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3. human reproduction female reproductive system

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3. human reproduction female reproductive system

  1. 1. HUMAN REPRODUCTION THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM BY INDERJIT SINGH PGT (BIO) KV SECTOR 31 D CHANDIGARH
  2. 2. The Female Reproductive System  Female reproductive system consists of: -  i) The primary sex organs i.e. is pair of ovaries  ii) The secondary sex organs i.e. the duct system consisting of pair of fallopian tubes, a uterus, cervix and vagina  iii) External genitalia and  iv) Mammary glands
  3. 3. Anatomy of the female reproductive system
  4. 4.  # Ovaries: - produce female gametes ( called ova) and secrete ovarian/ sex hormones.  Located in the abdominal cavity.  Each ovary is about 2 to 4 cm in length and is connected to the pelvic wall and uterus by ligaments. Each ovary is covered by a thin epithelium which encloses the ovarian stroma. The stroma is divided into two zones – a peripheral cortex and an inner medulla.  # Fallopian tube: - is about 10-12 cm long and extends from the periphery of each ovary to the uterus.  a) Infundibulum : - the part closer to the ovary is the funnel-shaped infundibulum. The edges of the infundibulum possess finger-like projections called fimbriae, which help in collection of the ovum after ovulation.  b) Ampulla: - infundibulum leads into wider part of the oviduct called ampulla.  c) Isthmus: - the last part of the fallopian tube, that joins the uterus is narrow and it is called isthmus.
  5. 5.  # Uterus: - The uterus is single and it is also called womb. The shape of the uterus is like an inverted pear. It is supported by ligaments attached to the pelvic wall.  uterus has three layers of tissues: -  a) perimetrium: - outermost layer is thin membranous perimetrium.  b) myometrium: - middle thick layer of smooth muscle called myometrium. The myometrium exhibits strong contraction during delivery of the baby.  c) endometrium: - inner glandular layer called endometrium that lines the uterine cavity. The endometrium undergoes cyclical changes during menstrual cycle.  The uterus opens into vagina through a narrow cervix.
  6. 6.  # Vagina: -muscular tube like structure that opens to the outside.  Partially covered by a membrane called hymen.  The cavity of the cervix is called cervical canal which along with vagina forms the birth canal.  Functions of vagina are to: -  a) receive the male gametes during insemination.  b) serve as birth canal during parturition.  # External genitalia: - The female external genitalia include mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, hymen and clitoris.  Mons pubis is a cushion of fatty tissue covered by skin and pubic hair.
  7. 7.  The labia majora are fleshy folds of tissue, which extend down from the mons pubis and surround the vaginal opening.  The labia minora are paired folds of tissue under the labia majora.  The opening of the vagina is often covered partially by a membrane called hymen.  The clitoris is a tiny finger-like structure which lies at the upper junction of the two labia minora above the urethral opening.  # Mammary glands: - Human female has pair of functional mammary glands.  contain glandular tissue and variable amount of fat.
  8. 8. A diagrammatic sectional view of Mammary gland
  9. 9.  The glandular tissue of each breast is divided into 15-20 mammary lobes containing clusters of cells called alveoli.  The cells of alveoli secrete milk, which is stored in the cavities (lumens) of alveoli.  The alveoli open into mammary tubules. The tubules of each lobe join to form a mammary duct.  Several mammary ducts join to form a wider mammary ampulla which is connected to lactiferous duct through which milk is sucked out.
  10. 10. Thanks……..

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