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Marine Planning Lecture JG 071116 FINAL (1)

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Marine Planning Lecture JG 071116 FINAL (1)

  1. 1. Marine Planning – A Council Perspective James Green Senior Policy Planner Development and Marine Planning Orkney Islands Council A11MP Introduction to Marine Planning Heriot Watt University 7 November 2016
  2. 2. Content Key themes:  Marine planning - the Orkney Islands Council perspective  Setting the context for marine planning in Scotland  Regional level marine planning in Orkney – the pilot and the future  Land use and marine planning – integration?  Planning for aquaculture
  3. 3. What are we planning for?  Land and sea are critical to everyday life in Orkney – transport, jobs, energy, recreation and culture heritage  To protect the environment on which we depend  To support sustainable development opportunities  To striking a balance between new socio-economic opportunities and safeguarding existing resources and activities  To coordinate marine and land based development in the right places
  4. 4. Marine planning in Orkney – Key issues for OIC  Political support for sustainable economic development in the marine environment - marine planning could be an important tool  The localisation agenda - the Council aspires to take a lead role in statutory marine planning and wider marine resource management  Development versus conservation – a major political issue  Governance – Who sets the agenda? Who decides policy?  Major questions over future governance and resourcing of marine planning  Community benefit? Jobs, revenue and retaining a working population
  5. 5. Marine planning in Scotland Bottom up:  Provision for Marine Planning Partnerships Top down:  The national marine plan and a regional marine plan must be in conformity with the UK Marine Policy Statement.  Regional marine plans must be in conformity with the national marine plan. Scope for local influence on policy and spatial planning? Regional Marine Plans National Marine Plan Marine (Scotland) Act 2010
  6. 6. The structure of Scottish marine planning What about The Crown Estate?
  7. 7. Integrated spatial planning?  Marine plans were originally envisaged to provide a fully integrated approach to marine management  The holistic consideration of interactions, trade offs and multi sector spatial planning  Separate single sector planning is still going strong – renewables, oil and gas, aquaculture and MPAs  Aquaculture within land use planning system
  8. 8. • Development pressure – marine energy • Promote sustainable development • Develop strategic vision and spatial strategy • Promote more efficient use of marine space • Stakeholder knowledge and buy-in • Engage local communities • Build consensus and find common ground • Provide greater certainty for developers • Reduce risk in the licensing process • Test governance arrangements • Learn how to prepare a regional marine plan Pilot Pentland Firth and Orkney Waters Marine Spatial Plan Why develop a plan?
  9. 9. The plan making process 2008 - 2011 2012 2013 2014/15 Early 2016 Marine Scotland started process Orkney Islands and Highland Councils join project Planning Issues and Options consultation Draft Plan and further consultation Final Plan and Lessons Learned
  10. 10. The plan area
  11. 11. General Policies Sustainable development Geodiversity Supporting sustainable social and economic benefits Water environment Safeguarding the marine environment Coastal processes and flooding The well-being, quality of life and amenity of coastal communities Historic environment Climate change Integrating coastal and marine development Nature conservation designations Noise Protected species Waste and marine litter Wider biodiversity Invasive non-native species Landscape and seascape
  12. 12. Sectoral Policies Commercial fisheries Aquaculture Oil and gas Renewable energy generation Recreation, sport, leisure and tourism Marine transport Ports and harbours Pipelines, electricity and telecommunications infrastructure Marine aggregates Defence
  13. 13. Sensitivities and constraints not zoning
  14. 14. PFOW MSP Governance Working Group • Marine Scotland • Orkney Islands Council • Highland Council Advisory Group • Scottish Natural Heritage • Scottish Environment Protection Agency • Historic Scotland • Highlands and Islands Enterprise • Orkney Harbour Authority • Scrabster Harbour Trust • Royal Yachting Association Stakeholders e.g. • Local communities • Commercial fisheries • Marine renewables • Aquaculture • Environmental interests • Recreational interests A more formal advisory role for wider commercial, recreational and transportation interests in the future.
