Fish feed industry in Egypt: constraints and solutions
Wird geladen in ... 3
1 von 8
Top clipped slide
EXPERT TOPIC 1402- TROUT
26. Mar 2014•0 gefällt mir
1 gefällt mir
Sei der Erste, dem dies gefällt
Anzahl der Einbettungen
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
According to the World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, approximately 576.2 thousand tons of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are cultured in 69 countries throughout the world, valued at 2.4 billion dollars.
36 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2014
Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look
at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
ccording to the World Journal of
Fish and Marine Sciences, approx-
imately 576.2 thousand tons of
rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) are cultured in 69 countries through-
out the world, valued at 2.4 billion dollars.
The production of rainbow trout has
grown exponentially since the 1950’s and the
total global production today is second only
to Atlantic salmon. Major producing countries
include Iran, Germany, Australia, Norway and
Asia’s aquaculture history dates back thou-
sands of years. In the 1980’s, The Islamic
Republic of Iran invested heavily in aquacul-
ture development with the culture of rainbow
trout along the Caspian Sea.
Trout farms are mainly found across the
centre, northwestern and western parts of the
country. Iran’s trout farming systems consist
of simple raceways made of concrete that
harbor a continuous water flow. As a result
of improved farming techniques and facilities,
the country’s annual production of trout has
In1978, Iran reportedly produced 280
tonnes of trout. In 2009, total production
reached 73 642 tonnes. Rainbow trout now
accounts for 13.26 percent of Iran's overall
GermanyToday, rainbow trout is the most important
cultured species in Germany. First introduced
from North America in 1880, production
figures for this species have increased annually
over the last 40 years, reaching approximately
24000 tonnes in 2003.
This increase in production is mainly due
to milestones in the country’s aquaculture
systems, namely, the development of artificial
feeds, construction of flow-through-systems,
artificial oxygen enrichment of production
water and effective disease control.
Currently, trout is cultured in flow through
units throughout the southern part of the
country, mainly in the States of Baden-
Württemberg and Bavaria. These aquaculture
systems are also found in the States of Lower
Saxony, Hessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen and
Germany’s trout farming production
reached €113 million in 2005, making up
60 percent of the country’s total aquaculture
AustraliaThe farming of both rainbow and brown
trout is a valuable contributor to Australia’s
Rainbow trout were first introduced to the
country in 1927 as a source of recreational
fishing in the south west of the state. Trout
farming in New South Wales began in the
early 1970s and today provides annual rev-
enue of $12 million.
Rainbow trout is also a dominant freshwa-
ter aquaculture species cultured southeast-
ern state of Victoria. Primarily harvested in
Victoria’s cooler Alpine regions, the history
of Victoria’s trout rearing dates back to 1870.
Today, there are approximately 20 farms
in operation in the state, a few of which were
established throughout the 70’s and 80’s.
Between 2010 and 2011, the Victorian
trout farming sector was responsible for the
production of approximately 1000 tonnes
of fish, a notable figure in light of the of the
numerous droughts and bushfires in recent
In Tasmania, rainbow trout are grown in
both freshwater and saltwater systems. The
first Tasmanian trial trout farm was established
in 1964 in Bridport, a small town on the
northeast coast of Tasmania.
By 1981, oceanic net pen rearing of
rainbow trout was being carried out on an
experimental basis, and by 1983 several
companies had successfully established marine
farming of rainbow trout, operating on both
the southeastern and western coasts.
NorwayRainbow trout is the only non-native species
of fish in Norwegian aquaculture.
First introduced into the country in 1900,
the species was first cultivated in freshwater in
the early 1960s. Following successful intensive
rearing processes, Norway’s trout production
March-April 2014 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 37
is now primarily reared in sea cages, although a small number of
fish are still harvested in freshwater ponds and tanks.
Current exports account for 95 percent of the country’s
total aquaculture production. As one of the world’s leading trout
exporters, it is not surprising that
Norwegian reared fished are exported to over 130 different
The EU imports a large amount of Norwegian trout, with
Denmark and France at the forefront in terms of export volume.
Norway’s exports also extend to Russia and other eastern
European countries. Currently, Japan and Russia import the largest
volume of trout.
