Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx

Rana Zahid Zulfiqar
PhD Scholar Sociology(GCUF)
Visiting Lecturer Sociology,
Bahauddin Zakariyia University,
Multan(Pakistan)
ranazahidzulfiqar@gmail.com
1. OUT LINE
1.1 Meaning and Definitions of Sociology
1.2 Origin of Sociology
1.3 Nature of Sociology
1.4 Major Three perspectives of Sociology
1.5 Sociology as Science
1.6 Applications/ Scope of Sociology
1.7 Relationship of Sociology with other Social
Sciences
1.1. MEANING OF SOCIOLOGY
• The term has been derived from two
words. The Latin “Socious” mean
companionship and the Greek
“Logos” mean study.
• So the term literally means the study
of human companionship or
association or society.
1.1 Definitions of Sociology
• “Sociology is the study of social action” (Max
Weber).
• “Sociology is the scientific study of society”.
(August Comte)
• “Sociology is the study of social facts
through social institutions (Family,
Education, Religion, Economics and Politics)”
(Emile Durkhiem).
1.1 Definition of Sociology
• “Sociology is the study of collective
behavior” (Park & Burgess).
• Conclusion: On the basis of above
definitions, we can conclude that:
“Sociology is the science of society,
human behavior, human interaction
and relationships”.
1.2 Origin of Sociology
• Initially Sociology was introduced by Muslim
Sociologist “Ibn-e-Khuldun (1332-1406)” who
belonged to Tunisya. He used the term of
“Imraniyat”
• Imran: Society
• Yat: Study
• “Sociology is the study of Society”.
• Ibn-e-Khuldun was a historian and studied the
different societies. His methodology was
based on “Casual relationship”.
1.2 Origin and Development of
Sociology in the Modern Era
• Sociology was originated as a special
discipline in 1838 by a French
Sociologist “August Comte”. He
wanted to laid its foundation by using
the scientific methodology. He
regarded as “the Father of Sociology”.
1.3 NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY
• Sociology is an Independent Science
• Sociology is a social science not Physical
science
• Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative
Discipline
• Sociology is relatively abstract science not a
concrete science
• Sociology is a Generalizing and not a
particularizing science
1.3 NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY
•Sociology is a General
Science not a special
science
•Sociology is both a Rational
and Empirical Science
1.4 MAJOR THREE PERSPECTIVES OF
SOCIOLOGY
1.4.1 The Structural
Functionalist
1.4.2 The
Conflict
1.4.3 The Symbolic
Interactionist
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
• According to Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
sociology is the study of social institutions.
There are 5 basic institutions of the society
and played a great role in the functionality of
the society; If these institutions have good
collaboration than the society will move
towards development otherwise the society
will suffer. These institutions are like a parts of
human body, parts are attached with each
other and if there is a problem in one part of
the hole body will disturb.
STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
Family
Education
Religion
Economics
Politics
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
1.4.2. THE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE
• Karl Marx viewed struggle between social
classes as inevitable because workers are
exploited under capitalism.
• They claimed that the Capitalists exploit
the working class by giving them the low
wages.
• The conflict perspective encouraged the
working class for gaining their rights by
radical movements.
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
1.4.3 THE SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST
• The interactionist perspective focuses
on social behavior in everyday life. It
tries to understand how people create
and interpret the situations they
experience, and it emphasizes how
countless instances of social interaction
produce the larger structure of society-
government, the economy and other
institutions.
1.4.3 The Symbolic Interactionist
• This perspective presumes that it
is only through these social
behavior of the people that
society can come into being.
Society is ultimately created,
maintained and changed by the
social interaction of its members.
4.3 The Symbolic Interactionist
• The Interactionist perspective in general
invites the sociologists to ask specific kinds of
questions: what kinds of Interaction are taking
place between people, how do they
understand and interpret what is happening
to them, and why do they act toward others
as they do? How does someone learn to
experience cigarette smoking as pleasurable?
What tactics used by political leader to
convince angry Mob?
1.5 SOCIOLOGY AS SCIENCE
• SCIENCE:
• According to Neuman “Science is a social
institution and a way to produce
knowledge”
• Testable knowledge is called science.
TYPES OF SCIENCE:
Natural science (Physical science, Biological
science)
Social science
1.5 Social science
• Social sciences deals with social
processes and human behavior. It
is more concerned with the
human and society. This includes
sociology, history, anthropology,
economics, political science,
philosophy etc.
1.6 Applications/ Scope of Sociology
1.6.1 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
1.6.2 AGRICULTURE
1.6.3 INDUSTRY
1.6.4 Trade and Business
1.6.5 Health
1.6.6 POPULATION and PLANNING
1.6.7 SOCIAL WELFARE
1.6.8 SOCIAL POLICY, PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
• 1.6.1 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH:
Sociology is taught as a subject in different
colleges and universities of Pakistan. There are
different institutions in Pakistan that are
conducting the research and highlighting the
different problems faced by the members of
society.
Examples:
Government college University, Faisalabad,
Agriculture university Faisalabad, The social
Research center Punjab University, Pakistan.
Rural Development Academy Peshawar,
Department of Sociology BZU etc.
1.6.2 Agriculture:
Agriculture is the main source of Pakistani
economy but unfortunately, due to different
socio-cultural dogmatic beliefs our farmers
resists the innovations. Sociologist played an
important role to brainwash the farmers and
prepare them for the usage of different
modern technologies. In this way Sociologists
played a vital role in the up gradation of
Agriculture sector.
1.6.3 Industry:
Sociologist played an important
role in the domain of Industry
for building a good relationship
between the workers and the
owners of the factory.
Application of Sociology
1.6.4 Trade and Business
1.6.5 Health (Awareness Comings such as Polio,
Nutrition, etc. )
1.6.6 Population and Planning
1.6.7 Social Welfare (Social Welfare Officers Working in
Hospitals such as Nishter Hospital, Cardiology, Multan
Medical and Dental College, Ibn-e- Sina, Bakhtawar
Amin etc.)
1.6.8 Social Policy, Planning and Development
Note:
Please read the Book for details
1.7 Relationship of Sociology with
other Social Sciences
Relationship b/w Sociology and
History
There is a direct relationship between sociology
and history.
Both sociology and history cannot be separated
from because sociology is the present and
history deals with the past events.
According to Ibn-e-Khaldoon:
“No Historian could write the history of a nation
without knowing the social condition to the
nation and society’’
Difference b/w Sociology & History
Sociology
It is interested in the
study of the present
social phenomena.
It is young social science.
It is based on analytics.
It is absorbed in nature. It
studies mostly regular,
the recurrent and the
universal.
History
 It deals with the past event
of human, it is slight about
present.
 It is an age_old social
science. It has a long story of
more than 2000 years.
 It is a descriptive science.
 History is concrete. The
historians are interested in a
unique, the particular and
the individual.
Sociology is generalized
and seeks to establish
generalization after a
careful study of social
phenomena.
Sociology follows the
sociological approach. It
studies human events
from sociological point of
view.
History is individualized
and rarely makes
generalization. It
establishes the sequences
in which event occurs.
History studies human
events in accordance with
the time order with
historical approach.
Sociology & Psychology
Sociology is the science of society while
psychology is the science of mental process or
mind. It studies particularly the human
experiences and the behaviour.
Sociology and psychology both are involve in
solving the social problems. Sociology helps
psychology while psychology helps sociology.
Thus, they are inter related in many respects.
Difference b/w Sociology &
Psychology
Sociology
 Sociology study the
individuals.
 Sociology is the study of
society.
 Society take interest in small
and large societies.
 Sociology studies the special
aspects of society like family
marriage.
 Sociology used observations,
survey during the research.
Psychology
 Psychology study the
personality.
 Psychology is defined as a
science of mental process.
 Psychology often study the
small societies & groups.
 Psychology study all aspects of
society.
 Psychologists lives in the
societies and collect
information through interview
and observation .
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
Relationship of Sociology and
Economics
• Sociology and Economics as social
science have closed relations.
Relationship between the two is so close
that one is often treated as the branch of
other, because the society is greatly
influenced by economic factors, and
economic processes are largely
determined by the environment of the
society.
• Economics deals with the economic
activities of man . It deals with production,
consumption and distribution of wealth.
The economic factors play a vital role in
the very aspects of our social life. Total
development of individual depends very
much on economic factors. Without
economic conditions, the study of society is
quite impossible. All the social problems
are directly connected with the economic
conditions of the people.
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
Relationship of Sociology with
Political Science
Political Science:
Definition
Political science is the science of state and
Government. It studies power, political
System , political process and
International relations.
Relationship b/w sociology and
Political Science
Sociology and Political Science are very closely
and deeply related with each other, one is
meaningless without other.
According to Morris:
Historically Sociology has its roots in Political
Science and Philosophy of History .
Sociology and Political Science are dependant on
one another.
Sociology depends on political science for example state
and government make laws for welfare of society,
removes evils like poverty, unemployment and crimes
etc.
