Master of Wireless communication
Inventor of Antenna
Miss Jaweriyah SuBHaNi
The first antenna was devised by the German
physicist Heinrich Hertz
Born in Hamburg, Germany on 22February 1857
He have sharp IQ-level and had a strong grip on languages like Latin, Greek Arabic and Sanskrit.
In 1875, hertz spent an year in construction department (Frankfort)
In 1876 he joined military and spent 1 year as an active duty
In 1877 he changed his domain and enter in the physics world
From the motivation of mentors he studied famous scientist
Like Isaac Newton, Joseph Langrage, Perris-Simon Laplace.
For Higher studies he moved to Berlin in laboratory of Hermann and Helmholtz an won noble
In 1879 he awarded the faculty Nobel prize and Gold Medal
1880 Hertz completed his PH.D(at the age of 23) in Helmholtz lab.
1883 he accepted the post of lecturer of theoretical physics at university of KIEL.
1885 He become a permanent professor at University of Karlsruhe where he discover EMT
Heinrich Hertz was a German physicist who made important contributions to the study of
electromagnetism and is considered one of the pioneers of wireless communication.
Hertz was died in 1894 at the age of 36, but in a short time, he made significant contributions to
the field of physics.
7 Major Contributions Of Heinrich
Hertz in Wireless Communication
1. Proving the existence of electromagnetic waves: Hertz was the first to prove the
existence of electromagnetic waves, which laid the foundation for the study of radio
waves and the development of wireless communication.
2. Developing the first practical system for wireless communication: Hertz
developed the first practical system for wireless communication using simple wire
antennas and demonstrated the feasibility of using electromagnetic waves for
3. Establishing the principles of radio waves: Hertz established the basic principles of
radio waves, including the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and velocity.
4. Making advances in antenna design: Hertz's experiments with antennas laid the
foundation for the development of new and more sophisticated antennas.
5. Establishing the equivalence of electromagnetic and light waves: Hertz
demonstrated that electromagnetic waves possessed many of the properties of light
and other electromagnetic radiation.
6. Introducing the concept of resonant circuits: Hertz introduced the concept of
resonant circuits, which are used in many applications including radio and television
7. Establishing the foundation for the study of electromagnetism: Hertz's work laid
the foundation for the study of electromagnetism and paved the way for future
in Other fields
#1 HE PROVED THAT ELECTRIC
CURRENT HAS NEGLIGIBLE MASS
In 1878, at the age of 21, Heinrich Hertz enrolled at
the University of Berlin. Here he worked in the laboratories of physicist Hermann von
Helmholtz. At this time, Helmholtz was involved in a fierce debate with another scientist Wilhelm Weber
over the question: does electricity move with inertia? Helmholtz asked Hertz to work on the problem. After a
year of hard work, Hertz demonstrated through a series of experiments that if
electric current has any mass it must be incredibly small. It must be kept in
mind that at that time the electron had not been yet discovered by J.J.
Thompson. For his efforts, Hertz won the gold medal offered
by the Berlin University in August 1879.
in Other fields
#2 HE WAS THE FIRST TO DISCOVER
In 1887, during his work on electromagnetism, Hertz
reported another important phenomenon which was later
called photoelectric effect. He shone ultraviolet light on
electrically charged metal, observing that UV light caused the metal to
lose its charge faster than otherwise. Hertz published his findings in
the journal Annalen der Physik. He did not further investigate
this effect. In 1899, J. J. Thomson established that UV light actually
ejected electrons from metal. This led Albert Einstein to rethink the
theory of light and, in 1905, he correctly proposed that light came in
distinct packets of energy called photons. Einstein’s
explanation of photoelectric effect led to the rise
of quantum mechanics, a field in physics which describes
nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic
The photoelectric effect refers to the emission of
electrons from a material when it is exposed to light or
other electromagnetic radiation. The main idea behind
the photoelectric effect is that photons of light can
transfer their energy to electrons in a material, causing
the electrons to be emitted and leading to a flow of
#3 HEINRICH HERTZ DISCOVERED
RADIO WAVES(LOW FREQUENCY LIGHT WAVES)
Hertz was 7 years old when James Clerk Maxwell wrote the famous equations
of electromagnetic theory. No one was able to generate electromagnetic waves
until Hertz in 1887. Hertz was 30 years old at the time.
Hertz was demonstrating electrical sparks to his students in 1886. He noticed
during the lecture that sparks produced a regular electrical vibration within the
Hertz thought that this vibration was caused by accelerating and decelerating
electrical charges. If Maxwell was right, this would radiate electromagnetic
waves through air. Then he performed an experiment
In 1886, Hertz decided to take up the challenge of proving Maxwell’s theory by
experiment. He devised an oscillator made of two polished brass
knobs separated by a tiny gap. He applied high voltage a.c. electricity across the
central spark-gap, creating sparks. Hertz reasoned that, if Maxwell was
right, these sparks would generate electromagnetic waves. To test this, he made
a simple receiver of looped wire. At the ends of the loop were small knobs
separated by a tiny gap. When Hertz turned on the oscillator, sparks in the
transmitter produced sparks in the receiver. This was the
first controlled transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves. Heinrich
Hertz thus discovered radio waves, a type of electromagnetic waves. They were
in fact initially known as “Hertzian waves”
Radio waves are
type of electromagnetic radiation
frequency 3 kHz to 300 GHz
speed of radio waves in a vacuum
is 299,792,458 (m/s)
HowHertz Produce Radio Waves
or Hertzain wave
3. A circular detector will
catch the little spark to see the
Hertz often change the size of
a gap to check the strength of
1. It covert the DC
battery into very
voltage and large
2. He have a
two wires at the
and metal bobs
at the end to
create the wave
Heinrich Hertz was only 36 years old when
he died of complications in surgery to
fix his constant migraines.
In just 15 years of his scientific career
Hertz made pioneering contributions to
various fields of physics.
From Maxwell to Einstein, Hertz is the
famous experimenter whose observations
either confirmed a previous theory or
laid groundwork for a new theory. Hertz
is among the few scientists in whose
honor an SI unit is named.