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Costa Rica

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This is one of the presentations at the 1st day of "Technical Exchange on Jurisdictional REDD". See more at: http://www.idesam.org.br/technical-exchange-on-jurisdictional-redd-presentations/

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Costa Rica

  1. 1. COSTA RICA REDD+ program AND VCS JNR Standard
  2. 2. Introduction • Costa Rica’s R-PP was approved by the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility in August 2010. • Costa Rica’s revised ER-PIN was included in the pipelines of both Tranche A and Tranche B of the Carbon Fund in March 2013. • Costa Rica does not plan to allow participation by subnational jurisdictions. • The importance of JNR is in the nesting and accounting of projects for Costa Rica as well as in providing a means for voluntary national crediting in the pre-regulation period. • A preliminary REL and MRV plan was reported in the R-PP, but this should not be viewed as complete or final. Preliminary REL reported in the R-PP has been reviewed in the ER-PIN.
  3. 3. Scale of the Costa Rica REDD+ program Type Emission Reduction FONAFIFO PES Program 1997- 2009 (1000 ha) ER-Program New Area 2010- 2020 (1000 ha) REDD+ Program Total Area 1997-2020 (1000 ha) Avoided deforestation (old growth, and regeneration) 2181 126 344 Secondary growth, reforestation and agroforestry 60,6 215 275,6 TOTAL 278,6 341,0 619,6 1 Annual Average Area of PESP for period 1997-2009
  4. 4. ER-Program financing plan Expected Costs Expected Inconme Cost Millions US Dollars (%) Operational and implementation costs 217 87% Administrative cost 24 9% Other costs 6 2% MRV & Reference Level 4 1% Total 250 Income Millions US Dollars (%) Other sources of income 7 3% Loans 27 11% Revenue from sale of additional Emission Reductions (not yet contracted) 27 11% Private Funds 42 17% ERPA Carbon Fund 63 25% Public Funds 84 34% Total 250
  5. 5. Costa Rica REDD+ Program: Potential carbon credits for pre-regulated and voluntary Carbon Markets Carbon Pre-Regulated Market (Millions Ton CO2) Voluntary Market (Millions Ton CO2) Total (Millions Ton CO2) Carbon Fund FCPF Other buyers Domestic buyers International buyers 1 ER-Program (2010-2020) 12,6 16,9 29.5 2 Post Bali (2008-2014) 4,8 25,6 30,4 3 Post Ecomarkets ( 2014-2020) 23,0 23,0 Total 12,6 16,9 4,8 48,6 82,9
  6. 6. Entities involved in the JNR Socios Implementadores Comunidades indígenas y CampesinosAutoridad Aprobación Proponente Jurisdiccional
  7. 7. Uniform methodological framework is critical for both voluntary and Carbon Fund programs JNR / FCPF? FONAFIFO •CN Programa País • ER-Program • PESP VCS Projects • Pax Natura • Secuestro carbono Nicoya Learning by doing 6
  8. 8. Expected sale of carbon credits for pre-regulated and voluntary Carbon Markets (ER-Program 2010-2020) Carbon Pre-Regulated Market (Millions Ton CO2) Voluntary Market (Millions Ton CO2) Total (Millions Ton CO2) Carbon Fund FCPF Other buyers Domestic buyers International buyers 1 ER-Program (2010-2020) 12,6 - 12,6 2 Post Bali (2008-2014) 4,8 - 4,8 3 Post Ecomarkets ( 2014-2020) 0.6 0,6 Total 12,6 - 4,8 0,6 18,0
  9. 9. Costa Rica’s Reference Emission Level and MRV • Preliminary baseline reported in the R-PP has been reviewed • Improvements on Costa Rica’s REL was included on revised ER-PIN document approved by the Carbon Fund (FCPF) • Expanding the historical reference period (1990-2010). • Costa Rica’s preliminary REL shown in the R-PP for deforestation and forest regeneration was proposed using the 2000-2005 historical reference period for land use changes • Actions are being taken to broaden the historical reference period to include 1990-2010, as well as increasing the number of measurements to six in the 20-yr period • National land use data is available for 1990, 1997, 2000, 2005 and 2010
