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NARRATIVE: Today I am going to introduce you to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents and discuss how schools, in partnership with families and communities, can help promote youth physical activity. NOTE TO FACILITATOR: Insert your name, school district, the name of your organization or group you represent, and the date of presentation in the text box. You can also remove this text box.
NARRATIVE: By the end of this presentation you will be able to Identify the benefits of regular physical activity among youth. Describe the key physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents. Describe the role of schools, in partnership with families and communities, in promoting physical activity among children and adolescents.
NARRATIVE: Before we start talking about the Physical Activity Guidelines, I want to introduce you to Colin. Colin is a 7-year-old child. He participates in many types of activities in many places. The following activities describe a day in the life of Colin: He walks to and from school almost every day. During his physical education class, he jumps rope and does gymnastics and sit-ups. During recess, he plays on the playground. These activities involve running and climbing. After school, he watches his favorite television show, does homework and eats dinner After dinner, he plays soccer with his family. At night, he finishes homework plays video games. Some of these activities are physical activities while others are sedentary activities. In order to better understand how these activities are different from one another, let’s first talk about what physical activity is and why it is important for children and adolescents. NOTE TO FACILITATOR: You may change the child’s name and/or activities (replace with similar level of physical activity) that are familiar and appropriate for your audience.
NARRATIVE: Physical activity is a bodily movement that uses energy to contract muscles. (NOTE TO FACILITATOR: Provide a visual demonstration to the audience by moving your arms or legs.) NARRATIVE, CONTINUED: Physical activity can be structured, like playing on a basketball team, or unstructured, like playing tag outside or riding bikes. Physical activity can also be part of everyday activities such as taking the dog for a walk or sweeping the floor. There are many health benefits associated with regular physical activity. Physically active youth have higher levels of cardiovascular fitness compared with youth who are inactive. Physical activity helps to build and maintain stronger bones and muscles. Many of the risk factors for chronic diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes, begin to develop early in life. Regular physical activity reduces the risk of developing these risk factors and of becoming obese. Regular physical activity also reduces the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Research shows that physical activity among adolescents can positively affect their concentration, memory and classroom behavior. Establishing regular physical activity early in life makes it more likely that children will remain healthy as adults.
NARRATIVE: In 2008, the federal government published the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to provide information and guidance to policymakers, health professionals, and members of the public on the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial health benefits. These are the first physical activity guidelines ever to be published by the federal government. The guidelines are science-based recommendations for persons aged 6 and older, including children and adolescents aged 6–17. The Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents state that Children and adolescents should do 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of physical activity per day. The guidelines state that the physical activity should at least be of moderate-intensity, and include vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week. Muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activities should each be included at least 3 days a week, as part of the 60 minutes of daily physical activity. Each of these types of physical activity offer important health benefits. At first glance, these guidelines might appear complicated. However, keep in mind the following two key points: Vigorous, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities should be part of the 60 minutes of daily physical activity 2) Many physical activities combine vigorous activity, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening. For example, jumping rope is both vigorous and bone-strengthening. The guidelines also emphasize the importance of participating in a variety of activities that are age-appropriate and enjoyable.
NARRATIVE: What does all of this actually mean? The key points to remember are that children and adolescents should do At least 60 minutes of physical activity every day; and Most of the 60 minutes should be spent doing aerobic activities. It is very important that children and adolescents participate in a variety of activities, especially activities that they enjoy. This enhances skill development, reduces the risk of overuse injuries and increases the likelihood of continuing to be active as they get older. It is also important to know that the Guidelines take into consideration the natural activity patterns of children. Children often move between short bursts of activity and short periods of rest. All episodes of moderate- or vigorous-intensity activities count towards the daily requirement. Unstructured active play can provide all 3 types of physical activity.
NARRATIVE: Now let’s talk about each of the three types of physical activity outlined in the guidelines. The first is aerobic activity. Aerobic activities keep your body moving enough to increase your heart rate and make you breathe harder. There are two intensities of aerobic activity. moderate-intensity vigorous-intensity Examples of aerobic activities include running, hopping, skipping, jumping rope, swimming, dancing and bicycling. The intensity levels of these activities can be either moderate or vigorous depending on factors such as speed and level of effort.
NARRATIVE: Children and adolescents can meet the guidelines by doing a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activities. However, youth should not only do moderate-intensity activity. It is important to include vigorous-intensity activities because they can help to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. What is the difference between moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities? It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. As a rule of thumb, on a scale of 0 to 10, where sitting is a 0 and the highest level of effort possible is 10, moderate-intensity activity is a 5 or 6. Young people doing moderate-intensity physical activity will notice their heart beating faster than normal and breathing will be harder than normal. Vigorous-intensity activity is a 7 or 8 out of 10. Young people doing vigorous-intensity activity will notice their heart beating much faster than normal and breathing will be much harder than normal. The same activities, such as bike riding or walking, could be a moderate- or vigrous-intensity activity, depending upon the amount of energy the person is exerting.
NARRATIVE: Each of the sectors shown on this diagram has a role in promoting physical activity among children and adolescents. No one sector can solely promote and improve youth physical activity. Collaboration across sectors will likely have the most effective impact, through consistent messaging and multiple opportunities to engage youth in physical activity.
NARRATIVE: Are there any questions? NOTE TO FACILITATOR: After answering participant questions, distribute one copy of the Youth Physical Activity, The Role of Schools fact sheet to each participant. Introduce and conduct the optional final activities. Thank participants for attending and ask participants to complete and submit the feedback form for The Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents presentation.
Jaminson Raúl Ricardo Sejín
Maestría Salud Publica
Financiamiento del Sector Salud:
Tensiones, Política y Políticas
Ramón Abel Castaño Yepes
MD – Esp - M.Sc. - Ph.D
• Salud: ¿Medio o Fin?
• Salud Vs Protección
• Financiamiento y Desempeño
• Proceso Político y Políticas
Salud: ¿Medio o Fin?
• Salud = Desarrollo.
• Mayor Productividad (Población Bajos Ingresos).
• Maximizar la Salud >< Restricción presupuestal.
• Ideología Política Atención Curativa.
• “Modelo Hegemónico de la Salud”
Salud Vs Protección Financiera
• Empeorar Condiciones
• Liquidación Activos
• Asumir Deudas de
• Mancomunación de
Financiamiento y Desempeño
• “Impuestos a la nomina” han tenido un efecto sobre el mercado
Impuestos (Ley 100 de 1993) para Pensiones y Salud.
4% el Empleo1
Preocupación (Alta informalidad).
Empleador transfiere parte del impuesto al empleado ( 2%).
• POS y el debate político que genera.
Incrementar POS (Beneficios Corto Plazo).
Financiar Demanda Tutelas (1% cotización).
1. Kugler and Kugler, 2002.
Proceso Político y Políticas de Salud
• Razones de tipo económico.
• Proceso de asignación de recursos
• Justicia distributiva y priorización
“Regla del Rescate”.