According to F.H.Gidding:
‘’To teach the theory of state to men who have not learn
the first principles of sociology is like teaching astronomy
or thermodynamics to men who have not learnt Newton
law of motion’’
According to G.E.G.Catlin:
‘’Sociology and political science are the two faces of the
same figure or things’’
Difference b/w Sociology & Political
science
Sociology
 Sociology is the science of
society.
 Sociology studies all kinds of
societies organized as well
as un organized.
 Sociology has a wider
scope.
 Finally sociology is quite
young. It is not even two
centuries old.
Political Science
 Political science studies only
the politically organized
societies .
 Political science is a narrow
filed.
 Political science concentrates
only the human relationships
which are political in
character.
 Political science is an another
science comparatively. It has
centuries of history.
Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx
Anthropology
Definitions:-
The study of human beings and their
ancestors through time and space and in
relation to physical character,
environmental relation and culture
Theology dealing with the origin, nature
and destiny of human beings
According to Eric Wolf:
‘’Anthropology is less a subject matter than
a bond between subject matters. It is part
history, part literature; in part natural
science, part social science; it strive to study
men both from within and without; it
represent both a manner of looking at man
and a vision of man-the most scientific of
the humanities, the most humanist of
sciences.’’
Western Washington University:
‘’Anthropology explores what it
means to be human.
Anthropology is the scientific
study of humankind in all the
cultures of the world, both past
and present’’
Similarities b/w Sociology &
Anthropology
Sociology and Anthropology involve the
systematic study of social life and culture in
order to understand the causes and
consequences of human action.
Sociologists and Anthropologists study
the structure and processes of traditional
culture and modern, industrial societies in
both western and non-western cultures.
Sociology and Anthropology combine scientific
and humanistic perspective in the study of
society. Drawing upon various theoretical
perspectives, Sociologists and
Anthropologists study areas such as
Culture, Socialization, Deviance, Inequality,
Health & illness, Family patterns, Social
change & race and Ethnic relations.
Difference b/w Sociology &
Anthropology
Sociology
 Sociology is the study of
modern civilized and
complex societies.
 Sociologists studies small as
well as large societies .
 Sociology makes use of
observation, interview, social
survey, questionnaires and
other method of technique
in investigations.
Anthropology
 Anthropology concerns with
un-civilized or primitive and
non literate societies.
 Anthropologists study
human primitive cultures.
 Anthropologists directly go
and live in the communities
they study. They make use of
direct observations and
interviews.
Sociology focuses
on social problems
and institutions.
Subfields such as:
Gender studies,
Criminology, social
work.
Anthropology
focuses culture
and community.
Subfields such as:
Linguistic
anthropology,
Archaeology and
forensic
anthropology.
THANK YOU
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Lecture 1st Introduction-1.pptx

  • 1. Rana Zahid Zulfiqar PhD Scholar Sociology(GCUF) Visiting Lecturer Sociology, Bahauddin Zakariyia University, Multan(Pakistan) ranazahidzulfiqar@gmail.com
  • 2. 1. OUT LINE 1.1 Meaning and Definitions of Sociology 1.2 Origin of Sociology 1.3 Nature of Sociology 1.4 Major Three perspectives of Sociology 1.5 Sociology as Science 1.6 Applications/ Scope of Sociology 1.7 Relationship of Sociology with other Social Sciences
  • 3. 1.1. MEANING OF SOCIOLOGY • The term has been derived from two words. The Latin “Socious” mean companionship and the Greek “Logos” mean study. • So the term literally means the study of human companionship or association or society.
  • 4. 1.1 Definitions of Sociology • “Sociology is the study of social action” (Max Weber). • “Sociology is the scientific study of society”. (August Comte) • “Sociology is the study of social facts through social institutions (Family, Education, Religion, Economics and Politics)” (Emile Durkhiem).
  • 5. 1.1 Definition of Sociology • “Sociology is the study of collective behavior” (Park & Burgess). • Conclusion: On the basis of above definitions, we can conclude that: “Sociology is the science of society, human behavior, human interaction and relationships”.
  • 6. 1.2 Origin of Sociology • Initially Sociology was introduced by Muslim Sociologist “Ibn-e-Khuldun (1332-1406)” who belonged to Tunisya. He used the term of “Imraniyat” • Imran: Society • Yat: Study • “Sociology is the study of Society”. • Ibn-e-Khuldun was a historian and studied the different societies. His methodology was based on “Casual relationship”.
  • 7. 1.2 Origin and Development of Sociology in the Modern Era • Sociology was originated as a special discipline in 1838 by a French Sociologist “August Comte”. He wanted to laid its foundation by using the scientific methodology. He regarded as “the Father of Sociology”.