  15. 15. The future – An Orkney Regional Marine Plan  Scottish Government intends to formally delegate statutory regional marine planning powers to an Orkney Marine Planning Partnership by 2016  The first task is to establish appropriate governance arrangements  The pilot marine spatial plan will provide a useful basis for the Regional Marine Plan
  16. 16. Challenges to delivering regional marine planning  Finding a politically workable partnership  Long term resources to support the delegation of a statutory function to the local level  Are there adequate benefits from regional marine planning to encourage formal stakeholder participation  Conservation interests have bought in, what about businesses?  Barriers to participation? Staff resources, local expertise and commercial sensitivity
  17. 17. Future governance for regional marine planning  Orkney Harbour Authority  Historic Environment Scotland  RSPB  SNH  SEPA  Orkney Ferries  Orkney Fisheries Association Plan maker or advisor?  Orkney Sustainable Fisheries/IFG  Renewable energy companies  Aquaculture companies  European Marine Energy Centre  Visit Orkney  Orkney Marinas The Council are leading informal stakeholder engagement with:
  18. 18. Orkney Local Development Plan Key issues for the coastal and marine environment  Ensuring an integrated and consistent approach to terrestrial and marine planning policy  Supporting development that has land based and marine components  Steering coastal development to appropriate locations  Addressing coastal erosion and coastal inundation  The aquaculture anomaly
  19. 19. Ensuring an integrated and consistent approach to land use and marine planning policy  Coastal overlap between plans  Planning authority taking a lead role in land use and marine plan making process to assist integration  Aligning both processes – consultation, review etc  Reduce duplication and stakeholder fatigue  Marine Spatial Plan adopted as Planning Policy Advice – material consideration in determining coastal planning consents
  20. 20. • Land allocations to the support growth of marine sectors • Developing coastal infrastructure • Engage businesses and end users • Identify environmental constraints / sensitivities • Developer contributions and funding Supporting development with land based and marine components Master plans and Development Briefs
  21. 21. Steering coastal development to appropriate locations OIC Preferred approach:  Steer developments that require a coastal location to areas of developed coast in land allocations within settlements  Unless there is a demonstrable need for a coastal location in the countryside  There is adequate protection of the coast in existing plan policies without restrictive zoning of coastal areas Alternative option:  Identify a coastal zone and areas suitable for further development, areas of significant constraint and areas unsuitable for development
  22. 22. Coastal erosion and coastal inundation OIC approach:  Use of SEPA flood maps to identify areas at risk of coastal inundation and flooding to guide the location of future development;  Policy presumption in favour of flood alleviation measures identified in the Flood Risk Management Plan  Aim to develop a strategy to address coastal erosion impacts on property, infrastructure and archaeology
  23. 23. Planning for aquaculture • In 2007, the powers to consent and undertake development planning for aquaculture were devolved to local planning authorities – Councils. Why?: • To give coastal communities greater influence over the scale and location of aquaculture development. • To tackle the perceived conflict of interest – The Crown Estate as both the seabed landlord and consenting body for development. Council role: • Planning consent from Councils required out to 12 nautical miles. • Council development planning jurisdiction out to 3 nautical miles. • Significant disincentive for the aquaculture industry to engage in regional marine planning?
  24. 24. Aquaculture Supplementary Guidance Planning policy: • Planning policy for aquaculture development within the Orkney Local Development Plan • Detailed policy within supplementary guidance: - Spatial Strategy - 9 Development Criteria The role of other statutory agencies: • SEPA • Marine Scotland • The Crown Estate • Scottish Natural Heritage
  25. 25. Aquaculture Spatial Strategy • Spatial Policy 1: Broad Areas of Search • Spatial Policy 2: Area of Potential Sensitivity
  26. 26. Aquaculture - Development criteria DC1 Landscape, seascape, siting and design Map DC1 – Landscape designations DC2 Natural heritage designations, protected species and the wider biodiversity Map DC2 – Nature Conservation Designations DC3 Predator control and interaction with other species DC4 Wild salmonid fish populations Map DC4 – Principal Sea Trout Burns DC5 Water quality and benthic impacts Map DC5 – Water Environment DC6 Historic environment Map DC6 – Historic Environment DC7 Other marine users Map DC7 – Other Marine Users DC8 Construction and Operational Impacts DC9 Decommissioning and Reinstatement
  27. 27. Landscape, Seascape, Siting and Design  The Orkney Islands feature a wide range of landscapes and seascapes, each with its own character and capacity to accommodate new development.  Landscape/seascape impacts relate to the physical effect a proposed development may have on the character, scenic quality or “feeling of place”.  The scale, configuration and number of cages, height of feed barges and any other structures, should ensure the proposal is capable of being absorbed into the landscape/seascape with minimal intrusion.  Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment
  28. 28. Natural heritage designations, protected species and the wider biodiversity  Designated sites – SPAs, SACs, MPAs etc  Protected species – Otters and cetaceans etc  Seals haul out sites  Benthic habitats – maerl beds, zostera
  29. 29. Water Quality and Benthic Impacts  Fish farms rely on high water quality and a degree of tidal flushing  Fish farms require good water exchange characteristics where tidal currents can disperse waste materials and maintain well-oxygenated water conditions  Potential impacts on the benthic (seabed) environment include enrichment of the water column, anoxic conditions on the seabed and disturbance to the balance of benthic organisms.  SEPA sets limits on the amount of fish (biomass) that can be held in the cages, the amount of feed used and the amount of certain medicines that can be administered and discharged – CARS Licence
  30. 30. Wild salmonid fish populations  Marine Scotland enforces provisions on containment and parasite (sea lice) control .  Sea trout (Priority Marine Feature) and valuable recreational fishery. Potential impacts upon wild salmonids:  Impacts of parasites (sea lice) and disease on wild fish resulting from the presence of fish farms.  Disruption of genetic integrity and local adaptations of wild stocks arising from interbreeding with escapees from salmon farms.  Introduction of non-native farmed species.
  31. 31. Impacts on other marine activities  Commercial fishing industry  Harbour activities including ship to ship oil and gas transfers  Ferry routes and marine transport  Recreational activities – sailing, diving, kayaking etc
  32. 32. James Green Development and Marine Planning Orkney Islands Council james.green@orkney.gov.uk 01856 873535 ext. 2516 Discussion and questions