Manthan Topic: Increasing the employability of youth
Subhra Jyoti Nath
an insight into basic components of
EDUCATION, TRAINING & RECRUITMENT
Illiterate Primary Higher Graduate Tech
Unemployment Rate vs Education
Unemployment Rate vs Age
More unemployment for higher educated youths.
Higher education may lead to low paid jobs.
More unemployment rate among youths.
89% of youths don’t have any vocational education.
26% of employed youths are poverty stricken.
Lower employment and employability of females due to social reasons.
Direct unemployment is prevalent in the secondary and tertiary sector (urban)
whereas disguised unemployment is prevalent in primary sector (rural).
Derivation from graph:
PROPER RECRUITMENT AND PROMOTION POLICIES
(INTERNSHIP AND TRAINING)
• Minimum qualification
required for the job is to
• Written exam based on subject
matter, aptitude, language and
communication skills etc.
3. Internship & Training
• Candidates should undergo short term
internship & training and their performance
is to be evaluated.
• A final interview is to be conducted
based on requirements for the job.
Enables the employer to recruit based on work
abilities rather than educational qualifications.
The employer gets a beforehand experience of the
The employer gets a low-paid temporary
The interne gets an experience of the job.
Internship undertaken by non-selected candidates
gained them an experience and develop their
Benefits of Internship and Training
Work performance is be evaluated by
predetermined statistical system
instead of suggestion from higher
officials in order to remove corrupt
Better productivity of employees.
Incentive for employs to do better.
Avoid corrupt means for promotion.
Reduce poverty stricken employed
A minimum interne to employ annual ratio of 0.05 for all government
and private sector companies having more than 300 employs.
A fixed minimum wage for internships above 2 months.
Laws required for internship
A well trained work force .
Prevent people from moving into profession where he/she would be
Minimum wage for internes serves as incentive for people to join as
Better integration of labour market with education sector.
Recommendations for recruitment facilities
Final decision on selection of employs should be statistical i.e.
weighted summation of all the stages of recruitment.
Interviews, pre-selection internship and screening tests are to be
conducted by different persons.
Recruitment would be solely based on performance and no favour.
Low chances of unfair means getting involved as the different stages
are to be handled by different person.
PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING COUNCIL
The technical council decides the curriculum
of various courses and conducts exams. It
consists of eminent educators in all
The state council decides the courses for
various districts according to requirements in
a certain area evaluated by conducting
surveys and assessment of existing labour
The district council monitors the activities of
the stations in the district and supervises the
Stations are work places.
Placement cell manages jobs for trained
students. It calls the probable employers from
organized and unorganized sector for
recruitment of students.
• Establishment of a professional training institute in all district headquarters.
• Providing short term training in all government schools and colleges
The eligibility criteria of the
courses are predefined,
students are selected according
to written exams and
interviews. A students won’t be
allowed in more than one
course for the initial years.
Records of outgoing students are
to be kept and placement cell will
contact them for an year after
completion of their respective
Population of India for 15-29 age group: 30% (approx.) i.e. 37 crores
15-19 20-24 25-29
Labour Force Participation Rate
Labour force for 15-29 age group: 51.5% (approx.) i.e. 19 crores
Unemployed youth population: 1.17 crores
Project target population: 300% of 1.17 crores i.e. 3.51 crores
Annual mobility in target population: 23.4 lakhs
Annual target population: 20 lakhs (for 1st year)
60 lakhs (for 2nd to 6th year)
30 lakhs (afterwards)
Student Intake AnalysisProductivity enhancement measures of the project
The salaries of the district council, stations and placement cell employs depend on
the results and placement statistics of their students.
A centralized online database of the students statistics accessible by the central and
state councils is to be kept.
State councils are to be graded according to performance of the district councils
Inspection committees from central council are to be sent in each station annually
to access the difference between statistics provided and ground scenario.
Use of existing infrastructure such as government schools as stations.
Teachers are to be mobilized between stations.
Non-teaching staff (dist. Level)
Non-teaching staff (non-dist. Level)
Language and communication skills
Computer hardware & software skills
Sales and marketing skills
Implementation analysis for 1st year
Students intake: 20 lakhs
Average length of courses: 3 months
Maximum students at a time: 7 lakhs (75% efficiency)
Teacher-Student ratio: 1:20
Average shifts: 3
Teacher requirement: 12000 (approx.)
Number of districts: 813
Average number of stations per district: 5
Non-teaching employs per district: 15
Non-teaching employs (dist. level): 12500 (approx.)
Non-teaching employs (non-dist. level): 1500 (approx.)
Total non-teaching employs: 14000
Total employs: 26000
Employs & Students Statistics Expenditure Statistics
Average employ salary: 3 lakhs/annum
Total employ salary: 780 crores
Infrastructure expenditure: 80 crores
Miscellaneous expenditure: 30 crores
Total Expenditure: 890 crores
Average investment per student: 4450
Central govt investment: 445 crores
State govt investment: 267 crores
Student investment: 178 crores
Below 3lpa 3-6lpa Above 6lpa
Central govt 70% 40% 10%
State govt 30% 30% 30%
Student 0% 30% 60%
The placement cell makes
engagements with private
sector to invest in their
recruits and decrease the
monetary burden on
Successive years plan
1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year 5th year 6th year
Investment per student
Central govt State govt Student Private sector
MORE SPECIALIZATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION
The higher education system should be more specialized i.e.
specializations should be decided from a lower level than current
Courses should be decided according to future aspiration of the students.
Students should be given the opportunity to decide their future
aspirations, if they are interested in higher education or in jobs at about
50% completion of their course.
The elective subjects for next 50% course is to be designed according to
requirements i.e. more practical skills for the job seekers and more
research projects for higher education aspirants.
Analysis in Engineering
Duration of Bachelor Degree course: 4years
Declaration is to be made after 2nd year.
Elective courses for job seekers:
Compulsory job internship
Elective courses for higher education aspirants:
Compulsory research internship
Low waste of resources (eg: research
internship in a premier institute followed by
a non-research job makes the internship less
beneficial which may be useful for a research
Decrease burden of unnecessary subjects on
students; instead more productive subjects
may be projected.
Job interested students will move to the
labour market which increases productivity
Students should be allowed to choose from a pool of diverse elective subjects
according to their interests so that they may integrate better with the next phase of
Public management may be an elective subject for a B.Sc. student if is interested
in a career in administrative service.
Accountancy may be an elective for a B.A. student if he/she is interested in a
IMPROVE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION
In terms of salary, the jobs related to a higher educational qualification do not
have significant difference as compared to that of its less qualified counterpart.
In fact, in some cases, say in engineering, a B. Tech graduate entering a job
immediately after graduation does his job for 3-5 years whereas a graduate who
continues further studies complete his study in the mean time. After 5 years, the
mockery is the salary obtained by the graduate employee is much higher than
the first salary obtained by his higher counterpart. This is one reason why
higher education in India is not preferred by capable and interested students,
thus restricting their self upliftment leading to lower employability .At the same
time, the students failing to get a job are forced to pursue higher education; thus
resulting in lower employability in comparisons.
On the contrary, the benefits of an improved well defined and valued higher
education offers several useful insights in the field of employability
Higher education would be preferred by passionate students that would
definitely improve employability in the field of research and development.
In terms of jobs, the un-interested students would not occupy them for the sake
of a good salary only. Instead, it would be able to have employees who are
interested in jobs and not research.
Further, the development of higher education has immense prospect in new
inventions and discoveries that would open up various insights into the field of
employments, thereby helping the employability to great extent
Even in case of jobs, the better and higher qualified people would have
something different in comparison to the already working experienced and less
qualified employee. That can be utilized to new changes in the company,
thereby making proper use of education and giving impulse to employability.
Youth Employment and Unemployment: an Indian perspective (ILO)
Youth Employment and Unemployment in India: Indira Gandhi institute of Development Research
Census of India Website: Office of Registrar General and census commissioner of India
National Employability Study: Aspiring minds