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Knowledge Management for Agile ProjectsHemavathi.ASeethalakshmi RNokia Siemens Networks
Agenda• Introduction to Knowledge Management (KM) concepts• Importance of Knowledge Management• Knowledge Management and Agile Projects• Challenges of KM in Agile Projects• KM Process Model for Agile projects• Technologies supporting KM in Agile Projects• Conclusion www.agiletour.org
Knowledge Management Concepts• Data is simply a collection of facts and figures.• Information relates to description, definition, orperspective (what, who, when, where).• Knowledge comprises strategy, practice, method, orapproach (how).• Wisdom embodies principle, insight, moral, orarchetype (why).The sequence data -> information -> knowledge ->wisdom represents an emergent continuum.Although data is a discrete entity, the progression to WISDOMinformation, to knowledge, and finally to wisdom doesnot occur in discrete stages of development. Oneprogresses along the continuum as onesunderstanding develops. www.agiletour.org
Knowledge Management Concepts Differentiated – the element (software) is divided into many modules • What is more highly differentiated and less integrated is more complex. • While high levels of differentiation without integration promote the complicated. • Which is highly integrated, without differentiation, produces mundane. • We tend to avoid the complicated and are uninterested in the mundane. The complexity that exists between these two alternatives is the path we generally find most attractive. www.agiletour.org
Knowledge Management ConceptsExplicitKnowledge that is codified, recorded or actualized into some form outside of thehead, e.g., documents, books, periodicals, journals, maps, photographs, audio-recordings, webpages, websites, portalsTacitKnowledge gained from experience and insight, not in a recorded form, but in ourheads, e.g., intuitionIntellectual CapitalOrganization assets in terms of intellectual property. Highly formalized form ofknowledge.In simple language, KM is an effort to capture not only explicit informationbut also the tacit information and knowledge that exists in an organization,usually based on the experience and learning of individual employees, inorder to advance the organizations mission. The eventual goal is to shareknowledge among members of the organization. www.agiletour.org
Importance of Knowledge Management“If only HP knew what it knows, it would make three times more profittomorrow.” -Lew Platt, ex-CEO Hewlett Packard“Most activities or tasks are not one-time events. Whether it’s drilling awell or conducting a transaction at a service station, we do the samethings repeatedly. Our philosophy is fairly simple: every time we dosomething again, we should do it better than the last time.” - Sir John Steely Browne, BP, Harvard Business Review, 1997“The survival of the fittest is as inexorable for organizations as it is innature.” www.agiletour.org
Knowledge Management and Agile Projects• Agile does not mean – No Knowledge Management• Agile Values – Working software versus comprehensive documentation ismisinterpreted many times in the context of Knowledge Management• One of the main characteristics of Agile methodologies is their attempt toemphasize the company’s organizational and project memory • From exhaustive external to tacit knowledge – to increase accessibility. • Eliminate documentation process related wastes, which hinder project progress. • Recent information from a team member is valued more than the archived documentation.Knowledge Management and Agile are not mutually exclusive in their values.How one achieves KM may differ depending on the project is Agile orTraditional. www.agiletour.org
Challenges of KM in Agile Projects• Psychological • To win the psychological battle to believe that Knowledge Management can be very effective in Agile Projects. • Attitude towards making an attempt towards KM in everyday life.• Team structures • Functional Teams/Cross functional Teams • Knowledge is available within the team for their tasks as they are functional experts. But there is erosion of specific information over time. • Team members find themselves in situations where they know that they have had a certain problem before, but cannot remember its solution. www.agiletour.org
Challenges of KM in Agile Projects• Feature Teams • Should be able to take up any area of the product. Hence a breadth of know-how is always required. • It is very difficult to remember the different types of tasks that the teams were doing and hence, it becomes mandatory to archive some knowledge gained through experience. • Subject matter experts in larger teams find themselves spending much time in repeatedly answering the same questions.• Virtual Teams • There is no direct knowledge exchange between members of different teams if they do not belong to the same community. • Important knowledge is lost as soon as experienced developers leave the project or company. www.agiletour.org
KM Process Model for Agile projects What To know What is your:The Cycle of KM With every cycle, Product – KM Elementsneeds to be repeated Process – KM Elements knowledge basefor every Agile project grows How When To know how to capture , To know When to capture KM different types of KM Elements Elements depending on the type of KM Element. Dynamic – (Tacit )- During project execution Electronic – Media of KM Static – (Explicit) - Before or after Code project execution Tech -Forums www.agiletour.org
Technologies supporting KM in Agile ProjectsStatic knowledge :The knowledge that is mostly explicit in nature. These are required to be done once for aproject and required as reference for the teams to be able to function throughout the project.• Product Technical architecture description• Security Threat and Risk analysisTECHNOLOGY SUPPORTING: Formal documentation archiving software. Informationmanagement systems.Dynamic Knowledge:The knowledge that is mostly needs to be captured during the project execution during day today task completion (not always) .• Comments in code• Wiki update for interface changes• New learning about the product. Technical queriesTECHNOLOGY SUPPORTING: Wiki, webpages, discussion forums, Technical boot strappingsessions, chat rooms (geographically separated teams), screen capturing and video capturingsoftware. www.agiletour.org
Conclusion• Agile and Knowledge Management go hand in hand. An Agile team which practices Knowledge Management principles will be the winner in the long run.• Organizations survive if the knowledge is managed in knowledge industries.• Agile Teams GROW more confident with Knowledge Management.• Like the famous saying by Mark Victor Hansen goes: “Don’t just think it, Ink it !” www.agiletour.org
ReferencesLinks from Internet:http://www.systems-thinking.org/kmgmt/kmgmt.htmhttp://www.knowledge-management-online.com/Definition-of-Knowledge-Management.htmlhttp://integrative-paradigm.org/papers/Eckm2005Dace_156.pdfhttp://ase.cpsc.ucalgary.ca/uploads/Publications/ChauMaurerMelnik.pdfWhite Papers:Knowledge Management Support for Distributed Agile Software ProcessesHarald Holz - University of Kaiserslautern, Department of Computer Science,Frank Maurer - University of Calgary, Department of Computer Science www.agiletour.org