1. Unit 19: Screenwriting: Leaning aim A
Section 1: Obtaining work as a screenwriter- Commissioning
A commissioning editor are responsible for overseeing what is going on while writing a
script, they are reasonable for choosing a particular genre, selecting what ideas to use while
writing the script, and allocating funds. Commissioning editors are effective because they
have full control on what is going on throughout the production and without them, they
writers may not have a full idea on what genre they are writing a script for and how much it
might be to produce the script.
A director is a person who strategically organizes what each person does in a business or
industry. In screenwriting, the director invitations the ideas and provides the writers on
when they need to write a script about. They make interpretation on what the script should
look like and how they should live up to their standards. For example, the film Alien 3 went
through many directors until director David Fincher took on the project. Due to this, the film
script went through many rewrites and went through multiple writers. The project
eventually settled with writers Gordon Carroll, David Giler and Walter Hill. Due to many
rewrites and writers, one writer in particular called WilliamGibson wrote a script for the
film but was never used for the final drafts. However, in 2019, his Alien 3 script became a
audio drama. Directors are effective because they help envision what the script should look
like to try and make the best written script possible and without a director, the writers may
not have a clear understanding on what the script should look like and how it was meant to
be envisioned which can lead to poor writing and overscheduling due to a lack of ideas for
A script editor is when someone edited a certain part of a script or a whole script to ensure
that the script is suitable and appropriate for the product they are producing. They critically
analyze and overview the screenwriting process to ensure that the script lives up to the
director expectation and ensure the script is always appreciate for a certain neigh or
demographic. Overall, script editors are effective because they ensure that the
development of the script runs smoothly and to identify and problems during the writing
possess. Without script editors, a script could be filled with grammatical errors or it might
not live up to the director expectations.
An agent in screenwriting is a person who supports the screenwriters throughout the
production to ensure that things go smoothly. For example, the CAA in America is an agency
who supported clients such as J.J. Abrams and Taika Waititi. Agents are effective because
they help organize various contacts related to the script with can lead to a better work
environment and help negotiate appropriate deals. Without an agent, if a writer gets into
legal trouble due plagiarismor example, they will have to support which could lead to a
possibility of a production being shut down.
The writers in a screenplay are responsible for writing the dialogue in the script. They are
responsible for doing research on particular subjects that can be related to the story of the
production that will help with the script. They need to develop a script with and engaging
2. narrative to help engage the audience with the dialogue. For example, when the Oscar
winning filmmakers Joel and Ethan Coen wrote the script for No country for old men, they
had to make sure that they adapt the original source material from the novel, and that it is
engaging to the audience. They wrote the script by spending time talking through the story,
characters and themes and they made sure that it hit the motifs they were aiming for.
Overall, writers are effective because they help create engaging scripts and help create an
engaging script which could have relatable and engaging stories and dialogue and emotional
backbone’s or the narratives as well.
Corporations can be used to give many writers and students a chance to submit there one
or many scripts which could end up being commissioned and possibly green lit for further
production. The corporation will then be responsible for budget planning and distributing
your script. For example, the BBC website has a various range of scripts that the public can
download and reads for themselves. This help the BBC give more insight on what is most
popular within the public what witch particular script is most popular.
Independent production companies mainly strike deals with other companies to help
produce certain marital. For example, writer could submit their scripts to help give feedback
on what they have wrote and they agree with help contribute to the film if the script lives
up to their standard’s.
Organizations are used to help set up certain scenarios to help kick start a writer’s career in
Screenwriting competitions are a good way to try and kick start your career in
screenwriting. However, it is not a one-way ticket to success. However, your script may have
a chance of being read by a potential producer, agent or managers which can lead to your
screenwriting career kick starting.
Section 2: Working as a writer- The Demands and requirements
When working in screenwriting, you have got to make sure that when you are writing your
script, you have got to make sure that you are using the right formatting standards for the
industry you are working in. It is crucial that you have the same font size for each page of
the script. The script also shows an estimated runtime of the actual film. For example, one
page is roughly one minute of the filmand if the script is one hundred pages long, then the
runtime of the film is roughly going to be one hounded minute.