  10. 10. Costa Rica’s Reference Emission Level and MRV • Creation of methodologically standardized Land Cover maps • Additional national maps, built with consistent methodologies, will be created for 1990, 1997, 2000, 2005 and 2010 • IPCC’s land categorization will be implemented for forest lands remaining forest lands, forest lands converted to other lands and other lands converted to forest lands. • Quality control procedures will be implemented and made publicly available through the REDD+ strategy consultation process. • A consistent forest definition will be used for all maps in the historical reference period, as well as compatible land stratifications (definition reported by Costa Rica in CDM projects).
  11. 11. Costa Rica’s Reference Emission Level and MRV • Forest degradation • A REL for degradation will be assessed according to available national data. • Information on forest fires, illegal logging and forest understory clearances will be considered. • Other causes of forest degradation will also be investigated (e.g. grazing in dry forests) • Emission factors will be estimated from historical information according to available national data, and conservative estimates will be employed • If enough information can be collected of these activities in the historical reference period, a REL for degradation may be constructed • Harvested wood products • A REL for HWP will be assessed according to available national data.
  12. 12. Scope of REDD+ Activities • Activities • Deforestation and forest degradation • Enhancement of forest carbon stocks through planting of native and exotic species and secondary growth (restoration) in its national REDD+ program. • Carbon Pools • Above- and belowground biomass will be accounted for in all REDD+ activities and strata. • HWP will added as an additional carbon pool from forest plantations and managed areas for timber production
  13. 13. Emission Factors and Uncertainty • Emission Factors • Pre-and post- deforestation emission factors will be obtained from Permanent Sample Plot network database and scientific literature, but later from the National Forest Inventory. • Uncertainty • activity data and emission factor uncertainty is propagated as suggested by IPCC (2006). • A target goal of 20% uncertainty was set. • LiDAR is to be combined with the national forest inventory to obtain accurate emission factors
  14. 14. Projecting the Baseline • Projection of the REL for deforestation and forest regeneration • Costa Rica has not developed its baseline yet so in theory any approach is possible. • Deforestation and degradation drivers will be identified and re-assessed in the future in order project REL for deforestation • The effect of the program of payments for environmental services (PPSA) will be assessed from the year 1997 to date in order to meet the program's impact on deforestation and regeneration in the historical period
  15. 15. Planned MRV MRV is based on IPCC’s equation to estimate emissions and absorptions: activity data * emission factor • Scope • Includes deforestation, forest regeneration, forest plantations and forest degradation. • Sampling methodology • A continuous national forest inventory is proposed and LiDAR will be purchased to reduce uncertainty of forest structure estimates • Estimation of carbon stocks • Above- and belowground biomass carbon is considered. • Other pools are excluded due to high costs of measurement and potentially high uncertainties, however a full assessment is proposed
  16. 16. Planned MRV • Calculation methodology • Carbon stock changes according to IPCC (2006), but the default method (gain-and-loss) is also an option • Key category analysis • a key category analysis will be conducted in accordance with IPCC guidelines to further invest in reducing the uncertainty • Periodicity of measurement and reporting: • It has not been established yet, it could be at least every 5 years to the Carbon Fund until 2020 • Harvested wood products • MRV will be designed and implemented to secure accurate information for HWP
  17. 17. Draft proposal for timing of the submission of the Mid-term Progress Report and the R-Package, and the linkage with the Readiness Preparation activities funded under the Readiness Fund Final REDD Strategy Jun2014 R-Package Oct2014 ERPD Submission Endingofthe consultation Apr2014 ERPD Development ERPA Consultation Process RL & MRV SESA/ESMF MidTerm Report Letterof Intent Oct2013 Mar 2015
  18. 18. GRACIAS gobando@earth.ac.cr