for larger canopy trees and trees with shallow root systems. Buffers / Screening. A landscaping strategy that often uses evergreen trees to naturally reduce noise or visual pollution and create privacy between dwellings or differing land uses. Evergreen trees used as buffers should be pruned according to spacing and desired level of privacy. This guide recommends both evergreen and deciduous trees for this category. Bioretention. Depressions or shallow basins in the landscape that slow and treat stormwater runoff onsite. Trees that perform best in bioretention require little maintenance, are salt and drought tolerant and can survive up to three days of standing water. Trees and Bioretention Trees help to mitigate stormwater runoff, absorb pollutants, prevent erosion and improve infiltration. By directing stormwater runoff into infiltration planters that feature trees, designers can create spaces where trees can thrive and help keep streams and rivers cleaner. Suggested Trees for Bioretention (Species) - Liquidambar styraciflua, American Sweetgum LARGE - Taxodium distichum, Common Baldcypress LARGE - Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak LARGE - Betula nigra, River Birch MEDIUM - Quercus nuttalli, Nuttall Oak MEDIUM
  10. 10. 9 Apple: 7 Bald Cypress, Common: 4 Basswood (Linden, American): 4 Beech, American: 3 Birch, River: 5 Black Gum (Black Tupelo): 5 Catalpa, Northern: 3 Cedar, Deodar, Japanese: 5 Cherry, Kwanzan, Okame, Sour, Sweet: 7 Cherry, Yoshino: 5 Crabapple, spp.: 7 Crapemyrtle, Muskogee, Natchez, Tuscarora: 7 Dogwood, Flowering, Kousa: 6 Elm, Jefferson American, New Harmony American, Valley Forge American: 4 Fig: 6 Fringetree, Chinese, White: 6 Ginkgo: 3 Hackberry: 5 Hawthorn, spp., Washington: 6 Hickory, Shagbark: 3 Holly, American: 5 Holly, Fosters: 6 Hophornbeam, American: 7 Hornbeam, American: 6 Katsura: 5 Kentucky Coffee Tree, Fruitless: 3 Lilac, Japanese Tree: 7 Linden, American (Basswood), Littleleaf, Silver: 4 Locust, Black: 4 Locust, Honey: 3 Magnolia, Saucer, Sweetbay: 7 Magnolia, Southern: 3 Maple, Red: 5 Oak, Chinkapin, Nuttall: 5 Oak, Bur, Northern Red, Overcup, Pin, Shingle, Southern Red, Willow: 4 Oak, Scarlet, Swamp White, White: 3 Osage Orange, White Shield: 5 Pagoda Tree, Japanese: 4 Pawpaw: 6 Peach: 7 Pear, Asian: 7 Persimmon, Common: 5 Pine, Eastern White: 3 Pistache, Chinese: 5 Planetree, London: 3 Plum: 7 Redbud, Eastern: 6 Redcedar, Eastern: 5 Redwood, Dawn: 3 Serviceberry, Allegheny, Apple, Downy, Shadblow: 6 Silverbell, Mountain: 6 Sweetgum, American, Cherokee, Low- Fruiting: 3 Sycamore: 3 Tulip Poplar (Tuliptree): 3 Viburnum, Blackhaw: 7 Witch Hazel, Common: 6 Yellowwood, American: 5 Zelkova, Green Vase, Japanese: 4 Images cover Erin. Ginkgo Trees & Rowhouses. 2013. Flickr. Web 2 Oct. 2014. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/ ekelly80/10769096175/in/set-72157639333515454> pg 2 Singleton, Marcela. Hackberry at Mc Donagh 15 School. n.d. Dirt Garden. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://dirtgarden.wordpress. com/2011/10/03/trees-of-the-french-quarter/> pg 3 Haegele, Liz. Quercus bicolor. n.d. The Scott Arboretum’s Garden Seeds. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://blogs.scottarboretum. org/gardenseeds/2008/06/quercus-bicolor/> pg 5 Spruce, Jon. Yellowwood. 2012. Philly Trees. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://phillytrees.blogspot.com/2012/06/quick-picks- three-trees.html> pg 6 Viljoen, Marie. Fall in Brooklyn. N.d. 66 Square Feet (Plus). Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://66squarefeet.blogspot. com/2010/10/fall-in-brooklyn.html> pg 7 P Walk. St. Dogwood. 2014. Washington DC Trees. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. < http://www.washingtondctrees.com/> pg 8 Marritz, Leda. Ginkgo. 2011. Deep Root. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.deeproot.com/blog/blog-entries/the-best-street- trees-reader-edition-results> City of Berkeley. Rain Garden. n.d. City of Berkley, CA. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.ci.berkeley.ca.us/Public_Works/ Sewers_-_Storm/Watershed_Resources.aspx> Garden Ally. Downtown-Views. 2011. The Garden Alley. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://gardenally.blogspot.com/2011/11/ downtown-views.html> Green Works. Rockwood Water Reservoir: n.d. Greenworks. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://greenworkspc.com/works/ waterwastewater/rockwood-water-resevoir/> Helms, Kanoa. Mineral Wells Picnic Area. 2009. Daily Venture. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.dailyventure.com/travel/ Griffith-Park-the-Heart-of-Los-Angeles> Swill. Untitled. 2010. Southwest…The Little Quadrant That Could. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.swtlqtc.com/2010/05/ wells-to-hold-campaign-event-on-sunday.html> Streets of Washington. Ginkgo trees on Cumberland Street, NW. 2011. Flickr. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <https://www.flickr.com/ photos/streetsofdc/6338558934/in/photostream/> Common Name Index REFERENCES + INDEX CASEY TREES: URBAN TREE SELECTION GUIDE The trees featured in this guide were drawn from more than 200 tree species planted or recommended by D.C.’s Urban Forestry Administration; Arlington County, Virginia; Prince George’s County, Maryland and Casey Trees. Information about each tree is drawn primarily from the Manual of Woody Landscape Plants Fifth Edition and Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America. Other sources were consulted to provide additional information. Web sources were accessed between January and November 2014. Works Cited Appleton, Bonnie, et al. “Screening.” Virginia Cooperative Extension . Publication 430-025. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http:// pubs.ext.vt.edu/430/430-025/430-025.html> Beckerman, Janna and Rosie Lerner. “Salt Damage in Landscape Plants.” Purdue Extension. ID-412-W. West Lafayette: Purdue University Cooperative Extension, 2009. Web. 2 October 2014. <https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/ID/ID- 412-W.pdf> Brand, Mark. “Plant Database.” UCONN Plant Database. University of Connecticut. 2014. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.hort. uconn.edu/Plants/>. Dirr, Michael. A Manual of Woody Landscape Plants. 5th ed. Champagne: Stipes Publishing, LLC. 1998. Print. District of Columbia. Green Infrastructure Standards. Washington: District of Columbia Department of Transportation, 2014. Web. 2 October 2014. <http://ddot.dc.gov/GreenInfrastructure>. Hightshoe, Gary. Native Trees, Shrubs, and Vines for Urban and Rural America. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988. Print. Kress, Stephen. The Audubon Society Guide to Attracting Birds: Creating Natural Habitats for Properties Large and Small. 2nd ed. Ithaca or London: Cornell University Press, 2006. Print. Ladybird Johnson Wildlife Center. University of Texas at Austin, 2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.wildflower.org/> Learn 2 Grow. Preferred Commerce, 2006-2014. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <http://www.learn2grow.com> State of Maryland. Maryland Department of the Environment, Water Management Administration. Maryland Stormwater Design Manual: Appendix A. Landscaping Guidance for Stormwater BMPs - General Landscaping Guidance. Baltimore M.D.: MDE, 2009. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://www.mde.state.md.us/programs/Water/StormwaterManagementProgram/ MarylandStormwaterDesignManual/Pages/Programs/WaterPrograms/SedimentandStormwater/stormwater_design/ index.aspx> Missouri Botanical Garden. 2014. 2 Jun 2014. <www.mobot.org> Natural Resources Conservation Service Connecticut. “Native, Invasive, and Other Plant-Related Definitions.” U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. Web. 1 Nov 2014. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/ct/technical/ecoscience/ invasive/?cid=nrcs142p2_011124 Natural Resources Conservation Service Connecticut. “Plant Hardiness Zone Map – US Map 300 dpi (CMYK).” U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2002. Web. 1 Nov 2014. <http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/ct/technical/ecoscience/ invasive/?cid=nrcs142p2_011124> North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Gardening.ces.ncsu.edu. NC State University A&T State University. 2014. Web 2 Jun 2014. <http://extensiongardener.ces.ncsu.edu/spotlight/plant-database/>. “Map Downloads.” Planthardiness.ars.usda.gov U.S. Department of Agriculture. n.d. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://planthardiness.ars. usda.gov/PHZMWeb/Downloads.aspx> Seiler, John and John Peterson. “Tree Identification Factsheets.” Forest Biology and Dendrology Education. VirginaTech Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation. 2010. Web. 2 May 2014. <http://dendro.cnre.vt.edu/>. Slattery, Britt E., Kathryn Reshetiloff, and Susan M. Zwicker. Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Annapolis: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Chesapeake Bay Field Office. 2003. Print. Tallamy, Douglas. Bringing Nature Home: How to Sustain Wildlife in Our Gardens. Portland or London: Timber Press, 2007. Print. Tallamy, Douglas. “Bringing Nature Home.” Plantnative.com. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2014. <plantnative.com>
  11. 11. CASEY TREES WHO WE ARE Casey Trees is a Washington, D.C. nonprofit with a mission to “restore, enhance and protect the tree canopy of the nation’s capital.” We pursue our mission through education, community action and research. 3030 12th Street, NE Washington, DC 20017 202.833.4010 caseytrees.org

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