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November | December 2012                     An overview of the UK fish                        vaccination industry Intern...
FEATUREAn overviewof the UK fish vaccination industryby Kathy Taylor, Salmovac, UKI     am sure everyone involved in any f...
FEATURE      important for vaccinator safety but also the          encounters as a      safety and welfare of the fish.   ...
FEATURE                                                                             encountered and the          How does ...
C      L      E       A        N    C   O   N     T      R     O         LSwivel Valve Cooler MkIINo hollow spaces | No cr...
This digital re-print is part of the November | December 2012 edition of International                                    ...
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An overview of the UK fish vaccination industry

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I am sure everyone involved in any fish vaccination would really rather prefer that they didn’t have to vaccinate. It is an expensive, time consuming, hazardous and stressful process. So why do we vaccinate fish?

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An overview of the UK fish vaccination industry

  1. 1. November | December 2012 An overview of the UK fish vaccination industry International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. FEATUREAn overviewof the UK fish vaccination industryby Kathy Taylor, Salmovac, UKI am sure everyone involved in any fish the antigens to give the immune vaccination would really rather prefer system the correct defences. If the that they didn’t have to vaccinate. It is substance that creates this reaction in an expensive, time consuming, hazard- the body is put into the feed, the body isous and stressful process. So why do we designed to deal with this by digesting and How is the procedurevaccinate fish? excreting it through the digestive system, carried out? and it does not stimulate the immune The fish are starved for 24 or 48 hours Certainly in the salmon faming Industry, it system and thus has no effect in preventing (depending on time of year) prior to vac-has become a part of the freshwater produc- disease. cination to empty the gut. The fish are thention process for many years now and it is only crowded in the tank or cage before beingsome of the ‘most mature’ members of the Who vaccinates? pumped or hand netted into an anaestheticsalmon industry remember what it was like The Atlantic salmon industry through- bath. The fish take one to two minutes tobefore oil-based vaccines were developed. out the world has been familiar with intra- become fully anaesthetised. This is extremely Prior to these effective oil-based vaccines, peritoneal (by injection)salmon producers could be expected to loose vaccinations for manymaybe 50 percent of their stocks to the main years. Trout farmersdisease threat, Furunculous. Some farms suf- occasionally vaccinatefered more than others but all had problems for Enteric Redmouthof some form or other. The only real solution Disease (ERM) on high-was treatment with antibiotics, which was not risk sites but because theonly extremely expensive but led to problems production cycle is muchwith resistance. quicker for trout than The other problem was the negative salmon, most diseasepublic perception of high usage of antibiotics can be managed throughin a food animal. This, in conjunction with a dip vaccination.few high profile cases of use of unlicensed The sea-bass industryantibiotics on fish farms, led to the industry in the Mediterranean isseeking a fresh approach to disease manage- a big growth area at the Melanisation (a permanent ‘bruise’ like mark in thement. The oil-based vaccines used today in moment but is suffering flesh of the fish) causing downgrades at harvest.the aquaculture industry are all ‘multivalent’, in the same way salmonmeaning they prevent a variety of diseases, a farmers did 25 years ago Permanent damage and scarring inside the fish duebit like the MMR vaccine in humans. with many sites loosing to damage by needle movement during vaccination maybe 50 percent of process.Why vaccinate? their stocks. Recent com- Economics, logistics and risk involved mercial production of anin injection mean that many alternative effective oil-based vaccineapproaches have been tried. Dip vaccines and have led to many sea bassin-feed vaccines have all been trialled but due farmers now consideringto the nature of how fish immune systems vaccination by injection aswork, these only have limited effects. If it the only effective methodwere that easy, I am sure human would prefer to control disease. Thoseto have a tablet instead of an injection when few that have investedthey go on holiday! in a vaccination strat- The problem with putting vaccines ‘in- egy have seen big financialfeed’ is that the in order for vaccines to benefits from it and aswork they need to create a response in the word spreads, it is likely toimmune system - the body has to ‘react’ to become commonplace ina foreign substance in the body to produce this industry too. 10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2012
  3. 3. FEATURE important for vaccinator safety but also the encounters as a safety and welfare of the fish. contract vaccina- The fish are then delivered onto a stainless tion team, is poor steel table where the fish then are vaccinated anaesthesia of the in a very specific area, with only a 3 mm toler- fish and also poor ance. The team must achieve a 96 percent grading, prior to vac- accuracy target and considering most vaccina- cination of the fish. tors handle between 15-20,000 fish each this Poor anaesthesia of is quite some achievement! the fish can lead to The fish are then returned to a recovery high mortalities. If tank and should come round from the anaes- fish are under anaes- thetic within about two to three minutes. thetised, the whole There is always some level of mortality after process becomes this high risk, stressful process but usually it is stressful and danger- just a few fish, around 100 for every 100,000 ous for them (imag- fish vaccinated. High mortalities immediately ine having a major after vaccination are usually attributed to poor operation whilst anaesthesia rather than the injection. only partly sedated!). The consequences of poor vaccination On the other hand, usually only become apparent months after if they are over vaccination and can last up until harvest where anaesthetised, they the financially consequences become appar- risk not recover- ent. The main problems are: ing quickly enough, Incorrect needle depth resulting in either resulting in piles