  • 8. 1.3 NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY • Sociology is an Independent Science • Sociology is a social science not Physical science • Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative Discipline • Sociology is relatively abstract science not a concrete science • Sociology is a Generalizing and not a particularizing science
  • 9. 1.3 NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY •Sociology is a General Science not a special science •Sociology is both a Rational and Empirical Science
  • 10. 1.4 MAJOR THREE PERSPECTIVES OF SOCIOLOGY 1.4.1 The Structural Functionalist 1.4.2 The Conflict 1.4.3 The Symbolic Interactionist
  • 13. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM • According to Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) sociology is the study of social institutions. There are 5 basic institutions of the society and played a great role in the functionality of the society; If these institutions have good collaboration than the society will move towards development otherwise the society will suffer. These institutions are like a parts of human body, parts are attached with each other and if there is a problem in one part of the hole body will disturb.
  • 16. 1.4.2. THE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE • Karl Marx viewed struggle between social classes as inevitable because workers are exploited under capitalism. • They claimed that the Capitalists exploit the working class by giving them the low wages. • The conflict perspective encouraged the working class for gaining their rights by radical movements.
  • 18. 1.4.3 THE SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST • The interactionist perspective focuses on social behavior in everyday life. It tries to understand how people create and interpret the situations they experience, and it emphasizes how countless instances of social interaction produce the larger structure of society- government, the economy and other institutions.
  • 19. 1.4.3 The Symbolic Interactionist • This perspective presumes that it is only through these social behavior of the people that society can come into being. Society is ultimately created, maintained and changed by the social interaction of its members.
  • 20. 4.3 The Symbolic Interactionist • The Interactionist perspective in general invites the sociologists to ask specific kinds of questions: what kinds of Interaction are taking place between people, how do they understand and interpret what is happening to them, and why do they act toward others as they do? How does someone learn to experience cigarette smoking as pleasurable? What tactics used by political leader to convince angry Mob?
  • 21. 1.5 SOCIOLOGY AS SCIENCE • SCIENCE: • According to Neuman “Science is a social institution and a way to produce knowledge” • Testable knowledge is called science. TYPES OF SCIENCE: Natural science (Physical science, Biological science) Social science
  • 22. 1.5 Social science • Social sciences deals with social processes and human behavior. It is more concerned with the human and society. This includes sociology, history, anthropology, economics, political science, philosophy etc.
  • 23. 1.6 Applications/ Scope of Sociology 1.6.1 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH 1.6.2 AGRICULTURE 1.6.3 INDUSTRY 1.6.4 Trade and Business 1.6.5 Health 1.6.6 POPULATION and PLANNING 1.6.7 SOCIAL WELFARE 1.6.8 SOCIAL POLICY, PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
  • 24. • 1.6.1 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: Sociology is taught as a subject in different colleges and universities of Pakistan. There are different institutions in Pakistan that are conducting the research and highlighting the different problems faced by the members of society. Examples: Government college University, Faisalabad, Agriculture university Faisalabad, The social Research center Punjab University, Pakistan.
  • 25. Rural Development Academy Peshawar, Department of Sociology BZU etc. 1.6.2 Agriculture: Agriculture is the main source of Pakistani economy but unfortunately, due to different socio-cultural dogmatic beliefs our farmers resists the innovations. Sociologist played an important role to brainwash the farmers and prepare them for the usage of different modern technologies. In this way Sociologists played a vital role in the up gradation of Agriculture sector.
  • 26. 1.6.3 Industry: Sociologist played an important role in the domain of Industry for building a good relationship between the workers and the owners of the factory.
  • 27. Application of Sociology 1.6.4 Trade and Business 1.6.5 Health (Awareness Comings such as Polio, Nutrition, etc. ) 1.6.6 Population and Planning 1.6.7 Social Welfare (Social Welfare Officers Working in Hospitals such as Nishter Hospital, Cardiology, Multan Medical and Dental College, Ibn-e- Sina, Bakhtawar Amin etc.) 1.6.8 Social Policy, Planning and Development Note: Please read the Book for details
  • 28. 1.7 Relationship of Sociology with other Social Sciences
  • 29. Relationship b/w Sociology and History There is a direct relationship between sociology and history. Both sociology and history cannot be separated from because sociology is the present and history deals with the past events. According to Ibn-e-Khaldoon: “No Historian could write the history of a nation without knowing the social condition to the nation and society’’
  • 30. Difference b/w Sociology & History Sociology It is interested in the study of the present social phenomena. It is young social science. It is based on analytics. It is absorbed in nature. It studies mostly regular, the recurrent and the universal. History  It deals with the past event of human, it is slight about present.  It is an age_old social science. It has a long story of more than 2000 years.  It is a descriptive science.  History is concrete. The historians are interested in a unique, the particular and the individual.
  • 31. Sociology is generalized and seeks to establish generalization after a careful study of social phenomena. Sociology follows the sociological approach. It studies human events from sociological point of view. History is individualized and rarely makes generalization. It establishes the sequences in which event occurs. History studies human events in accordance with the time order with historical approach.
  • 32. Sociology & Psychology Sociology is the science of society while psychology is the science of mental process or mind. It studies particularly the human experiences and the behaviour. Sociology and psychology both are involve in solving the social problems. Sociology helps psychology while psychology helps sociology. Thus, they are inter related in many respects.
  • 33. Difference b/w Sociology & Psychology Sociology  Sociology study the individuals.  Sociology is the study of society.  Society take interest in small and large societies.  Sociology studies the special aspects of society like family marriage.  Sociology used observations, survey during the research. Psychology  Psychology study the personality.  Psychology is defined as a science of mental process.  Psychology often study the small societies & groups.  Psychology study all aspects of society.  Psychologists lives in the societies and collect information through interview and observation .
  • 36. Relationship of Sociology and Economics • Sociology and Economics as social science have closed relations. Relationship between the two is so close that one is often treated as the branch of other, because the society is greatly influenced by economic factors, and economic processes are largely determined by the environment of the society.
  • 37. • Economics deals with the economic activities of man . It deals with production, consumption and distribution of wealth. The economic factors play a vital role in the very aspects of our social life. Total development of individual depends very much on economic factors. Without economic conditions, the study of society is quite impossible. All the social problems are directly connected with the economic conditions of the people.
  • 39. Relationship of Sociology with Political Science Political Science: Definition Political science is the science of state and Government. It studies power, political System , political process and International relations.
  • 40. Relationship b/w sociology and Political Science Sociology and Political Science are very closely and deeply related with each other, one is meaningless without other. According to Morris: Historically Sociology has its roots in Political Science and Philosophy of History . Sociology and Political Science are dependant on one another.
  • 41. Sociology depends on political science for example state and government make laws for welfare of society, removes evils like poverty, unemployment and crimes etc. According to F.H.Gidding: ‘’To teach the theory of state to men who have not learn the first principles of sociology is like teaching astronomy or thermodynamics to men who have not learnt Newton law of motion’’ According to G.E.G.Catlin: ‘’Sociology and political science are the two faces of the same figure or things’’
  • 42. Difference b/w Sociology & Political science Sociology  Sociology is the science of society.  Sociology studies all kinds of societies organized as well as un organized.  Sociology has a wider scope.  Finally sociology is quite young. It is not even two centuries old. Political Science  Political science studies only the politically organized societies .  Political science is a narrow filed.  Political science concentrates only the human relationships which are political in character.  Political science is an another science comparatively. It has centuries of history.
  • 44. Anthropology Definitions:- The study of human beings and their ancestors through time and space and in relation to physical character, environmental relation and culture Theology dealing with the origin, nature and destiny of human beings
  • 45. According to Eric Wolf: ‘’Anthropology is less a subject matter than a bond between subject matters. It is part history, part literature; in part natural science, part social science; it strive to study men both from within and without; it represent both a manner of looking at man and a vision of man-the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanist of sciences.’’
  • 46. Western Washington University: ‘’Anthropology explores what it means to be human. Anthropology is the scientific study of humankind in all the cultures of the world, both past and present’’
  • 47. Similarities b/w Sociology & Anthropology Sociology and Anthropology involve the systematic study of social life and culture in order to understand the causes and consequences of human action. Sociologists and Anthropologists study the structure and processes of traditional culture and modern, industrial societies in both western and non-western cultures.
  • 48. Sociology and Anthropology combine scientific and humanistic perspective in the study of society. Drawing upon various theoretical perspectives, Sociologists and Anthropologists study areas such as Culture, Socialization, Deviance, Inequality, Health & illness, Family patterns, Social change & race and Ethnic relations.
  • 49. Difference b/w Sociology & Anthropology Sociology  Sociology is the study of modern civilized and complex societies.  Sociologists studies small as well as large societies .  Sociology makes use of observation, interview, social survey, questionnaires and other method of technique in investigations. Anthropology  Anthropology concerns with un-civilized or primitive and non literate societies.  Anthropologists study human primitive cultures.  Anthropologists directly go and live in the communities they study. They make use of direct observations and interviews.
  • 50. Sociology focuses on social problems and institutions. Subfields such as: Gender studies, Criminology, social work. Anthropology focuses culture and community. Subfields such as: Linguistic anthropology, Archaeology and forensic anthropology.