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Dearing Report (Sir Ronald Dearing, National Review of Higher Education (1997))QAA Policy statement on a progress file for Higher Education - http://www.qaa.ac.uk/academicinfrastructure/progressfiles/archive/policystatement/default.asp#pdp (cited 11 March 2010)
J. Strivens and R. Ward, “An overview of the development of Personal Development Planning”, in J. Strivens (ed) Personal Development Planning (Foundation Degree Forward , 2009), 5See also:S.Clegg and S. Bradley, “Models of personal development planning: practice and processes” (2006) 32 (1) The British Educational Research Journal 57 – This presents a taxonomy of PDP, according to Professional, Employment and Academic “ideal type” models.
For BPP’s 2008 review of undergraduate law degrees, see: P. Roberts, “Career development in the LLB” (2009) 43(3) Law Teacher 297For discussion of the effects of diversity and new technologies on the student experience, see:H.Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community” (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
See P. Roberts (2009), supra
For a welldocumented example of embedded PDP within the law curriculum, see:S. Bloxham and A. Cerevkova, “Reflective Learning, Skills Development and Careers Management Online – An Evaluation of a First Year Law Module” 2007(1) Journal of Information, Law & Technology (JILT), <http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/law/elj/jilt/2007_1/bloxham_cerekova/ >S. Bloxham, F. Boyle and A. Thanaraj, ”Using E-portfolios to Support PDP and Reflective Learning within the Law Curriculum: A Case Study”, 2009(3) Journal of Information, Law & Technology (JILT), <http://go.warwick.ac.uk/jilt/2009_3/bloxham> Also see, for example:M. Atlay , P. Petrovaamd D. Ujma (2009) “To embed or not to embed? The embedding of PDP in the curriculum” in Personal Development Planning and Employability. Learning and Employability Series 2 (ed M. Yorke) (CRA/Higher Education Academy)<http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/tla/employability_enterprise/web0368_learning_and_employability_series2_pdp_and_employability.pdf>It is suggested that there are five main approaches to PDP in the curriculum that have been adopted by various universities. These include a discrete model, where PDP is additional to the curriculum; linked, with PDP in parallel to the curriculum - but not integrated; embedded modular, embedding PDP in certain modules; integrated, with PDP embedded across the whole curriculum (in some cases as ‘curriculum carrier’) and finally, an extended model.For further commentary on eportfolios, see second part of paper.
The learning theoretic material derives from “standard” sources, for example:B. Bloom (ed.), Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals – Handbook I: Cognitive Domain (New York, McKay, 1956)D. Kolb, Experiential Learning experience as a source of learning and development (New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1984)P. Honey & A. Mumford, Manual of Learning Styles (London, P Honey, 1982)Relevant to this, as well as the discussion of the purpose of the portfolio “milestones” described later, is the distinction between “deep” and “surface” learning. There is a boddy of commentary, including:F. Marton and R. Säljö ‘On qualitative differences in learning. I – Outcome and Process’ (1976) 46 British Journal of Educational Psychology 4N.J. EntwistleThe Impact of Teaching on Learning Outcomes in Higher Education – A Literature Review (Sheffield: CVCP, 1992) 12; citing N.J. Entwistle `Student learning and studystrategies' in B.R. Clark and G. Neave (eds) The Encyclopedia of Higher Education (Oxford:Pergamon Press, 1992)
This is a growing body of commentary on peer assisted learning in an online environment. See for example:Ian Davies, “E-xperience in e-learning: The impact of a peer assisted online mentoring scheme on an e-learning programme: A case study of E-College Wales” in Networked Learning Conference Proceedings (2004) <http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc2004/proceedings/individual_papers/davies.htm>H. Huijser and L. Kimmins, “PALS online and community building: a contradiction in terms?” in 22nd Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) (2005) <http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/proceedings/32_Huijser.pdf>H. Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans, “Peer assisted learning in fleximode: developing an online learning community”, (2008) 1 Australasian Journal of Peer Learning 51
Learning Technology Dept. look at SKIP as first example of possibly making use of design principles in new/old modules.Roughly follow Addie model.Ozdilek, Zehra & Robeck, Edward “Operational priorities of instructional designers analyzed within the steps of the Addie instructional design model”, (2009) Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 1 (1) Pages 2046-2050Evaluation outstanding but during other steps has been conversation between module team and Learning Tech dept.Image source: http://www.regent.edu/admin/ctl/addie/images/pic_addiemodel.gif
Theories/best practice considered.John Sweller, New South Wales, focus on limits of working memory.www.cmu.edu/teaching/trynew/sweller-visualinstructionaldesign.pdfGeorge Miller, 7 is the ‘magic number’ of what we can hold in our working memory. Multimedia allows for different ways to deliver content and minimise load.Miller, George A. (1956): The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. In Psychological Review, 63 pp. 81-97 Herbert Alexander Simon, Berkley, “a term referring to the process of taking individual units of information (chunks) and grouping them into larger units”.http://www.albany.edu/~dkw42/s6_chunked.htmlAbility to come in and out of module structure as desired by own learning preferences.Atherton, J. (2009). Systems and Conversations: Pask and Laurillard. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from learningandteaching.info: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/pask.htmIncluding the need for consistent interfaces and consistency, inc.:Consider expertise including:Zaharias, P., & Poulymenakou, A. (2008). Design Guidelines for Asynchronous E-Learning Applications. In T. T. Kidd, & H. Song, Handbook of Research on Instructional Systems and Technology (pp. 741-751). New York: Information Science Reference.Badre, A. N. (2002). Shaping Web Usability: Interaction Design in Context. Indianapolis: Pearson.
