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Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?

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Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?

  1. 1. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br />Instituto de Estudos Políticos, UCP, 19 de Outubro de 2009 José Manuel Fernandes<br />
  2. 2. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Está tudo a mudar, e muito depressa<br />The Book That Contains All Books<br />The globally available Kindle could mark as big a shift for reading as the printing press and the codex<br />On Monday [today], the Kindle 2 will become the first e-reader available globally. The only other events as important to the history of the book are the birth of print and the shift from the scroll to bound pages. The e-reader, now widely available, will likely change our thinking and our being as profoundly as the two previous pre-digital manifestations of text. The question is how. And the answer can be found in the history of earlier book forms.<br />Wall Street Journal, 17 October 2009<br />
  3. 3. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Está tudo a mudar, e muito depressa<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch_popup?v=sIFYPQjYhv8#t=38<br />
  4. 4. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> O papel da imprensa livre numa democracia liberal<br />RalfDahrendorf<br />A síntese contemporânea das condições para identificarmos uma democracia liberal<br />IsaiahBerlin<br />Arguedthatwhathecalled &apos;positive&apos; and &apos;negative&apos; libertyweremutuallyopposingconcepts<br />KarlPopper<br />Democracy is a means to remove those in power without bloodshed<br />
  5. 5. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> O papel da imprensa livre numa democracia liberal<br />O essencial, segundo RalphDahrendorf: <br />Uma democracia liberal deve assegurar: <br />que é possível mudar de governo sem violência, <br />que existe um sistema de pesos e contrapesos e limita o poder de quem o detém e, por fim, tal regime <br />deve assegurar que o povo tem sempre direito a exprimir-se<br />
  6. 6. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> O papel da imprensa livre numa democracia liberal<br />Um velho problema<br />A imprensa é o quarto poder? O primeiro poder?<br />A imprensa deve ser um contra-poder?<br />A imprensa deve ser um contra-peso?<br />
  7. 7. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> O papel da imprensa livre numa democracia liberal<br />A imprensa deve ser um contra-peso<br />A imprensa deve dar visibilidade ao funcionamento dos diferentes contra-pesos<br />A imprensa deve dar voz ao povo<br />A imprensa deve assegurar o pluralismo<br />A imprensa deve desempenhar o papel de “watchdog”<br />
  8. 8. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> A objectividade é inalcançável, mas isso não autoriza o relativismo<br />There&apos;salwaysbeenbiasinthe media. Humanbeings are biased, sotheworkthey do, includingreporting, isinevitablycolored. Hell, I can show you 10 differentways to colorvariationsoftheword &quot;said&quot; -- muttered, shouted, announced, reluctantlyreplied, responded, etc. -- to influencetheway a readerwillapprehendexactlythesamequote. (…)<br />Weare alsosupposed to learnduringthatsameapprenticeshipis to recognizethedangerouspowerofthattechnique, andmanyothers, anddevelopbuilt-inalarmsagainstthem.<br />Buteven more important, we are alsosupposed to betaughtthateventhoughthereis no suchthing as pure, Platonicobjectivityinreporting, we are to spendourcareersstruggling to approachthat ideal as closely as possible.<br />Thatmeansconstantlychallengingourownprejudices, systematicallypresentingopposingviewsandnever, everburyingstoriesthatcontradictourownworldviewsorchallengepeopleorinstitutionswe admire. Ifwecan&apos;tachieveOlympiandetachment, thanatleastwecanrecognizehumanfrailty -- especiallyinourselves.<br />MICHAEL S. MALONE, um dos mais conhecidos jornalistas e editorialistas dos Estados Unidos<br />
  9. 9. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Um exemplo de como pode haver desequilíbrio na cobertura jornalística <br />Um dos resultados possíveis, de acordo com uma análise de uma organização independente, <br />o PEW RESEARCH CENTER&apos;S PROJECT FOR EXCELLENCE IN JOURNALISM<br />
  10. 10. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> A difícil relação entre os jornalistas e o poder <br />Alguns pecados capitais<br /><ul><li>O acesso a círculos inacessíveis para a maioria dos cidadãos
  11. 11. A partilha de “segredos”
  12. 12. A cumplicidade dos “off therecord”
  13. 13. O vaivém entre os lugares de assessoria e as redacções
  14. 14. A “negociação” do destaque das notícias
  15. 15. O sonho de um dia estar “do lado de lá”, sendo que exemplos não faltam
  16. 16. O jornalismo visto como uma “missão política”
  17. 17. O domínio do “politicamente correcto”
  18. 18. Os défices de formação e de cultura
  19. 19. A confusão entre a notícia, a análise, o comentário e a opinião</li></li></ul><li>Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Um mundo em mudança<br />O problema não os venderem cada vez menos, o problema é que os mais novos não lêem nem lerão jornais como dantes<br />Gráfico que mostra a evolução da circulação dos jornais comparada com a da população. <br />A queda inicia-se nos anos 90, com a Internet.<br />
  20. 20. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Um mundo em mudança<br />A imprensa escrita teve 75 anos para se ir adaptando à rádio, 50 para a televisão, menos de 10 anos para saber lidar com a internet<br />Uma enorme quantidade de novas tecnologias entram continuamente no mercado e não se conhece o seu impacto<br />
  21. 21. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Um mundo em mudança<br />E a imprensa tradicional não está a conseguir reagir, pois a difusão continua a cair apesar de todo o tipo de promoções: DVD’s, livros, talheres, pratos, medalinhas e por aí adiante <br />
  22. 22. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Existe futuro para o jornalismo livre?<br />Um problema novo: não é só a sobrevivência de muitos jornais <br />que está em causa, é a sobrevivência <br />do próprio jornalismo. <br />E será que pode haver democracia com qualidade sem bom jornalismo?<br />
  23. 23. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br />Existe futuro para o jornalismo livre?<br />“What is happening right before us is, in short, a revolution in the way young people are accessing news… They want control over their media, instead of being controlled by it. They want to question, to probe, to offer a different angle.”<br />RubertMurdoch<br />
  24. 24. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Já não comunicamos uns com os outros da mesma maneira<br />O novo ecossistema mediático deixou de ter os jornais, a rádio e a televisão no centro, e tem muito mais protagonistas<br />
  25. 25. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Já não comunicamos uns com os outros da mesma maneira<br />Só que tudo passará a ser diferente, uma vez que o tipo de conteúdos que se reclama na Net é também muito diferente<br />
  26. 26. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Vão os jornais transformar-se em marcas de informação?<br />Our real business isn&apos;t printing on dead trees. It&apos;s giving our readers great journalism and great judgment<br />If papers provide readers with news they can trust, we&apos;ll see gains in circulation—on our web pages, through our RSS feeds, in emails delivering customised news and advertising, to mobile phones.<br />In short, we are moving from news papers to news brands.<br />Robert Murdoch, 16-11-2008<br />
  27. 27. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Vão os jornais transformar-se em marcas de informação?<br />&quot;En cinco años, con toda seguridadexistirán periódicos escritos. Dentro de 10, si se hacenlas cosas precisas, a lomejor, probablementesí. <br />En 15, no estoy seguro de que siganexistiendo tal y como losconocemos. Existirán si luchamos para que existan&quot;, ha explicado Cebrián. Y para ello, ladirección de PRISA ha tomado &quot;ladecisión más importante de esta empresa desde sufundación”(...).<br />&quot;EL PAÍS se va a convertiren una empresa de producción de contenidos de calidad para papel, internet y teléfonosmóviles&quot;, a través de unnuevo modelo organizativo que supone &quot;un cambio estructural&quot; y cristaliza enlacreación de tresnuevas empresas. <br />Laredacción de EL PAÍS se fundirá conla de suediciónen internet (que hasta el momento dependía de otra empresa del grupo, Prisacom). Esta integración no se limita a unnivelperiodístico, sino que constituyetambién una fusión de operaciones económicas. Así, se creará una empresa de contenidos de calidadbajola marca de EL PAÍS enla que trabajaranalrededor de mediomillar de profesionales.<br />
  28. 28. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Vamos aceder de outra forma à informação<br />Uma parte daesperança é quecomeçam a aparecemaparelhosquepodemfacilitar, no futuro, a manutenção do habito de pagarparaterinformaçãodiferenciada<br />
  29. 29. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Vamos aceder de outra forma à informação<br />Até a The Economist tem esperança…<br />http://www.economist.com/opinion/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13109596<br />http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id=13109804&source=hptextfeature<br />
  30. 30. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Existe futuro para o jornalismo livre?<br />Mas mesmo que seja possível encontrar um novo modelo de negócio, nada está garantido.<br />E as novas formas ditas de jornalismo, como o chamado “jornalismo cidadão”, não cumprem as regras mínimas, nem têm condições, para assegurarem a missão do jornalismo livre numa democracia liberal.<br />
  31. 31. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Mas será que podemos sobreviver sem o jornalismo típico dos jornais?<br />Despiteallthedevelopmentofother media, thefactisthatnewspapersinrecentyearshavecontinued to fieldthemajorityofreportersand to producemostofthe original news storiesincitiesacrossthecountry. DrawingonstudiesconductedbythePewResearchCenter&apos;s Project for ExcellenceinJournalism, Tom Rosenstiel, theproject&apos;s director, saysthat as of 2006 a typicalmetropolitanpaperranseventystories a day, countingthenational, local, andbusinesssections (addinginthesportsandstylesectionswouldbringthe total closer to a hundred), whereas a half-houroftelevision news includedonlyten to twelve. <br />Andwhilelocal TV news typicallyemphasizes crime, fires, andtraffictie-ups, newspapersprovidemostofthe original coverageofpublicaffairs. Studiesofnewspaperandbroadcastjournalismhaverepeatedlyshownthatbroadcast news followsthe agenda setbynewspapers, oftenrepeatingthesameitems, albeitwithlessdepth.<br />
  32. 32. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Mas será que podemos sobreviver sem o jornalismo típico dos jornais?<br />
  33. 33. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Mas será que podemos sobreviver sem o jornalismo típico dos jornais?<br />
  34. 34. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Mas será que podemos sobreviver sem o jornalismo típico dos jornais?<br />
  35. 35. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Mas será que podemos sobreviver sem a profundidade dos jornais?<br />
  36. 36. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Relação entre jornais livres e corrupção<br />Itisnotjust a speculativepropositionthatcorruptionis more likely to flourishwhenthoseinpowerhavelessreason to fearexposure. <br />TheWorldBankproducesanannualindexofpoliticalcorruption. In a studypublishedin 2003 in TheJournalofLaw, Economics, andOrganization, Alicia Adsera, CarlesBoix, andMarkPayne examine therelationshipbetweencorruptionand &quot;freecirculationofdailynewspapersperperson”. <br />Controlling for economicdevelopment, typeof legal system, andotherfactors, theyfind a verystrongassociation: thelowerthefreecirculationofnewspapersin a country, thehigherit stands onthecorruptionindex. Usingdifferentmeasures, theyalsofind a similar relationshipacrossstateswithintheUnitedStates: thelowerthe news circulation, thegreaterthecorruption. <br />Anotheranalysispublishedin 2006, a historicalaccountbytheeconomistsMatthewGentzkow, Edward L. Glaeser, andClaudiaGoldin, suggeststhatthegrowthof a more information-orientedpressmayhavebeen a factor inreducinggovernmentcorruptionintheUnitedStatesbetweentheGilded Age andtheProgressive Era.<br />
  37. 37. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> Relação entre jornais livres e corrupção<br />News coverageisnotallthatnewspapershavegivenus. Theyhavelentthepublic a powerfulmeansofleverageoverthestate, andthisleverageisnowatrisk. Ifwetakeseriouslythenotionofnewspapers as a fourthestateor a fourthbranchofgovernment, theendofthe age ofnewspapersimplies a changeinourpoliticalsystemitself. Newspapershavehelped to controlcorrupttendenciesinbothgovernmentandbusiness. Ifwe are to avoid a new era ofcorruption, we are going to have to summonthatpowerinotherways. Ournewtechnologies do not retire ouroldresponsibilities.<br />Paul StarrisStuart professor ofcommunicationsandpublicaffairsattheWoodrow Wilson Schoolat Princeton Universityandtheauthormostrecentlyof Freedom&apos;sPower (Basic Books).<br />
  38. 38. Porque precisamos ainda de jornais?<br /> A conclusão é a de sempre<br />The basis of our governments being the opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right; and were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter. <br />Thomas Jefferson <br />Letter to Edward Carrington, 1787. <br />

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