Agent in the screenwriting industry represent the writers who are making the script and
they make sure that the client stays out of legal trouble and make virous deal with other
companies to help benefit the client. The pay for an agent can be different in many ways. It
mostly depends on how much the client is payed for writing the script. The pay of an agent
is usually between 10-25%. Agents are important because some companies don’t accept
clients to write scripts if they don’t have an agent representing them throughout the
3. Royalty payments are spilt between the writer, the producers and the agents. They royalty
payments is the payment that all 3 will receive but they can be varied in payment. For
example, Reece Thompson was just 5 years old when he played a third-class boy form the
film titanic and each year, he received paychecks for his performance in the film due to
Time management is vital is writing a script to a film or tv series. For example, wasting time
and lead to overscheduling and the script being unfinished. And also leaving the script
unfinished can lead to the writer because less interested in finishing the script. Writer must
always try and meet deadlines no matter what. If deadlines are not met, it can cause stands
to other companies to break, various deal cut off and you could also lose your job in the
processes. If the writer does not have the script ready, it can cause many delays such as the
whole filmbeing pushed back and this can lead to a drop in box office profit and can
damage reputations of many other people working on the film. Some films try to stay out of
the competition or even compete in the competition to try and get the most money out of
their filmpossible and try to win. If the film is pushed back due to issue with the script, they
could lose the commutation or get caught inside of it with can lead to money loss.
When scripts are sold to a publisher or filmcompany, the writer now has no control on what
is going to happen for the rest of the film, and they are barley involved in the development
of it. Sometimes, some scripts that are bought are don’t make it the production phase which
may be due to other filmor tv shows already in production.
Section 3: The Scriptwriting process- Legal and Ethical
Copyright is important in screenwriting because when you are writing a script, you want to
make sure that your script is not plagiarized. One way that you can protect your script is to
put a copyright symbol on each page of your script to help prevent your work and ideas
being stollen. Without copyrights to a script. You work and ideas could be plagiarized, and
your credit may go unnoticed.
Plagiarism is when you take a sample of a someone else’s work and use it in their work
without giving them credit or asking them for permeation. Without permeation or giving
them credit, your work can be taking down and you could possibly get into legal trouble.
Plagiarismis lead to many legal troubles, such as fines and depending in severity, it can lead
to prison sentences. Writers have to be extremely careful when writing their scripts to make
sure that there are no similarities in other scripts and ideas. For example, James Cameron’s
Avatar was accused of plagiarismin 2014. A man accused James Cameron of stealing his
idea from a short story that he wrote. However, James Cameron won the plagiarismcase
and this help him stop receiving any other accusations.
Libel is when someone is being wrote about on a newspaper or a radio broadcast and they
are talking about that particular person inaccurately and in a malicious way. Libel is most
likely happen when writing a non-fiction script for a documentary or a bio pick about a
certain person or subject, Therefore, writers have to be extremely careful when doing
research about the certain person or subject when writing their scripts because the writers
4. can get onto legal trouble, however, you must show prove that actual malice was used in
the script or to prove that it was intended.
When writing a script, writer must always be aware of BIAS. You most consider what each
aspect represents in the script. You got to especially be careful with BIAS when you’re
writing a script for a non-fiction film or documentary because the audience may take certain
representation the wrong way with could lead to criticism.
Censorship is vital in screenwriting because the writers have to make sure that when writing
their scripts, they have to make sure that it is aimat the certain target audience and that
the material in the script is appropriate for it. For example, if your scripts if for a film that is
rated PG, you have to make sure that that the marital is appropriate for a PG production
such as keeping the language extremely discreet and mild. If you had a script with a lot of
bad language and extreme violence, your script would not meet the requirements of a PG
rated production. However, censorship can be an issue if a tv program is broadcasting live.
For example, many people complained to Ofcom about a live broadcast of Britons got talent
after Amanda Holden was swearing on live tv witch caused Ofcom to resolve the matter by
making the judges apologies on air for it.
Watersheds are used to show when a film or tv program will be broadcasted. Depending on
the material and message’s in the filmor tv show, they will broadcast them at the
appropriate time when it’s appropriate. For example, tv shows with adult themes will need
to be broadcasted at later time so children are not exposed to the adult themes. In the UK,
watersheds follow the BBFC rules when decides what tv shows to broadcast at certain
times. For example, if a certain tv show is rated 12 such as The Simpsons or Futurama,
depending on the content, they may be allowed to broadcast them before the 9PM-5AM
period. However, tv shows rated 15 such as family guy and south park cannot be shown
outside the 9PM-5AM period. Tv shows rated 18 must not be allowed to be broadcasted
without PIN protection and they must have a certain time to be broadcasted. Overall,
watersheds are effective because they help show when and where a film or tv show should
be air and weather it will be appropriate.
Learning aim B
The master script is usually the main script used by the cast and crew. It mainly contains the
character dialogue and a description where the scene is set and when it is set. It is also used
to help the reader follow the story more easily. A master script is split into different
sections. The scene heading is divided into three parts. First, you need to identify weather
the scene is interior or exterior. This helps show the filmmakers what equipment will be
best suitable for that particular scene. Secondly, you need to show the location of where
the scene is set. And thirdly, you need to show the time and date of when the scene is set.
This helps show when it is best to start shooting the film. In the master script, you should
only tell what is going in the particular scene. You should never do into a lot of detail of the
narrative. It should only contain a brief description of what is going on in the scene such as
5. someone sitting down or someone picking something up. You should only write what can be
heard and seen in the scene and nothing else. Depending on how many pages the script is,
that should show the estimated the runtime of the overall film. So, for example, one page
should be one minute of the film and if your script has 140 pages to it, your filmshould
estimate to 140 minutes.
For example, in this part of the master script from the film “Boomer Bubble,” the writer
wrote down that the scene takes place outside and takes place in the daytime. This is used
to help show the cast and crew when and where to go when shooting the filmand it also
gives them an idea of what equipment will be bast appropriate for that particular scene. The
6. scene heading is effective because they show where they cast and crew when and where to
be during the day of filming and without the scene heading, the filmmaker will not know
when and where they need to go and do which can lead to overscheduling and production
delays. The character names above the dialogue shows and actors when and what to say
when it is their characters turn to speak. Character names are effective because they show
the actors where and when it is their turn to say their dialogue and without characters
manes, the actors will not know when they need to say their line which can lead to multiple
re-shoots which can lead to your production going overbudget. Overall, master scene scripts
are effective because they help show when and where each scene will take place and what
each actor needs to say. Without a master scene script, the cast and crew will not have an
idea of what each person needs to say or do.
Shooting scripts is mainly used by the filmmakers during production. Unlike a master script,
the shooting script does to much more detail in what is going on in the scene such as
camera angles and editing transitions. A shooting script is a production tool, so they can be
made in the way the director would like it to be formatted. If the shooting script was a
selling tool, it would be hard to read, and this can turn of potential inventor who may want
to buy a script.
For example, in this shooting script from episode 2 from “The bodyguard,” the filmmakers
added a “cut to black” to show that the editors know when to implement that cut to black.
They also added when and how long the music should play for during the scene. The use of
the music is to show the filmmakers when the music needs to start playing and how long it
needs to go on for. These notes are useful and effective during production because they
helps know when implement these effects to help make a better episode and without them,
7. the filmmaker will have a hard time knowing what effects and note to add during post-
Radio scripts are used to help understand what each person is going to say during a radio
broadcast. Because I radio broadcast is more talking basted, there will be a lot more
dialogue in the radio script. (OFF) in a radio script means that the presenter or actor needs
to step away from the mic.
For example, in this radio script from a radio broadcast called “paperback hell,” the script
includes something called a voiceover (V.O.). Voiceovers are used when someone who is
narrating something over some music or dialogue. In this example, there is a voiceover
narrating about when and where the setting is located. This is used to help the audience
know where this story is set, and it help immerse themselves in the story. Voiceovers are
effective because they help show what the narrator needs to say and to help engage an
audience and without a voiceover, your broadcast will turn audience goers off and they
voice actor will not know when it is their tun to say their lines. Overall, radio scripts are
effective because they help show what each person is going to say and because it’s a radio
script, you don’t have worry about where the scene is taking place or when it is as you will
talk about that in the voiceover if your radio broadcast is story-based.