2. 1. OUT LINE
1.1 Meaning and Definitions of Sociology
1.2 Origin of Sociology
1.3 Nature of Sociology
1.4 Major Three perspectives of Sociology
1.5 Sociology as Science
1.6 Applications/ Scope of Sociology
1.7 Relationship of Sociology with other Social
3. 1.1. MEANING OF SOCIOLOGY
• The term has been derived from two
words. The Latin “Socious” mean
companionship and the Greek
“Logos” mean study.
• So the term literally means the study
of human companionship or
association or society.
4. 1.1 Definitions of Sociology
• “Sociology is the study of social action” (Max
• “Sociology is the scientific study of society”.
• “Sociology is the study of social facts
through social institutions (Family,
Education, Religion, Economics and Politics)”
5. 1.1 Definition of Sociology
• “Sociology is the study of collective
behavior” (Park & Burgess).
• Conclusion: On the basis of above
definitions, we can conclude that:
“Sociology is the science of society,
human behavior, human interaction
6. 1.2 Origin of Sociology
• Initially Sociology was introduced by Muslim
Sociologist “Ibn-e-Khuldun (1332-1406)” who
belonged to Tunisya. He used the term of
• Imran: Society
• Yat: Study
• “Sociology is the study of Society”.
• Ibn-e-Khuldun was a historian and studied the
different societies. His methodology was
based on “Casual relationship”.
7. 1.2 Origin and Development of
Sociology in the Modern Era
• Sociology was originated as a special
discipline in 1838 by a French
Sociologist “August Comte”. He
wanted to laid its foundation by using
the scientific methodology. He
regarded as “the Father of Sociology”.
8. 1.3 NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY
• Sociology is an Independent Science
• Sociology is a social science not Physical
• Sociology is a Categorical and not a Normative
• Sociology is relatively abstract science not a
• Sociology is a Generalizing and not a
9. 1.3 NATURE OF SOCIOLOGY
•Sociology is a General
Science not a special
•Sociology is both a Rational
and Empirical Science
10. 1.4 MAJOR THREE PERSPECTIVES OF
1.4.1 The Structural
1.4.3 The Symbolic
13. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALISM
• According to Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)
sociology is the study of social institutions.
There are 5 basic institutions of the society
and played a great role in the functionality of
the society; If these institutions have good
collaboration than the society will move
towards development otherwise the society
will suffer. These institutions are like a parts of
human body, parts are attached with each
other and if there is a problem in one part of
the hole body will disturb.
16. 1.4.2. THE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE
• Karl Marx viewed struggle between social
classes as inevitable because workers are
exploited under capitalism.
• They claimed that the Capitalists exploit
the working class by giving them the low
• The conflict perspective encouraged the
working class for gaining their rights by
18. 1.4.3 THE SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST
• The interactionist perspective focuses
on social behavior in everyday life. It
tries to understand how people create
and interpret the situations they
experience, and it emphasizes how
countless instances of social interaction
produce the larger structure of society-
government, the economy and other
19. 1.4.3 The Symbolic Interactionist
• This perspective presumes that it
is only through these social
behavior of the people that
society can come into being.
Society is ultimately created,
maintained and changed by the
social interaction of its members.
20. 4.3 The Symbolic Interactionist
• The Interactionist perspective in general
invites the sociologists to ask specific kinds of
questions: what kinds of Interaction are taking
place between people, how do they
understand and interpret what is happening
to them, and why do they act toward others
as they do? How does someone learn to
experience cigarette smoking as pleasurable?
What tactics used by political leader to
convince angry Mob?
21. 1.5 SOCIOLOGY AS SCIENCE
• According to Neuman “Science is a social
institution and a way to produce
• Testable knowledge is called science.
TYPES OF SCIENCE:
Natural science (Physical science, Biological
22. 1.5 Social science
• Social sciences deals with social
processes and human behavior. It
is more concerned with the
human and society. This includes
sociology, history, anthropology,
economics, political science,
23. 1.6 Applications/ Scope of Sociology
1.6.1 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
1.6.4 Trade and Business
1.6.6 POPULATION and PLANNING
1.6.7 SOCIAL WELFARE
1.6.8 SOCIAL POLICY, PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT
24. • 1.6.1 EDUCATION AND RESEARCH:
Sociology is taught as a subject in different
colleges and universities of Pakistan. There are
different institutions in Pakistan that are
conducting the research and highlighting the
different problems faced by the members of
Government college University, Faisalabad,
Agriculture university Faisalabad, The social
Research center Punjab University, Pakistan.
25. Rural Development Academy Peshawar,
Department of Sociology BZU etc.
