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  1. Organic Chemistry
  2. Organic Chemistry Inorganic Organic Hydrocarbons contain Carbon & Hydrogen ONLY!!!!!! C has 4 valence e-’s 4 covalent bonds tetrahedral Low M.P. Slow reactors Poor conductors Contains only small amount of Carbon (I.e., carbides, oxides) Ionic or Covalent bonds High MP, strong intermolecular forces Contains Carbon!!!! (CHON) Covalent bonds EXCEPT CO2 it’s inorganic Has Carbon
  3. Alkane Single bonds CnH2n+2 Ends in -ane Alkene One double bond CnH2n Ends in -ene Saturated All single bonds--- ALKANES ONLY!! Ex. C2H6 H H H- C- C- H H H Ex. C2H4 H H H- C=C-H
  4. Alkyne 1 triple bond CnH2n-2 Ends in -yne Aromatic Ring CnH2n-6 Benzene Toluene Unsaturated Double or triple bonds Alkenes & Alkynes Ex. C2H2 H-C=C-H
  5. Naming Hydrocarbons Prefix 1-meth 2-eth 3-prop 4-but 5-pent 6-hex 7-hept 8-oct 9-non 10-dec Branches F-fluoro- Cl-chloro- Br-bromo- CH3- methyl CH3CH2- ethyl
  6. Steps: Find longest chain of carbons, circle it Name the longest chain of carbons Look for double/triple bonds (tell where they are) Look for branches, name, & tell where they are Ex. H H H H H-C- C- C- C- H H H H H Butane Ex. #2 CH3-CH2-CH2-CH-CH2-CH3 CH3 3-methyl hexane
  7. Characteristics of Hydrocarbons: Carbon has 4 valence e-’s, so it makes 4 covalent bonds Can be found in nature Can be straight chained or branched Contains only Carbon & Hydrogen Soluble in nonpolar solvents Non electrolytes Non polar Low M.P.
  8. Isomers Same molecular formula Different structural formula Count up the atoms, put in different order C5H12 -C-C-C-C-C- C5H12 -C-C-C-C- C
  9. Functional Groups Primary- 1 C attached to C-OH Secondary- 2 C attached to C-OH Tertiary 3 C attached to C-OH Alcohol -OH name ends in “ol” Tell what C # it is on Monohydroxy-1 OH Dihydroxy-2OH (diols) Trihydroxy- 3OH (glycerol) Acid End in “oic acid” Occurs at the end of a chain Conduct electricity -COOH -C O OH Table R CH3COOH 2-pentanol
  10. Functional Groups Ester Ether Occurs in the middle of a chain -COOC- Draw line between single bond O and C Single bond side (yl) Double bond side (oate) Occurs in middle of chain CH3CH2OCH3 H on the carbon Branch (yl) Branch(yl) ether -C-O-C- -C O O-C-
  11. Functional Groups Amine Derivative of ammonia. Has Nitrogen Name ends in –amine Must tell what #C it’s on. -N- Ex. CH3CH2NH2 1- ethanamine Amide Formed when one of the H’s of the amine react w/the OH of an acid to produce an amide & water. Has N and a double bonded oxygen O CH3CH2CH2CONH2 -C-N-H butanamide On the end. Ends in amide. Ketone Occurs in the middle of a chain CH3COCH3 No H on the carbon -C-C-C- O Ends in “one” Tell what C#
  12. Functional Groups Aldehyde HO ends in “al” occurs at the end of a chain -CHO -C O H
  13. Types of Organic Reactions Substitution Substitute on atom for another Alkane + diatomic Addition Add both atoms of the diatomic Alkene + diatomic CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl +HCl H H H-C-H + Cl-Cl H-C-Cl + H-Cl H H C2H4 + Br2 C2H4Br2 H H Br Br C=C + Br-Br H-C-C-H H H H H
  14. Types of Organic Reactions Fermentation Enzymatic reaction (zymase) Glucose ==> ethanol + CO2 Saponification Fatty acid + strong base==> soap C6H12O6 ==> C2H5OH + CO2 R-COOH + NaOH ==> 3CH3(CH2)16- C-O-Na+ O
  15. Types of Organic Reactions Polymerization 1. Condensation: start with an alkane remove water 2. Addition: start with an alkene Natural : cellulose, starch, proteins Synthetic: nylon, polyethylene X(C2H4) ==> H(CH2-CH2)xH H H H H H H H H HO-C-C-OH + HO-C-C-OH ==> HO-C-C-O-C-C-OH+H2O H H H H H H H H
  16. Types of Reactions Esterification Alcohol + acid ==> ester + water Combustion Oxidation or burning Fractional Distillation Cracking CH4 + O2 ==> CO2 +H2O A controlled process by which hydrocarbons are broken down or rearranged into smaller, more useful molecules. A process used to separate liquids with different B.P.’s (which is boiled to produce a vapor that’s then condensed into a liquid).