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Coping strategies ppt

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coping strategies...techniques and how to stay positive in life

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Coping strategies ppt

  1. 1. Prepared By: Janeth O. Buhawe,RN
  2. 2. Coping (psychology)  In psychology, coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master, minimize or tolerate stress or conflict.  Psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping skills.
  3. 3. Types of coping strategies 1. appraisal-focused: Directed towards challenging one's own assumptions, adaptive cognitive. *occur when the person modifies the way they think, for example: employing denial, or distancing oneself from the problem. People may alter the way they think about a problem by altering their goals and values, such as by seeing the humor in a situation: "some have suggested that humor may play a greater role as a stress moderator among women than men
  4. 4. Types of coping strategies 2. problem-focused: Directed towards reducing or eliminating a stressor, adaptive behavioral People using problem-focused strategies try to deal with the cause of their problem. They do this by finding out information on the problem and learning new skills to manage the problem. Problem-focused coping is aimed at changing or eliminating the source of the stress. The three problem-focused coping strategies identified by Folkman and Lazarus are taking control, information seeking, and evaluating the pros and cons.
  5. 5. Types of coping strategies 3. emotion-focused: Directed towards changing one's own emotional reaction  involve releasing pent-up emotions, distracting oneself, managing hostile feelings, meditating or using systematic relaxation procedures. Emotion-focused coping "is oriented toward managing the emotions that accompany the perception of stress3
  6. 6. five emotion-focused coping strategies  disclaiming  escape-avoidance  accepting responsibility or blame  exercising self-control  positive reappraisal
  7. 7. What is the focus of this coping mechanism?  The focus of this coping mechanism is to change the meaning of the stressor or transfer attention away from it. For example, reappraising tries to find a more positive meaning of the cause of the stress in order to reduce the emotional component of the stressor. Avoidance of the emotional distress will distract from the negative feelings associated with the stressor. Emotion-focused coping is well suited for stressors that seem uncontrollable (ex. a terminal illness diagnosis, or the loss of a loved one).  Some mechanisms of emotion focused coping, such as distancing or avoidance, can have alleviating outcomes for a short period of time, however they can be detrimental when used over an extended period. Positive emotion- focused mechanisms, such as seeking social support, and positive re-appraisal, are associated with beneficial outcomes
  8. 8. Which type is more useful?  Typically, people use a mixture of all three types of coping strategies, and coping skills will usually change over time  . All these methods can prove useful, but some claim that those using problem- focused coping strategies will adjust better to life.
  9. 9. Problem-focused versus emotion-focused  Problem-focused coping mechanisms may allow an individual greater perceived control over their problem, whereas emotion-focused coping may sometimes lead to a reduction in perceived control (maladaptive coping).
  10. 10. Positive techniques (adaptive or constructive coping)  proactive coping. Anticipation is when one reduces the stress of some difficult challenge by anticipating what it will be like and preparing for how one is going to cope with it.  social coping, such as seeking social support from others  meaning-focused coping, in which the person concentrates on deriving meaning from the stressful experience.  Yet another way of coping is avoiding thoughts or circumstances that cause stress.  Adequate nutrition, exercise, sleep contribute to stress management, as do physical fitness and relaxation techniques such as progressive muscle relaxation.
  11. 11. What is one of the most positive methods?
  12. 12.  One of the most positive methods people use to cope with painful situations is humor.  You feel things to the full but you master them by turning it all into pleasure and fun
  13. 13. While dealing with stress it is important to deal with your physical, mental, and social well being.  Physically, one should maintain one's health and learn to relax if one finds oneself under stress.  Mentally it is important to think positive thoughts, value oneself, demonstrate good time management, plan and think ahead, and express emotions.  Socially one should communicate with people and seek new activities. By following these simple strategies, one will have an easier time responding to stresses in one's life
  14. 14. Negative techniques (maladaptive coping or non- coping)  Dissociation is the ability of the mind to separate and compartmentalize thoughts, memories, and emotions. This is often associated with post traumatic stress syndrome.  Sensitization is when a person seeks to learn about, rehearse, and/or anticipate fearful events in a protective effort to prevent these events from occurring in the first place.  Safety behaviors are demonstrated when individuals with anxiety disorders come to rely on something, or someone, as a means of coping with their excessive anxiety.  Anxious avoidance is when a person avoids anxiety provoking situations by all means. This is the most common strategy.  Escape is closely related to avoidance. This technique is often demonstrated by people who experience panic attacks or have phobias. These people want to flee the situation at the first sign of anxiety.