of intra-muscular injection (needle too short) or fish in the recovery internal organ damage, including granuloma tank causing suffoca- (needle too long) which results in the fish not tion or even worse, growing properly due to damage to the gut. not recovering at all. Fish not being immune to the disease The other risk because of incorrect dosage (or no vaccine) factor here is to the Innovative and proven being delivered. vaccinators. If the Two ridgewaybio_quarterpage_print.pdf 1 of the main problems Salmovac mineral oils used in 29/10/2012 13:57 yeast products in aquaculture Consistent products supported by the Lesaffre group experience and its unique know-how in biotechnology and nutrition; Selected strains and controlled production; Designed to solve nutritional and sanitary issues; C Dedicated range of products: live yeast, yeast cell wall, yeast extract M and enriched yeast. YCMMYCYCMY K rformance Wellbeing, the source of pe For more information: contactlfa@lesaffre.fr november-December 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11
  4. 4. FEATURE encountered and the How does vaccination sometimes devastating provide value for money? results of this quickly The expense and hassle of vaccination is led to most companies far outweighed by potential losses at sea or employing contract vac- the heavy costs and logistics involved with cination specialists. treating fish at sea. The other factor to bear The main problems in mind is fish welfare and the associated were a lack of knowl- regulations. Most Scottish salmon farms now edge about needle subscribe to the RSPCA ‘freedom foods’ depths and the results standard, which lays down welfare standards of inaccurate vaccina- for the aquaculture industry and vaccination tion, along with the plays a key role in this. It costs a few pence process taking a long to vaccinate a smolt at 30 g but the price of time because of the losing a market size salmon to a preventable inexperience and slow- disease is many, many times that amount. ness of untrained vac- Prevention is not only preferable, but finan- cinators. An inexperi- cially essential, to cure. enced team of six could probably manage to vaccinate between 150- About the author 200,000 fish a week Salmovac was founded in 2003 in where as our teams can the north of Scotland in response to do 400-500,000 fish a a growing demand for quality contract week! vaccination services within the Scottish Vaccines have devel- salmon industry. The directors, Kathy Vaccination in action at Salmovac oped tremendously in and John Foster both had had previous the past 20 years, the vaccination experience and a wealth The fish are delivered onto a stainless steel table dose per fish used to be of knowledge of both fish health and where the fish are vaccinated in a very specific area, 0.2 ml and the vaccines aquaculture practices along with a back- with only a 3 mm tolerance. The team must achieve were very thick, difficult ground in quality and business systems. a 96 percent accuracy target and considering most vaccinators handle between 15-20,000 fish each this to administer and causes They started with just one team of five is quite some achievement! high side effects in the people and successfully vaccinated five fish. They are now 0.1 million salmon in the first year. Because ml and much thinner and of the high quality and professional- cause fewer side effects. ism delivered by Salmovac, word soon Some of the newer vac- spread and contracts came flooding in. cines are now a 0.05 However, they were careful not to over ml dose and again have stretch themselves in the first few years, reduced side effects for preferring to increase the business at a the fish while also giv- sustainable rate, in order to keep the ing increased protection quality of service and reputation of the against disease. company high. The improvements in As a result of this sustainable growth vaccine technology have of the business, they currently employ not only reduced the over 40 people from all over the world side effects for the fish and successfully vaccinated 60 million but have also improved fish last season! the ease of use for vacci- In 2010, Kathy Foster (now Taylor) nators. The smaller dose purchased the business from her ex- size is much easier to husband and now is the sole directorthe vaccines are accidentally injected into the administer, resulting in fewer cases of repeti- of Salmovac. What was a difficult timefinger, the vaccinator will require urgent medi- tive stress injury and carpel tunnel syndrome. for the business back then has provedcal attention. The finger will have to be cut to be a benefit for the longer term andopen and the vaccine flushed out, otherwise Which species are the business has continued to growthe resulting inflammation could result in worth vaccinating? and prosper with contracts not only inthe blood supply to the finger tissues being All species are worth vaccinating if the eco- Scotland but also in Ireland, Norway,reduced and possible loss of the digit. nomics of preventing disease rather than treating Spain, France and Switzerland. it stack up. With the salmon industry, it is essen-How has vaccination developed? tial that all fish are vaccinated and as the sea bass More InforMatIon: When the first oil-based vaccines became industry expands and improves it is likely that all Kathy Taylor, Salmovacavailable for the salmon industry, quite a sea bass will have to be vaccinated to. The key Tel: +44 1381 621914 Email: Kathy@salmovac.comfew companies started vaccinating their own to whether it is worth vaccinating or not, relies Website: www.salmovac.comfish believing (mistakenly) that this would on whether then is an effective vaccine at a pricekeep costs down, as they wouldn’t have that makes it viable to vaccinate and preventsto contract in extra labour. The problems the lost of market size fish to disease. 12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | november-December 2012
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  6. 6. This digital re-print is part of the November | December 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. VO L U M E 1 5 I S S U E 6 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue An overview of the UK fish vaccination industry • Visit the International Aquafeed website Why check selenomethionine levels in selenium yeast? Extrusion technology for the production of micro-aquatic feeds • Contact the International Aquafeed Team and shrimp feeds EXPERT TOPIC – Salmon • Subscribe to International Aquafeed THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRYIAF12.06.indd 1 07/11/2012 17:39To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk