Passive voice, Relative Clauses, Causative, and Subordinating Conjungtion.

1. Jun 2015

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Passive voice, Relative Clauses, Causative, and Subordinating Conjungtion.

  2. PASSIVE VOICEIn the passive voice, the subject is the receiver of the action of the verb. In other words, it focuses on the receiver of the action more than actor.  Passive voice is only for transitive verbs  Either an indirect object or a direct object may become the subject Example : The teacher was fired for his political activism ( the actor is unknown) A handphone was buy in kalimantan ( emphasizes what was buy, the end result) Be + Past Participle Be + is, am, are ( present) + was,were (past) + be (modal/future) + Being (progressive).
  3. Stative passive is the passive form that is used to describe an exsiting situation or state, functions as an adjective. The door is old, The door is Green, The door is Locked ( It is describe the door) It gives the idea of becoming, beginning to be, growing to be. The function is less formal, common in spoken. Eg. I am getting hungry, let’s have lunch I got worried because of these problems. form : Used to + Infinitive ( repeated action in the past, past situation that no longer exist. I used to live in kuala kapuas, now I live in Banjarmasin • Be used to : to say that a situation is not ( no longer) new/strange • Get used to : to say an action/ situation becomes less strange/new, becomes more comfortable Stative passive Passive with get Used to, Be used to, get used to
  4. Suppose vs Supposed Meaning : meant to/ intended to (espectation) Eg. The class is supposed to begin at 8.30 Be Supposed to + Infinitive ( Verb 1) I suppose I should go Suppose as a verb meaning : think, assume ( a belief that lacks certainty ) I am Supposed to go Supposed as an adjective meaning : Required, Obliged, similar to modal should.
  5. The ing form a verb used a noun. The positions can be as a subject, an object of prepositions and a complement. Ing – form have different functions as a verb, an adjective and a noun. BE CAREFUL ! For examples : Walking is a good exercise gerund as a subject We enjoy playing badminton as and object with common verbs I am interested in learning languages as the object of preposition ( Including used to, accustomed to, forward to, object to) Gerund and Infintive Geru nd
  6.  Idiomatic expressions  Recreational activities Example : Special expression followed by – ing Go + Gerund I went shopping in Ramayana I always go hunting in siring every weekend Eka usually goes swimming on Saturday
  7. Infinitives To live ina big city requires a lot of patience – as a subject Anne wanted to stay at the beach – as direct object with common verbs It is impossible to get a cheap apartment in a large city ( it + be + adjective) It is a good idea to save money for the future ( it + be + noun) It takes a lot of energy to find the perfect job ( it + takes + noun) I am happy to hear that ( after certain adjectives) I came here ( in order ) to study english ( infinitives of purpose) You should be careful not to strain your eyes in front of the computer ( negative form)
  8. NOUN CLAUSES I read what she wrote What she wrote is interesting I do not know if you have studied a noun clause before I wonder wether or not Marry went to work yesterday / or not I need to explain what a noun clause is Tell me how old she is That mary studied very hard was obviousto John That he is still alive is a miracle It is a miracle that he is stil alive
  9. For example : • My mother told me where to go • My mother told me where I should go • Please tell me how to operate this machine • Please tell me how I could operate this machine Noun clauses as a object  I heard what he said  I listened to what she said Question words followed by infinitive
  10.  Dependent clauses that must be joined to independent clauses  Describe nouns and pronouns  Often placed in a sentence right after the noun they describe  Add details to sentences by functionig as adjectives  Adjective clauses begin with one of the relative pronouns : ADJECTIVE CLAUSES RELATIVE CLAUSES WHO WHY WHOSE- WHOM WHICH / THAT WHEN - WHERE
  11. RELATIVE PRONOUNS EXPLANATION EXAMPLE WHO refers to people, as subject in the clauses The lady who teaches in political science department is my mentor WHOM refers to people, used as object of prepositions and of the clauses She is the woman about whom I told you WHICH / THAT refers about things and animals. Which more formal than that The watch that I bought was expensive WHOSE refers to possession/ownership The father whose child is missing is very sad WHEN ( on which) Refers to a time, cannot be a subject but omitted I will never forget the day when I graduated WHERE ( in which) Refers to a place, cannot be subject, can be omitted and usually must be add prepositions The house where he stays is old WHY Refers to reason, can be omitted I do not know why he winked
  12. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that often modifies, or describes, the verb in the main clause of a complex sentence. For example : After she bought safe equipment, Leigh explored the wreek of the Britannic. In this sentences, the adverb clauses after she bought safe equipment modifies the verb explored. The adverb clause tells when Leigh explored the wreck of the Britannic. Scuba divers wear tanks because they cannot breathe underwater. modifies the verb wear At first, communicating with my new friend was difficult because I did not know how to sign ( it can also modifies adjective) Zoe can explain the theory of relativity to you better than I can. ( It modifies verb) Adverb clauses
  13. How When Where Why Under what Since After While Because Unless If Before Where Although Even if In order that Until wherever So that Even though Whether When, whenever though Provided that As Once Than As if while That Subordinating Conjungtions
  14. My sister went to bed because she was sleepy – showing cause and effect Now that I am married women, I have more responsibilities – because now Since Thursday is a holiday, we do not have to go campus – because it is a fact that Even though I am tired, I try to finish this task on time – ex. Unexpected result Whereas Olla is slim, her sister is fat – show direct contrast My sister is free, while I am so busy – show direct contrast While she was sleepig her child left the house – during the time that Even if he does not join us , we are going to have a vacation My son will get hungry if he does not have breakfast – showing condition SUBORDINATING CONJUNGTIONS
  15. The causative is a common structure in English. It is used when one thing or person causes another thing or person to do something. It shows that somebody or something is indirectly responsible for an action. The subject doesn't perform the action itself, but causes someone or something else to do it instead. Pinker, (1988) CAUSATIVES
  16. There are two basic causative structures. One is like an active, and the other is like a passive. These examples use the causative verb "have“.  They arranged for the handphone to be fixed by your brother  You caused him to fix it. • You arranged for the handphone to be fixed by someone. • We don't know who, so this is like a passive You have your brother fix the handphone You have the handphone fixed
  17. Example : susan has her her brother do homework we have the carpenter fix our window In the passive form, there is usually no agent. The action verb is in the past participle, and the object comes before it Example : we have our door fixed rose has her hair cut khalipah has the window cleaned This is the basic structure of the active form, along with some more examples The Active Caustive Structure Have someone do something Have something done
  18. There many other verbs that can be used with causatives. In the active form, some of these verbs require the action verb to have "to" before it. These are some examples of the most common causative verbs. Verb Meaning Form of Action Verb Examples make Force, Compel ( Require – Force) plain form - The robbers made us lie on the floor. [No passive form] get same as "have" "to" form - I got Jane to pick me up in the car. - She got her hair cut. let Allow - permit plain form - I'll let you borrow my bike. - My dad used to give me permission to stay up until 10 PM on Saturdays. [No passive form]
  19. Common causative verbs • allow, permit, require, force, urge, motivate, encourage, get, convince, persuade, hire, employ, want • make, have, let • help For example: •The lawyer convinced the judge to reduce the fine. •The teacher encouraged his students to apply for the scholarships. •The boss required new employees to attend training sessions twice a week.