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Introduction to the Semantic Web

  1. 1. Introduction to the Semantic Web and Library Linked Data Marlene van Ballegooie March 14, 2012
  2. 2. Outline  Libraries on the web ... Where are now?...Where we are heading?  Linked Data principles  Building blocks of Linked Data  Library Linked Data examples  Linked Data and RDA
  3. 3. Where are we now?    Modern library has continually transformed itself to respond to the needs of the user. Library catalogue remains inwardlyfocused, self contained data silo with no connection to the data on the Web. Modern user favours search engines (i.e. Google) as an information platform over the library.
  4. 4. OCLC ‘Perceptions of Libraries, 2010’
  5. 5. Working Group on the Future of Bibliographic Control (January 9, 2008)  Recommendations:     3.1.1 Develop a More Flexible, Extensible Metadata Carrier 3.1.2 Integrate Library Standards into Web Environment 3.1.3 Extend Use of Standard Identifiers Desired Outcomes: Library bibliographic data will move from the closed database model to the open Web-based model wherein records are addressable by programs and are in formats that can easily be integrated into Web services and other computer applications. This will enable libraries to make better use of networked data resources and to take advantage of the relationships that exist (or could be made to exist) among various data sources on the web.
  6. 6. Library of Congress A Bibliographic Framework for the Digital Age October 31, 2011    Future of bibliographic control will be based on Linked Data principles. Resource Description Framework (RDF) will be the basic data model. “Embracing common exchange techniques (the Web and Linked Data) and broadly adopted data models (RDF) will move the current library-technological environment away from being a niche market unto itself to one more readily understandable by present and future data creators, data modelers, and software developers.”
  7. 7. Linked Data – The Basics    Linked Data is a method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful. Built upon standard Web technologies, i.e. HTTP, URIs. Linked Data lies at the heart of what the Semantic Web is all about: the large scale integration of, and reasoning on, data on the Web.
  8. 8. Principles of Linked Data  Principle #1 - Use URIs as names for things.  URIs are string that uniquely identify a thing or resource on the web  Advocates use of URIs to identify all things (i.e. people, places, books, relationship types, etc.) http://dbpedia.org/resource/Qian_Zhongshu http://lccn.loc.gov/81110912 http://sws.geonames.org/6167865 http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/knows URI for person “Qian Zhongshu” URI for the book “Wei Cheng” URI for the city of Toronto URI for the abstract concept of “knowing somebody”
  9. 9. Principles of Linked Data  Principle #2 - Use HTTP URIs, so that people can look up those names.   HTTP URIs allow people to look up these URIs over the HTTP protocol into a description of the identified object or concept. Principle #3 - When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using standards (RDF).
  10. 10. Principles of Linked Data  Principle # 4 - Include links to other URIs, so that they can discover more things. http://www.library.utoronto.ca/person/Yasunari-Kawabata http://dbpedia.org/resource/Yasunari_Kawabata Same As Subjects category:Japanese_Nobel_laureates category:Japanese_novelists category:Japanese_short_story_writers category:1899_births category:1972_deaths category:Writers_who_committed_suicide category:Writers_from_Osaka_(city) Links to more things
  11. 11. Building Blocks of Linked Data
  12. 12. Resource Description Framework (RDF)      Primary data model for Linked Data It’s not a format; it’s a framework for describing data. Can be used to represent information about things. (i.e. book, person, idea, etc.) RDF allows you to link a resource to other resources on the Web. RDF will enable greater precision in Web searches.
  13. 13. RDF Triples Describe Relationships    In the RDF model the concept of triples is used to describe a relationship between two things. subject – predicate – object Statement: “Yasunari Kawabata is the author of Yukiguni.” Yasunari Kawabata (subject) IsAuthorOf Yukiguni  Each triple is a statement about a resource. (predicate) (object)
  14. 14. RDF Triples http://viaf.org/viaf/97450170/ (predicate) (subject) http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/creator http://lccn.loc.gov/88161165 Yukiguni (object)
  15. 15. RDF triples, create RDF graphs   Statements combine to form graphs A graph is of no fixed size and contains no predetermined types of statements. Yasunari Kawabata IsAuthorOf IsAuthorOf Mizuumi Yukiguni IsPublishedBy IsPublishedIn 1960 Shinchōsha IsPublishedBy IsPublishedIn Tokyo Kōdansha
  16. 16. RDF graphs create a 'web of data' LC Name Authorities Yasunari Kawabata IsAuthorOf IsAuthorOf Mizuumi Yukiguni IsPublishedIn 1960 IsPublishedBy Shinchōsha IsPublishedBy Kōdansha Tokyo VIAF WorldCat GeoNames Publisher Web Site DBpedia
  17. 17. Linked Open Data Cloud
  18. 18. Library Linked Data Examples
  19. 19. id.loc.gov
  20. 20. Virtual International Authority File (VIAF)
  21. 21. LIBRIS – Swedish National Library
  22. 22. BL - British National Bibliography
  23. 23. Linked Data and RDA – The Future?
  24. 24. RDA in RDF  There’s another side to RDA, beyond the rules  Developed out of a 2007 meeting between representatives from the JSC and DCMI.  Vision is that RDA data elements could be the basis for machine interoperation of library data in a Linked Data environment in the future.
  25. 25. RDA in RDF http://rdvocab.info
  26. 26. The next generation bibliographic description?
  27. 27. The next generation bibliographic description?
  28. 28. Linked Data and Libraries     Libraries can make an important contribution to the Semantic Web. Librarians have a wealth of experience managing, preserving, describing and delivering data to users. We are data experts! The fundamental challenge for the development of Linked Data is lack of awareness within libraries. The technology is ready, are we?
  29. 29. Thanks!      Tom Heath and Christian Bizer (2011) Linked Data: Evolving the Web into a Global Data Space (1st edition). Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology, 1:1, 1-136. Morgan & Claypool. Coyle, Karen. (January 2010) “Understanding the Semantic Web: Bibliographic Data and Metadata.” Library Technology Reports 46, no.1. Hillmann, Diane, Karen Coyle, Jon Phipps, and Gordon Dunsire. (January/February 2010) “RDA Vocabularies: Process, Outcome, Use.” D-Lib Magazine 16, no. 1/2. http://dlib.org/dlib/january10/hillmann/01hillmann.html Tim Berners-Lee: The next Web of open, linked data http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OM6XIICm_qo Linking Open Data cloud diagram, by Richard Cyganiak and Anja Jentzsch. http://lod-cloud.net/