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Optimizing energy yield in multi-MW power converters for wind” by Mikel zabaleta_Ingeteam Wind Energy 2015

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Optimizing energy yield in multi-MW power converters for wind” by Mikel zabaleta_Ingeteam Wind Energy 2015

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Great conference last week in Bremen: 6th International Conference Drivetrain Concepts for Wind Turbines. Mikel Zabaleta, Ingeteam Wind Energy Product Manager, presented “Optimizing energy yield in multi-MW power converters for wind”.

Great conference last week in Bremen: 6th International Conference Drivetrain Concepts for Wind Turbines. Mikel Zabaleta, Ingeteam Wind Energy Product Manager, presented “Optimizing energy yield in multi-MW power converters for wind”.

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Optimizing energy yield in multi-MW power converters for wind” by Mikel zabaleta_Ingeteam Wind Energy 2015

  1. 1. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Bremen, 30th November 2015 Speaker: Mikel Zabaleta MV-Wind Product Manager mikel.zabaleta@ingeteam.com
  2. 2. INDEX • Scenario • Introduction • Conclusions • Converter arrangements for multi-MW turbines • Ingeteam’s solution • Efficiency effect on energy yield • Modularity effect on energy yield
  3. 3. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Introduction The following terms and acronyms have been used along the presentation: • Conversion line: is the association of inverters in a back to back topology characterized by the fact that a failure in any of its semiconductors, lead to the total shutdown of it.
  4. 4. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Introduction • Conversion stage: is the association of conversion lines in parallel to form a higher output power unit. • Corrective period: is the elapsed time between the occurrence of an event and the maintenance actions performed to restore it. If a failure occurs on Monday but the service personnel can not access to fix it until Friday, the corrective period would be 5 days..
  5. 5. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Introduction • PTF (Probability To Fail): indicates the probability that has a component or subsystem to fail during one year of operation. This indicator is inherent to the component itself and to the application requirements. • PTS (Probability To Stop): indicates the probability that has a component or subsystem to cause a full shutdown of the conversion line (or stage), that includes it, during one year of operation. In this indicator, it affects not only the component, but also the level of redundancy. If there is no redundancy, PTS=PTF. • MAEP (Mean Annual Energy Production): is the ratio between the actual energy produced by the conversion stage and the maximum that have been available in the site.
  6. 6. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Description of the Scenario The study considers a 8 MW power stage for a windturbine with the rated power curve shown on the next figure. It has a cut in and cut out speed of 3 and 26 m/s respectively. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Power[kW] Wind speed [m/s] Power curve
  7. 7. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Description of the Scenario The base site mean wind-speed is considered 7 m/s (3863 equivalent hours). The wind speed distribution is fitted to a Weibull distribution with form factor of 2. 0,00% 2,00% 4,00% 6,00% 8,00% 10,00% 12,00% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Wind speed [m/s] Wind speed probability
  8. 8. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Description of the Scenario Other considerations are: • The standard corrective period is considered to be 1 month. • The windturbine lifetime is 30 years. • The price for the MWh has been considered 200 euros for the sake of simplicity • The PTF of each conversion line is calculated to be 18% • The PTF of the converter controls is calculated to be 4% • The PTF of the converter cooling is calculated to be 2% • The cost of a maintenance access is estimated to be 15 k€ The analysis will cover the following parameter deviations: • Efficiency: from 97 to 98% • Corrective period: from 1 to 8 [Days], 1 to 4 [Weeks], 1 to 12 [Months] • Mean Wind Speed: from 5 to 8 m/s
  9. 9. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Efficiency effect on energy yield A lot of importance has been assigned to the efficiency of the conversion stage in the past. This obviously affects the energy harvested by a windturbine, but its effect is not straightforward. The efficiency of the conversion stage only affects during partial loads operation (during the maximum power tracking MPT); 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 0,00% 2,00% 4,00% 6,00% 8,00% 10,00% 12,00% 14,00% 16,00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Wind speed [m/s] 5 m/s 6 m/s 7 m/s 8 m/s Power curve Mean Wind Speed Probability in MPT 5 m/s 71% 6 m/s 71% 7 m/s 66% 8 m/s 60% 9 m/s 54% 10 m/s 48%
  10. 10. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Efficiency effect on energy yield Generally, as the mean wind speed of the site increases, the effect of the efficiency of the conversion stage becomes less important as less partial load hours are probable. 0,00% 0,10% 0,20% 0,30% 0,40% 0,50% 0,60% 0,70% 0,80% 0,90% 1,00% 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5 9 9,5 10 MAEP Mean wind speed [m/s] MAEP improvement for a 1% efficiency step One conversion line Two conversion line
  11. 11. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Modularity effect on energy yield The modularity also affects the MAEP because when a failure occurs in the conversion stage, it may stop it shutting down the entire production (in the case of a single conversion line) or it may reduce the available output power (in the case of two or more conversion lines). Here is where the corrective period plays its role. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 One conversion line 99,94% 99,87% 99,81% 99,74% 99,68% 99,61% 99,55% 99,48% Two conversion line 99,95% 99,90% 99,85% 99,79% 99,74% 99,69% 99,64% 99,59% Three conversion line 99,95% 99,91% 99,86% 99,81% 99,76% 99,72% 99,67% 99,62% Four conversion line 99,96% 99,91% 99,87% 99,82% 99,78% 99,73% 99,69% 99,64% 99,40% 99,50% 99,60% 99,70% 99,80% 99,90% 100,00% MAEP MaintenanceAccess [Days] One conversion line Two conversion line Three conversion line Four conversion line
  12. 12. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Modularity effect on energy yield If the corrective period is in the weeks timeframe, 1 2 3 4 One conversion line 99,51% 99,03% 98,54% 98,06% Two conversion line 99,61% 99,23% 98,84% 98,45% Three conversion line 99,65% 99,29% 98,94% 98,59% Four conversion line 99,66% 99,33% 98,93% 98,57% 97,0% 97,5% 98,0% 98,5% 99,0% 99,5% 100,0% MAEP MaintenanceAccess [Weeks] One conversion line Two conversion line Three conversion line Four conversion line
  13. 13. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Modularity effect on energy yield If the corrective period is in the months timeframe, 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 One conversion line 98,06% 96,11% 94,17% 92,22% 90,28% 88,33% 86,39% 84,44% 82,50% 80,56% 78,61% 76,67% Two conversion line 98,45% 96,91% 95,36% 93,82% 90,89% 89,06% 87,24% 85,42% 83,59% 81,77% 76,89% 74,79% Three conversion line 98,59% 96,90% 95,35% 93,25% 91,56% 89,05% 87,22% 84,29% 82,33% 76,21% 73,83% 69,79% Four conversion line 98,57% 96,96% 95,16% 93,19% 90,22% 87,73% 85,05% 80,89% 77,69% 72,68% 67,16% 59,76% 60,00% 65,00% 70,00% 75,00% 80,00% 85,00% 90,00% 95,00% 100,00% 105,00% MAEP MaintenanceAccess [Months] One conversion line Two conversion line Three conversion line Four conversion line
  14. 14. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Conclusions • The effect of the efficiency (only at partial loads!!) on the MAEP decreases with the mean wind-speed of the site. • The modularity, in conjunction with the corrective period, has the strongest influence on the MAEP. Here, the cost of the maintenance access should also be taken into account (15 k€). NOL 75% NOL 66% NOL 50% NOL 33% NOL 25% NOL 0% Annual Energy [MWh] MAEP Extra Annual Income (discounted maintenance) [€] One CL 0 0 0 0 0 7 30304 98.056% 0 Two CL 0 0 10 0 0 2 30455 98.545% 26640 Three CL 0 16 0 0 0 2 30468 98.588% 25166 Four CL 22 0 1 0 0 2 30462 98.568% 19674 • The extra annual income (for 2 CL) is even higher when including redundancies in the control system (in CPU, in power supplies) reaching above 44k€.
  15. 15. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Conclusions • Comparing the four conversion stages regarding some design drivers, it can easily be seen how a two conversion line solution is optimal.Energyharvest Initialcost Footprintand weight Unscheduled maintenance accesses Multiplesources forcomponents One CL LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW Two CL HIGH MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM HIGH Three CL HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH Four CL HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH
  16. 16. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Power converter arrangements for multi-MW windturbines In the multi-MW range, several different converter arrangements can be found: • In low voltage (LV), three or more 2L conversion lines are usually needed to reach output power. • In medium voltage (MV), basically two different trends appear: • Press-pack based converters which reach the output power with only one 3L conversion line, • HV-IGBT based converters which usually require the parallelization of two (or three) 3L conversion lines. As it has been seen before, a two conversion lines stage is optimum from the energy harvest point of view and the operational costs. Some internal and external [1] studies have highlighted that a reduction in the CoE between 2-4% can be achieved with MV power stages in the multi-MW range. [1] W. Erdman and M. Behnke, Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines. Golden, CO, USA: National Renewable Energy Lab. (N.R.E.L.), 2012
  17. 17. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Ingeteam’s solution for multi-MW windturbines The MV product family has been designed with the following drivers Maximize energy harvest, Minimize initial cost, Minimize footprint and weight, Scheduled maintenance intervals greater than one year, Minimize unscheduled maintenance accesses, Reduced MTTR, Multiple sources for components Harsh environment withstand These has led to the following solution HV-IGBT based converter (reduced MTTR, multiple sources, reduced initial cost, footprint and weight) Two conversion lines (High energy harvest, low initial cost) Oversized key components and redundancies in control and cooling systems (higher energy harvest, increases maintenance intervals and minimizes unscheduled maintenance) Fully closed (IP54+) water-cooled cabinets (high immunity against aggressive atmospheres) Key design drivers
  18. 18. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Ingeteam’s solution for multi-MW windturbines Three products are available depending on the required output: INGECON WIND MV100 3400 -> 635 Arms with overload 700 Arms INGECON WIND MV100 4600 -> 850 Arms with overload 950 Arms INGECON WIND MV100 5600 -> 1050 Arms with overload 1150 Arms Arranging two conversion lines of each type, the following output power can be reached: 2 CONVERSION LINES ARRANGEMENT GRID MACHINE Target WT power [kW] simultaneity 0,9/0,9 Target WT power [kW] simultaneity 0,9/0,95 Target WT power [kW] simultaneity 0,95/0,95 Target WT power [kW] Vn@PF=1 Target WT Power [kW] Vn@PF=0,95 INGECON WIND MV100 5600 9100 9600 10100 11200 11400 10000 10600 11200 12400 12500 INGECON WIND MV100 4600 7500 7900 8300 9200 9300 8300 8700 9200 10200 10300 INGECON WIND MV100 3400 5500 5800 6100 6800 6800 6200 6500 6900 7600 7600 PERMANENT POWER OVERLOAD
  19. 19. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Ingeteam’s solution for multi-MW windturbines The power stack is based on small “bricks” called Basic Power Modules (BPMs). These modules contain the semiconductor devices (HV-IGBTs) and its ancillary systems (drivers, cooling, temperature probes, etc.) of a 3L-NPC phase leg. The BPMs are assembled on sliding guides helping to obtain and extremely reduced MTTR (less than 30 minutes). Two BPM modules (sharing the electromechanical design) cover all the range of powers required by means of changing the semiconductor devices (matching its ratings).
  20. 20. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Ingeteam’s solution for multi-MW windturbines The engineering cabinet includes: The grid side and machine side reactors The internal cooling system The dVdt filter (for 1,5 kV/us) The precharge and discharge system The grid side and machine side contactors The machine side voltage measurements The machine side manual disconnector and grounding The DC-bus grounding disconnector Grid side and machine side surge protections Three different engineering cabinets are available to optimally fit all the targeted output powers. These share the basic design (the components layout) and differs in the size of certain components. Engineering
  21. 21. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Ingeteam’s solution for multi-MW windturbines Control electronics accessible from outside Inspection windows Engineering
  22. 22. OPTIMIZING ENERGY YIELD IN MULTI-MW POWER CONVERTERS FOR WIND Introduction Scenario Modularity Conclusions Converter arrangements Ingeteam’s solution Efficiency Ingeteam’s solution for multi-MW windturbines WCU BPMs 1 ENG 1 BPMs 2 ENG 2 GSF
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention Any questions??

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