  15. 15. Historical psychoanalytic theory  Karen Horney -In the 1940s, the German Freudian psychoanalyst  "developed her mature theory in which individuals cope with the anxiety produced by feeling unsafe, unloved, and undervalued by disowning their spontaneous feelings and developing elaborate strategies of defense
  16. 16. Karen Horney  defined four so-called coping strategies to define interpersonal relations, one describing psychologically healthy individuals, the others describing neurotic states .
  17. 17.  Neurotic a person affected by neurosis (overly anxious/fearful)
  18. 18.  The healthy strategy she termed "Moving with" is that with which psychologically healthy people develop relationships. It involves compromise. In order to move with, there must be communication, agreement, disagreement, compromise, and decisions.  The three other strategies she described - "Moving toward", "Moving against" and "Moving away" - represented neurotic, unhealthy strategies people utilize in order to protect themselves.
  19. 19.  Horney investigated these patterns of neurotic needs (compulsive attachments).Everyone needs these things, but the neurotics need them more than the normal person. The neurotics might need these more because of difficulties within their lives. If the neurotic does not experience these needs, he or she will experience anxiety.
  20. 20. The 10 needs of a Neurotic 1) Affection and approval, the need to please others and be liked 2) A partner who will take over one's life, based on the idea that love will solve all of one's problems 3) Restriction of one's life to narrow borders, to be undemanding, satisfied with little, inconspicuous; to simplify one's life 4) Power, for control over others, for a facade of omnipotence, caused by a desperate desire for strength and dominance 5) Exploitation of others; to get the better of them 6) Social recognition or prestige, caused by an abnormal concern for appearances and popularity 7) Personal admiration 8) Personal achievement. 9) Self-sufficiency and independence 10) Perfection and unassailability, a desire to be perfect and a fear of being flawed.
  21. 21. "Moving toward"  In Compliance, also known as "Moving toward" or the "Self-effacing solution", the individual moves towards those perceived as a threat to avoid retribution and getting hurt, "making any sacrifice, no matter how detrimental. "The argument is, "If I give in, I won't get hurt." This means that: if I give everyone I see as a potential threat whatever they want, I won't be injured (physically or emotionally). This strategy includes neurotic needs one, two, and three.
  22. 22. "Moving away"  In Withdrawal, also known as "Moving away" or the "Resigning solution", individuals distance themselves from anyone perceived as a threat to avoid getting hurt - "the 'mouse-hole' attitude...the security of unobtrusiveness."The argument is, "If I do not let anyone close to me, I won't get hurt." A neurotic, according to Horney desires to be distant because of being abused. If they can be the extreme introvert, no one will ever develop a relationship with them. If there is no one around, nobody can hurt them. These "moving away" people fight personality, so they often come across as cold or shallow. This is their strategy. They emotionally remove themselves from society. Included in this strategy are neurotic needs three, nine, and ten
  23. 23. "Moving against"  In Aggression, also known as the "Moving against" or the "Expansive solution", the individual threatens those perceived as a threat to avoid getting hurt. Children might react to parental in-differences by displaying anger or hostility. This strategy includes neurotic needs four, five, six, seven, and eight
  24. 24. Gender differences  Gender differences in coping strategies are the ways in which men and women differ in managing psychological stress.  There is evidence that males often develop stress due to their careers, whereas females often encounter stress due to issues in interpersonal relationships
  25. 25.  In general, such differences as exist indicate that women tend to employ emotion-focused coping and the "tend-and-befriend" response to stress, whereas men tend to use problem- focused coping and the "fight-or-flight" response, perhaps because societal standards encourage men to be more individualistic, while women are often expected to be interpersonal
  26. 26. Physiological basis  Hormones also play a part in stress management  Cortisol, a stress hormone, was found to be elevated in males during stressful situations. In females, however, cortisol levels were decreased in stressful situations, and instead, an increase in limbic activity was discovered.
  27. 27.  Many researchers believe that these results underlie the reasons why men administer a fight-or-flight reaction to stress; whereas, females have a tend- and-befriend reaction. The "fight-or-flight" response activates the sympathetic nervous system in the form of increased focus levels, adrenaline, and epinephrine. Conversely, the "tend-and-befriend" reaction refers to the tendency of women to protect their offspring and relatives.  Although these two reactions support a genetic basis to differences in behavior, one should not assume that in general females cannot implement "fight-or- flight" behavior or that males cannot implement "tend-and-befriend" behavior