Sutherland, S. and Powell, A. (2007). CETIS SIG mailing list discussions 9 July 2007 in e-Portfolios: Anoverview of JISC activities http://www.jisc.ac.uk/publications/publications/eportfoliooverviewv2.aspx[viewed 06 September 2007]
Policy of SKIP to allow students to develop own portfolio – partly on basis of findings of other Universities, including: IT challenges relating to the development of the e-portfolio templates student access to the software and student ownership[Two issues raised by Getting started with e-portfolios: University of Cumbria (UKCLE)*]Students may arrive with own systems, etc. “Tech savy” may be happy to build and keep own systems* http://www.ukcle.ac.uk/research/projects/cumbria.html
Show examples linked to from site.
Pdp: Its Role And Implementation In The Law Curriculum
Personal development planning: its role and implementation in the law curriculum<br />Philip Roberts and Ian Gardner<br />BPP Law School<br />
Running order<br />PDP: background<br />SKIP overview<br />Design and theory<br />Module content and e-portfolios<br />Q&A<br />
QAA definition</li></ul>“Personal Development Planning is a structured and supported process undertaken by an individual to reflect upon their own learning, performance and/or achievement and to plan for their personal, educational and career development. <br /> It is intended to help students:<br /><ul><li>become more effective, independent and confident self-directed learners;
understand how they are learning and relate their learning to a wider context;
improve their general skills for study and career management;
articulate personal goals and evaluate progress towards their achievement;
and encourage a positive attitude to learning throughout life.”</li></li></ul><li>PDP – Background<br /><ul><li>Typical PDP activities/outputs can be grouped:
Summarising (for presentation to a third party)
Understanding oneself as a learner</li></ul>(Strivens and Ward (2009))<br />
PDP – Background<br />2008 review of undergraduate law degree programmes:<br />9% of QLD providers referred to PDP as part of law curriculum<br />The undergraduate LLB at BPP Law School<br />Structure<br />Student market & Student community<br /> (H. Huijser, L. Kimmins and P. Evans (2008))<br />
SKIP overview<br />BPP level 4 (15 credit) module<br />Skills in Practice - ‘SKIP’<br />Initially linked to<br />Admissions<br />Career development<br />Supported by Blackboard and Pebblepad<br />Admissions model<br />Diagnostic process – SKIP as recommended pathway<br />
SKIP overview<br />“Embedded”?<br />Discrete-Linked-Embedded-Integrated-Extended<br />Long/thin vs short/fat<br />(Atlay et al (2009))<br />Subject-specific?<br />Availability to all BPP students<br />Accredited/assessed?<br />Significant “output”<br />Portfolio plus Commentary<br />(S. Bloxham et al (2007, 2009))<br />
SKIP overview: learning objectives<br />Students should be able to:<br />Understand and articulate their learning needs and preferences<br />Act independently in planning their learning <br />Reflect on their learning<br />Recognise, evaluate and articulate their transferable skills<br />Early introduction to learning theories<br />“Educated consumers” of theory?<br />
SKIP overview: expectations<br /> “Because the content and direction of the portfolio is largely determined by you, we expect the following of you:<br />the ability to be organised and self-disciplined<br />some creativity<br />a willingness to be self-critical”<br />
SKIP overview: expectations<br /> “How difficult have you found studying undergraduate law so far (where 1=easy and 5=difficult)?”<br /> (13 students)<br />
SKIP - Timeline<br />1 = Starting off<br />2 = Development<br />3 = Goals and planning<br />4 = Report<br />1<br />2<br />4<br />3<br />This timeline represents the duration of the SKIP module. You will begin (on the left)<br />with some preparatory work (Starting Off), and then move on to the Development stage, <br />during which you will assemble evidence and commentary for your portfolio. However, <br />During this second stage – perhaps on a number of occasions - you may want to address <br />your Goals and Plans. Finally, you will Report by completing your portfolio and writing <br />your report on it.<br />
Skills audit – post-module </li></li></ul><li>SKIP overview: milestones<br />Current affairs log<br />Rationale<br />Redesign exercise<br />Link to learning theories/preferences<br />A complete module<br />A topic area within a module<br />A series of sessions dealing with the same topic<br />A particular session – e.g. a seminar or lecture<br />A case study<br />A new session linking existing elements of different modules or topics<br />An online guide or session<br />Feedback benefits<br />
SKIP overview: linkages<br />Admissions<br />Curriculum design<br />Embedded vs linked<br />Learning theory<br />Peer assisted learning<br />Mentors, community building<br />Career development<br />Link to level 5 module<br />Feedback/course design<br />Learning technology....<br />
PDP: history and implementation<br />SKIP overview<br />Design and theory<br />Module content and e-portfolios<br />Q&A<br />
ePortfolios<br />"An e-portfolio is a purposeful aggregation of digital items - ideas, evidence, reflections, feedback etc, which 'presents' a selected audience with evidence of a person's learning and/or ability."<br />Sutherland and Powell (2007) <br />
ePortfolios<br />PebblePad<br />More than just an ePortfolio<br />Alternatives<br />