FranceAs one of the first European countries to develop a steady aqua-
culture industry, French aquaculture is notable for the production
of trout farming.
Trout rearing mainly takes place in Aquitaine, located in the
southwest and Bretagne in the northwest. These two regions
account for 47 percent of the country’s total trout production.
There are however, a range of farms throughout the rest of the
country including Nord Pas de Calais, Normandy, Rhône-Alpes
Currently, the French trout farming industry employs approxi-
mately 2 000 people. 3 percent of the larger production compa-
nies produce more than 500 tonnes of fish annually. Interestingly,
although they produce less than 100 tonnes each, smaller trout
producer in the region represent 84 percent of France’s total
France is the third largest producer of trout after Chile and
Norway and in 2004, approximately 35 128 tonnes of the species
was produced with a market value of around €135 million.
At present, France’s rainbow trout market is divided in to three
• Direct consumption: accounts for approximately 80 percent
of trout production with a market value of €130 million
• Angling: accounts for 12 percent of production with a
market value of €16 million
• Restocking: accounts for 8 percent of production with a
market value of €7 million
France currently exports around 5 300 tonnes of rainbow trout
to Belgium and Germany and imports around 3 000 tonnes from
Norway and Spain.
P.O. Box 8 • 100 Airport Road
Sabetha, KS 66534, USA
Many leading aquafeed manufacturers in the
industry count on Extru-Tech to engineer
the perfect aquafeed production solution.
Industry leading equipment and engineered
production advantages will give you the
upper hand over the competition. Could
you use a cost effective improvement in
performance and finished product quality?
Contact one of the aquafeed Consultants
at extru-tech today at 785-284-2153.
TOP of the
production to the
ET-221A.indd 1 1/20/12 1:57 PM38 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2014
trout in the
UK - More
than just food
estled in Coln Valley, within the
lush Cotwolds in the UK and
not far from IAF’s head office is
the Bibury Trout Farm - one of
Britain’s oldest aquaculture facilities.
Founded originally by Arthur Servern, a
dedicated naturalist, to supply the native
Brown Trout to local rivers; it has evolved
over the years, latterly under Kate Marriott’s
ownership – and is now capable of produc-
ing 6 million trout ova from its hatchery
every year, the majority being Rainbow Trout
more suited to lake and reservoir habitats.
Regardless of its age, established in 1902 – it
is anything but ancient;
Bibury Trout Farm has successfully solidi-
fied itself as both a bustling tourist attraction
and innovative industrial fish producer. It has
also been instrumental in bringing together its
local community, assisting with local business
and helping to bring even more life to an
already vibrant community.
Dedicated to its continued heritage, Bibury
Trout Farm proudly maintains its conservation
efforts – stocking local rivers, reservoirs and
lakes throughout the United Kingdom.
Three-fourths of its fish production, backed
by local fishing syndicates, goes towards this
process; restocking rainbow and brown trout
at all stages of life. Although Bibury Trout
Farm only uses one-fourth of its fish produc-
tion for direct market sales, it still produces
approximately 125 tonnes of trout annually
Domestically, Bibury transports trout eggs
throughout the United Kingdom; its supply
chain reaching as far North as Scotland –
paying careful attention to the handling,
temperature and packaging of its product in
order to ensure it maintains it's high quality
A multitude of
Bibury Trout Farm has success-
fully implemented a multitude of bio-
security measures in order to mitigate
and reduce the risk of disease within
By sourcing only from its own
hatchery (apart from periodic
refreshment of broodstock), Bibury
is able to successfully simplify its
supply chain and in the process
eliminate the chance of cross con-
tamination – growing its fish all
the way from the initial egg to
Employees are effectively
trained in the ethical and hygienic
handling of fish, consistently wash-
ing their hands and feet between
stations in order to maintain a
sanitary and safe environment.
Frequently samples of trout are
taken and recorded in order to
ensure that the health and sustain-
ability of the fish is maintained. The
feed producer Skretting has also
been instrumental in the wellbeing,
health and growth of Bibury Trout
Farm as a whole, providing flexible
options for finance during times of
hardship and also providing an aux-
iliary of veterinary services which
further cements the bio-security of
Tourists from all over the world
flock to Bibury Trout Farm, cap-
tivated by the beauty of the local
area and facilities.