Agriculture is the main source of Pakistani
economy but unfortunately, due to different
socio-cultural dogmatic beliefs our farmers
resists the innovations. Sociologist played an
important role to brainwash the farmers and
prepare them for the usage of different
modern technologies. In this way Sociologists
played a vital role in the up gradation of
27. Application of Sociology
1.6.4 Trade and Business
1.6.5 Health (Awareness Comings such as Polio,
Nutrition, etc. )
1.6.6 Population and Planning
1.6.7 Social Welfare (Social Welfare Officers Working in
Hospitals such as Nishter Hospital, Cardiology, Multan
Medical and Dental College, Ibn-e- Sina, Bakhtawar
1.6.8 Social Policy, Planning and Development
Please read the Book for details
29. Relationship b/w Sociology and
There is a direct relationship between sociology
Both sociology and history cannot be separated
from because sociology is the present and
history deals with the past events.
According to Ibn-e-Khaldoon:
“No Historian could write the history of a nation
without knowing the social condition to the
nation and society’’
30. Difference b/w Sociology & History
It is interested in the
study of the present
It is young social science.
It is based on analytics.
It is absorbed in nature. It
studies mostly regular,
the recurrent and the
It deals with the past event
of human, it is slight about
It is an age_old social
science. It has a long story of
more than 2000 years.
It is a descriptive science.
History is concrete. The
historians are interested in a
unique, the particular and
31. Sociology is generalized
and seeks to establish
generalization after a
careful study of social
Sociology follows the
sociological approach. It
studies human events
from sociological point of
History is individualized
and rarely makes
establishes the sequences
in which event occurs.
History studies human
events in accordance with
the time order with
32. Sociology & Psychology
Sociology is the science of society while
psychology is the science of mental process or
mind. It studies particularly the human
experiences and the behaviour.
Sociology and psychology both are involve in
solving the social problems. Sociology helps
psychology while psychology helps sociology.
Thus, they are inter related in many respects.
33. Difference b/w Sociology &
Sociology study the
Sociology is the study of
Society take interest in small
and large societies.
Sociology studies the special
aspects of society like family
Sociology used observations,
survey during the research.
Psychology study the
Psychology is defined as a
science of mental process.
Psychology often study the
small societies & groups.
Psychology study all aspects of
Psychologists lives in the
societies and collect
information through interview
and observation .
36. Relationship of Sociology and
• Sociology and Economics as social
science have closed relations.
Relationship between the two is so close
that one is often treated as the branch of
other, because the society is greatly
influenced by economic factors, and
economic processes are largely
determined by the environment of the
37. • Economics deals with the economic
activities of man . It deals with production,
consumption and distribution of wealth.
The economic factors play a vital role in
the very aspects of our social life. Total
development of individual depends very
much on economic factors. Without
economic conditions, the study of society is
quite impossible. All the social problems
are directly connected with the economic
conditions of the people.
39. Relationship of Sociology with
Political science is the science of state and
Government. It studies power, political
System , political process and
40. Relationship b/w sociology and
Sociology and Political Science are very closely
and deeply related with each other, one is
meaningless without other.
According to Morris:
Historically Sociology has its roots in Political
Science and Philosophy of History .
Sociology and Political Science are dependant on
41. Sociology depends on political science for example state
and government make laws for welfare of society,
removes evils like poverty, unemployment and crimes
According to F.H.Gidding:
‘’To teach the theory of state to men who have not learn
the first principles of sociology is like teaching astronomy
or thermodynamics to men who have not learnt Newton
law of motion’’
According to G.E.G.Catlin:
‘’Sociology and political science are the two faces of the
same figure or things’’
42. Difference b/w Sociology & Political
Sociology is the science of
Sociology studies all kinds of
societies organized as well
as un organized.
Sociology has a wider
Finally sociology is quite
young. It is not even two
Political science studies only
the politically organized
Political science is a narrow
Political science concentrates
only the human relationships
which are political in
Political science is an another
science comparatively. It has
centuries of history.
The study of human beings and their
ancestors through time and space and in
relation to physical character,
environmental relation and culture
Theology dealing with the origin, nature
and destiny of human beings
45. According to Eric Wolf:
‘’Anthropology is less a subject matter than
a bond between subject matters. It is part
history, part literature; in part natural
science, part social science; it strive to study
men both from within and without; it
represent both a manner of looking at man
and a vision of man-the most scientific of
the humanities, the most humanist of
47. Similarities b/w Sociology &
Sociology and Anthropology involve the
systematic study of social life and culture in
order to understand the causes and
consequences of human action.
Sociologists and Anthropologists study
the structure and processes of traditional
culture and modern, industrial societies in
both western and non-western cultures.
48. Sociology and Anthropology combine scientific
and humanistic perspective in the study of
society. Drawing upon various theoretical
perspectives, Sociologists and
Anthropologists study areas such as
Culture, Socialization, Deviance, Inequality,
Health & illness, Family patterns, Social
change & race and Ethnic relations.
49. Difference b/w Sociology &
Sociology is the study of
modern civilized and
Sociologists studies small as
well as large societies .
Sociology makes use of
observation, interview, social
survey, questionnaires and
other method of technique
Anthropology concerns with
un-civilized or primitive and
non literate societies.
human primitive cultures.
Anthropologists directly go
and live in the communities
they study. They make use of
direct observations and
50. Sociology focuses
on social problems
Subfields such as:
Subfields such as: