• “Hypothesis is a tentative
prediction or explanation of the
relationship between two
variables’ It implies that there is a
systematic relationship between
an independent and dependent
• “Hypothesis is a shrewd guess or
inference that is formulated and
provisionally adopted to explain
observed facts or conditions and
to guide in further
… GOOD & HATT
• Hypothesis provides objectivity
to the research activity.
• Hypothesis provides directions
to conduct research.
• Hypothesis provides clear and
specific goals to the researchers.
These goals provide the
investigator with a basis for
selecting sample and research
procedures to meet the set
• Hypothesis provides a link
between theories and actual
• It serves as a bridge between
theory and reality.
• A hypothesis suggests the
methodology to be chosen to
conduct the study.
• It is a tentative statement of the
anticipated results, it guides the
researcher towards the direction
in which the research should
• It stimulates the thinking process
of the researcher a the
researcher forms the hypotheses
by anticipating the outcome.
• It provides directions about the
methodology to be chosen &
techniques of data analysis.
• Hypothesis provides an
understanding of the researchers
about what to expect from the
results of the study.
• It serves as a framework for
drawing conclusions of a
• Without a hypothesis a research
would be an aimless wandering.
• A good hypothesis must be written
in declarative form using present
• It must contain variables,
population under study and should
be relevant to the research
problem & objectives.
A GOOD HYPOTHESIS
1. CONCEPTUAL CLARITY.
2. EMPIRICAL REFERENTS.
• It must be verifiable.
• E.g., a hypothesis such as “bad
parents produce bad children”.,
cannot be tested.
• A testable hypothesis clearly
states the manipulatable
independent variables and
measurable dependent variables
in specific population which
provides a clear idea about an
interventional protocol and
whether it will be implemented
precisely and consistently as a
treatment in the study.
• A good hypothesis states the
causal link between independent
and dependent variables, which
is later evaluated by using
inferential statistical tests.
• A hypothesis should be consistent
with an existing body of theories,
research findings and other
• It should correspond with existing
• A hypothesis should be
formulated in simple and
• It should require fewer
conditions and assumptions.
• COMPLEX HYPOTHESIS : It is a
statement which reflects the
relationship between more than
• (E.g., satisfaction among patients
who are older & dwelling in rural
areas than those who are
younger & living in urban areas)
• CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS : Predicts
the cause-and-effect relationship
between two or more dependent
and independent variables in
experimental or interventional
setting, where independent
variable is manipulated by
researcher to examine the effect
on dependent variable.