Bibury Trout Farm success-
fully draws a multitude of demographics (for
example from trout producing countries such
as Turkey and Iran to name just two), from
young school children to retirees looking to
enjoy their spare time.
This open atmosphere and popularity pro-
vides a unique opportunity in which to further
educate consumers on the trout industry and
its farming practices, providing them with
greater perspective and understanding.
Using its onsite smoke foundry, Bibury is
able to indulge its customers by producing
a variety of diverse trout based cuisine; such
as fresh trout, smoked trout, caviar and trout
cakes. This variety of dishes will hopefully
provide consumers with the opportunity to
see just how many different ways trout can be
incorporated into their day-to-day diet.
Known as the “Greedy Fish” in Latin, trout
provides us with not just an excellent form
of fish production – but also an enjoyable
Bibury Trout Farm helps to maintain this
sport by providing fisherman and anglers from
across the globe with the opportunity to fish
from the re-stocked lakes and rivers dotted
throughout the United Kingdom.
Furthermore, Bibury provides children with
the opportunity to fish directly from the
facility, ensuring a catch to help build their
confidence and passion for aquaculture at a
Although Bibury Trout Farm doesn’t follow
the traditional methods of table farming, it
has helped to bring more upbeat enthusiasm
to the trout industry as a whole. Developing
and improving its local community through
conservation, tourism and diversification of
product – Bibury Trout Farm proves that
successful aquaculture isn’t just about food
production; but environmental sustainability
and recreation as well.
March-April 2014 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 39
ccording to the history books
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus
mykiss) were introduced to
Australia just after 1860 and
Victoria has held on to the mantle of being
the largest supplier of freshwater trout to
the Australian market ever since.
Most of the fish produced in Victoria's
cool alpine regions, primarily in the upper
Goulburn River system, and whilst shorter
lived than brown trout (cultured primarily
for restocking purposes), the rainbows grow
faster in most circumstances.
Victorian commercial trout farming has
operated for over 40 years.
Today's farms range in size from small
tourist operations to large farms with many
ponds or raceways that produce 100s of
tonnes of fish.
Freshwater trout in Victoria are usually
farmed in flow-through raceways or ponds
under semi-intensive and intensive grow-out
systems using flow-through systems where
large quantities of water are continually
exchanged in the culture unit and fed a com-
mercial pelleted diet.
This type of farming requires a con-
siderable amount of clean, cool water
which is usually diverted from an adjacent
river. Farms licensed through the Victorian
Government Environmental Protection
Authority, to ensure water is appropriately
treated prior to discharge. This water gen-
erally passes through the production system
and on to settlement ponds or constructed
wetlands, before being discharged back into
As trout is a cold water species, it pre-
fers water temperatures between 10-20
degrees, the frequency of hotter summers
is proving to be a challenge for the industry.
Innovations, such as using oxygen injec-
tion and deeper raceways to cope with
increasing summer temperatures are being
Since the trout pioneering days of Alan
and Peter Leake, the industry has faced some
significant challenges. Over recent years they
have had to contend with massive bush fires
in 2009 which were followed by floods.
The majority of the farmers had just got
their stocks back up from the fires and the
consequential fire retardant chemicals, when
in 2010 those gains were then lost when the
fish were washed/swam away with the incred-
Most local people would recall seeing on
the television at the time, trout being picked
up from the water in the town’s street.
Getting back to normal
After 2010 the state was down to 50% of
normal production but latest news is that it
is getting back to where it was with currently
26 licensed holders and is the largest volume
aquaculture sector in Victoria.
Companies like Alpine Trout Farm in
Noojee, Victoria, at the base of the Mount
Baw Baw Ranges, (a winter snow area
Victorian Ranges about 120km east of
Melbourne), is one of those in the business
who through continuous improvement in
production techniques and environmental
management is adapting to these chal-
They have recently purchased eight ha
and 58 ponds, the farm plans to produce
400 tonnes in the year but have concerns in
Profiles of Victoria's
Brown trout were introduced to
mainland Australia from Tasmania in
1864 as fertilised eggs. Fisheries Victoria
stocks more brown trout than any other
salmonid (trout and salmon).
These stockings are predominantly
into lakes and impoundments.
This species of trout is widespread
and abundant in north eastern Victoria
where self-sustaining populations thrive
in cool, fast flowing waters. Given good
habitat and food, brown trout grow
rapidly in their second and third year of
life although few live beyond five to six
years of age.
Brown trout are considered to be a
'residential' fish exhibiting limited move-
ment from established home ranges.
They appear to dominate rainbow trout
in waters where both species exist
Chinook salmon are also known as
Quinnat salmon and King salmon and
are highly regarded by anglers as a
They were first introduced to
Australia in the 1870s. In natural circum-
stances, young and adults spend most of
their life at sea, returning to their natal
streams to spawn. Natural migratory
stocks in North America have recorded
fish of 1.6m and nearly 60kg.
In Victoria they are only stocked into
Lake Purrumbete, Lake Murdeduke and
on occasion, Lake Modewarre. These
waters have been known to produce
fish of 89cm and 11.4kg (Lake Bullen
Merri, 1981), but most fish are generally
between 1 and 3kg.
Atlantic salmon are often confused
with brown trout and were first intro-
duced to Australia in the 1860s.
In natural circumstances, most of
their life cycle is spent at sea, however
stocked populations for recreational
fishing have been maintained in Lake
Purrumbete and Lake Bullen Merri.
40 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2014
ensuring low stocking densities. The organi-
sation has its fish processed in the farm's new
500sqm on-site facility, opened in November
last year and they are growing Rainbow
trout, Golden trout, Arctic Char and Brook
The most established Victorian
Rainbow Trout organisation is Goulburn
River Trout, a family operated trout farm-
ing and processing business based near
Alexandra on the Goulburn River. The
business has been in operation for 35
years, the last 20 under the ownership of
the Meggitt family.
The business employs about 25 people,
produces about 800
tonnes of trout per
annum or 30,000
fish per week.
percent of the fish
One cannot men-
tion trout in Victoria
without talking about
– it also relies on
aquaculture for re-
The angling effort in Victoria occurs on
freshwater lakes, rivers and streams with
trout being one of the most harvested
species in these waters. The Victorian trout
fishery is a major social and economic con-
tributor to regional communities with nearly
half of all trout harvested in Australia being
caught in Victoria.
Inland anglers spend more than Aus$170
million a year pursuing trout, redfin and
native species such as Murray cod and golden
perch. In addition to providing good sport
fishing, many consider trout to be a choice
Since 1960, over 41 million trout have
been released in numerous lakes, rivers and
streams across the state.
Today, the Government utilises a com-
bination of regulation, stocking and habitat
improvement to manage trout fisheries.
The use of these tools is underpinned by
research performed by Primary Industries
Research Victoria (PIRVic) based at Snobs
Creek near Eildon.
Continuing research on trout provides
increased awareness of their behaviour and
needs, which subsequently leads to improved
trout fisheries as a result of informed manage-
ment decisions. Research also provides the
means to scientifically monitor both stocked
and wild trout in order to adjust management
To get some perspectives in the global scene
the value of Norwegian trout exports (informa-
tion from FAO Globefish) increased to NOK
1.7 billion (US$304.8 million) in 2012 because of
strong growth in volume, which totaled 56,000
tonnes, a 43 percent jump from 2011.
Norway has an export growth of 60 per-
cent in volume to Russia; Russia is fast increas-
ing its relative share of Norwegian trout
exports. In total, 55 percent of Norwegian
trout exports went to this market in 2012.
Other big trout markets were Japan and
March-April 2014 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 41
• See the full issue
• Visit the International Aquafeed website
• Contact the International Aquafeed Team
• Subscribe to International Aquafeed
The Role of prebiotics in
Poultry hydrolysates enhance stress
resistance & stress tolerance
– in Pacific white shrimp
Volume 17 Issue 2 2014 - m ARCH | APRIl
fIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy
Microalgae and aquaculture
– feed and cycle management
– our guide to the UK's premier aquaculture event
This digital re-print is part of the March | April 2014 edition of International
Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full
online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on
the docstoc website.
Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com.
To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper
edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link
INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE