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Organic Vegetable Pest Management Updates 2013

  1. Organic Insect Pest Management Ayanava Majumdar Extension Entomologist & State SARE Coordinator Alabama Cooperative Extension System, Auburn Univ. Cell phone: 251-331-8416 Email: Rammohan Balusu & Henry Fadamiro AU Entomology & Plant Pathology Department Georgia Organics Conference, Atlanta 2013
  2. Presentation Layout • Background information • Insect pest identification • Organic integrated pest management (IPM) basics • Trap crops • Mechanical insect control • Biological control • Organic insecticides • Extension resources Please stop by the IPM exhibit for more publications, IPM newsletter & trap crop seeds!
  3. EBPM Training Events Regional Extension Agent training in improved scouting practices IPM training to farmers at farms in Alabama
  4. Why are INSECTS so successful? • Small size • Small food requirement • Rapid and prolific reproduction – Parthenogenesis • Grow by molting (control over growth rate) • Life stages feed on different substrate
  5. Why are INSECTS so successful?
  6. Insect Pests of Tomatoes
  7. What is it? Potato aphid, Macrosiphum Monitoring/scouting techniques: euphorbiae Sample ten plants in several locations Yellow sticky traps at edge of field Like cool, dry weather Watch for ants and lady beetles Green peach aphid, Myzus ET = 50% leaves with aphids persicae
  8. What is it? Monitoring/scouting techniques: Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Use sticky cards (yellow, blue) Bag and shake technique No action threshold Use resistant varieties (BHN 444, 589, 640, Bella Rosa) Tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca Tomato spotted wilt destroys plants
  9. What is it? Monitoring/scouting techniques: Flea beetles (many species) Monitor level of defoliation Sample small plants with sweep net during morning hours Observe activity of parasitoids, predators (sweep net) ET = 5-10% defoliation early season, 25- 30% defoliation mid-season
  10. What is it? Colorado potato Monitoring/scouting techniques: beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Start looking on border rows Scout intensely short crop (<6 inch) ET = 5 beetles per 10 seedling or 10% defoliation in short crop Larva of lady beetle (beneficial insect!)
  11. What is it? Tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea Monitoring/scouting techniques: Examine green fruit, stem terminals Scout for egg masses or larvae Use pheromone traps to detect first flight; ET = 5-10 moths per night when temp. is <85F ET is ½ if temp. is >85F Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens
  12. What is it? Southern green stink bug, Monitoring/scouting techniques: Nezara viridula Use a sweep net Use pheromone trap (expensive? cumbersome?) Intensify scouting at fruit setting ET = 0.25 bugs per 10 plants (green fruit stage) Brown stink Lygus bug, Lygus bug, Euschistus servus lineolaris
  13. Emerging Pest on Vegetables: Leaffooted Bugs Leptoglossus gonagra Leptoglossus phyllopus Heavy fruit drop in eggplants and tomatoes (LFBs) Leptoglossus zonatus
  14. What is it? Monitoring/scouting techniques: Minor foliar pests (ET = 5 larvae per 10 plants) Cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni Easy to collect & identify – shake and collect Watch for sun scald on fruits, esp. 20% defoliation Look for fecal pellets on leaves Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens
  15. Spider mites • Major pest of open field & high tunnel crops • Extensive webbing on leaves/stems • Rapid buildup in hot dry weather • Difficult to control with approved pesticides
  16. Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  17. What is IPM? • “Integrated pest management (IPM) is a threshold based decision management system which leads to judicious use of multiple pest control tactics.” • Major losses occur due to: • Lack of early detection of insects • Insecticide resistance by misuse • Loss of natural control with insecticides
  18. Decision making in IPM… • Insect detection & monitoring • Insect identification • Population pressure • Economic threshold • Natural enemy populations • Make treatment decision
  19. Organic Food Production Act - 1990 National Organic Program (NOP) USDA Crop Pest Management Practice Standard 7CFR Section 205 Primary focus to prevent insect pests, weeds, & diseases. Ref.: OIA North America, Gainesville, FL
  20. Pest Management Practice Standard (NOP, 7CFR Section 205.206) • Level 1: Systems-based practices (cultural practices, sanitation, crop rotation, trap crops) • Level 2: Mechanical and physical practices (row covers, lures/traps, repellents, insect netting, reflective mulch, hand-picking) • Level 3: Biorational & other material (OMRI approved insecticides)
  21. Alabama Insect Survey Locations Peanut farms Vegetable farms 2009 2010 (8,500 insects) (16,588 insects)
  22. Prefer cucumber, squash, gourd. Larvae overwinter in soil. Females lay 150-200 eggs singly. Moths are clear-winged with bright red abdomen. Row covers & field sanitation are best management tactics. Azadirachtin, diatomaceous earth…
  24. What is Trap Cropping? Insects have differential host preference Insects may feed and reproduce on preferred host
  25. What is Trap Cropping? Trap cropping is the planting of an attractive host plant to lure insect pests away from main crop. Trap crop may or may not be harvestable.
  26. Key Factors to Consider Different insects attracted to different trap crops: If trap crop is not sufficiently attractive to the pest then it will not work Timing: Important to have well established trap crop at right stage at the time of insect invasion Scouting: Control the pests immediately in the trap crop Be ready to sacrifice your trap crop Keep farm records Keep learning and use what you learn in next season
  27. Trap cropping layout Perimeter TC: Strip interplant TC: Source – Sink • Pest source • Pest source unknown approach: unknown • Comparitively more • Pest source known • Pest of limited mobile pests • Less insect movement mobility Trap crop Source Main crop Main crop Main crop Main crop Open field Main crop Open field Main crop Open field
  28. Trap cropping layout Perimeter Trap Cropping (PTC) Trap crop (Hubbard squash) • Trap crop = early planted squash, apply insecticide on borders • Squash lured 66% cucumber Main crop beetles and 90% squash bugs (watermelon, cantaloupe, • Crop losses reduced by 18% cucumber) Boucher & Durgy (2004)
  29. Trap cropping layout Strip interplant trap cropping Lygus bug management Strawberry Strawberry (34 rows) (34 rows) Lygus bug Alfalfa
  30. University of CA Research Successes: • >50% reduction of lygus bugs (vacuum + wasp parasite) • 75% saving on tractor time with trap crop Sean Swezey et al., 2007 (CA Agriculture)
  31. Managing Yellow margined leaf beetle (YMLB) Population with Trap crop  YMLB is a serious pest of cruciferous crops • Cabbage • Turnips • Mustard • Radish etc.  Migrates into vegetable field in early October  Damage: October – May
  32. Damage  Both adults and larvae feed on foliage by first making small holes; later serious defoliation Defoliation of larvae on turnip Mass attack of adults on napa cabbage
  33. Organically-managed crucifer field in south Alabama damaged by YMLB Napa cabbage Turnip
  34. Field Trials-Managing YMLB with Trap crop Spring 2011 Trap crop: Turnip and Napa cabbage Main crop: Cabbage Location: E. V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, AL Trap crop: planted 2 weeks in advance 5 ft
  35. Field Trials-Managing YMLB with Trap crop Spring 2011 Napa cabbage Main crop Trap crop Turnip 35 ft
  36. Field Trials-Managing YMLB with Trap crop Spring 2011 6 Mean ( SE) beetles/ plant Control 5 Cabbage (main crop) 4 Turnip (trap crop) 3 2 1 0 April 15, 2011 April 25, 2011
  37. Field Trials-Managing YMLB with Trap crop Spring 2011 Napa cabbage Trap crop Main crop
  38. Trap Crops in Tomato Production System
  39. Perimeter trap crop study (Brewton, AL, 2011 & 2012) Tomato main crop NK300 Sorghum trap crop
  40. Perimeter trap crop study (Clanton, AL, 2012) Sorghum Main crop: Tomato (NK300) Sunflower (Peredovik)
  41. Perimeter trap crop study (Cullman, AL, 2012) Main crop: Tomato
  42. Trap crop study for leaffooted bugs (Clanton, AL, 2012) 19 Manual removal in organic situation 18 Insecticide treatment and/or manual removal in organic situation 11 DKB5400 (sorghum trap crop) NK300 (sorghum trap crop) Sunflower (trap crop) Tomato (main crop) 4 4 2 3 2 2 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Obs. 1 Obs. 2 Obs. 3 Obs. 4 Obs. 5 Obs. 6 Obs. 7 (21 July) (4 Aug.) (13 Aug.) (5 Sep.) (7 Sep.) (20 Sep.) (4 Oct.) Numbers indicate leaffooted bugs (LFBs) on 20 heads of trap crops and 20 tomato plants for comparison purposes. Trap crops planted on May 16. Main crop planted on June 1. Trap crop treated with Mustang Max (zeta-cyper. @ 4 oz/A) on Sept. 5, 2012. Result = 78% LFB control in 5DAT. Tomato main crop is attacked by LFBs after the trap crop is ineffective (in October).
  43. Parasitoids like trap crop environment Peristenus relictus Trichopoda pennipes (Hymenoptra: Braconidae) (Diptera: Tachinidae) Host: Tarnished plant bugs Host: Southern green stink bug, leaffooted bugs Ref.: Swezey et al. (2007) Ref.: Tillman (2006)
  44. LEVEL 2 RESEARCH Net house vegetable production
  45. Nethouse Vegetable Production (A Preliminary Report on Successes and Challenges) Photos: Mike Powell, Polyprodu ctos de Guatemala EXCELLENT PEST PREVENTION TACTIC!
  46. First Net House in Alabama (2010) Location: Baldwin County, AL Dimensions: 150 ft X 48 ft X 17 ft Entrance: Double door Fabric mesh 30-50 as insect barrier Mesh size depends on target insect & cost
  47. Bell peppers were grown with success (Year 1 Research) 40% black shade cloth for cooling down the interior
  48. Net House vs. Conventional Cropping System Armyworms Hornworm Net house Untreated Net house Untreated Net house, 2010 Control Control (outside) (outside) Insect numbers (40 plants) 7 32 0 17 % reduction 78% 100% ANOVA F = 16.845, F = 15.852, P = 0.0001** P = 0.0001** Advantages of net house: Less dependence on insecticides even in high pest pressures Better use of hand-removal of low insect numbers Long life of the fabric/structure
  49. Insect Netting Applications Insect netting on the sides of a high tunnel Use insect netting over the entire high tunnel frame
  50. What Are Natural Enemies? Rely on naturally – occurring biological control is the most important means of controlling insect pests in organic farming. Natural Enemies are beneficial insects that are enemies of insects pests exist in nature  Kill pests  Decrease pest reproductive potential 51
  51. Who kills Pests? Predators: – Ladybugs, Spiders Natural Enemies • General feeders • Eat several prey • Larger and stronger than the prey Parasitoids (=parasites): – Wasps, Flies • Specialist feeders • Kill only one host (pest) • Smaller than the host Pathogens: – Bacteria, Fungus & Viruses • Micro-organisms that cause diseases in insects 52
  52. Predators Lady beetles Green lacewing Hover flies Robber flies Assassin bugs Abulrfan © Rao Balusu Larvae Bigeyed bugs Minute pirate bugs Larvae Eggs © Rao Balusu Spinded soldier bug Spiders Orb weavers Wolf spider Crab spider 53
  53. Parasitoids Trichogramma wasp Aphidius wasp Tachinid flies Trichopoda pennipes Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc Mummified aphids Wasp in action 54
  54. Conserving Natural Enemies  Don’t reach for the pesticide spray  Limit use of broad spectrum insecticides  Use pesticides that are compatible with biological control  Microbials : Bt  Botanicals: Neem  Provide foods that adults need  Flowering plants:  To attract natural enemies  To provide shelter/shade  To produce pollen and nectar Grow mixture (diversity) of plants for continuous source of flowers 55
  55. Conserving Natural Enemies  Provide foods that the immature stages need  Allow low level of pest (prey)  Cover crops:  provide alternative prey  Making a home for natural enemies  Overwintering sites: insulate from the winter chill - undisturbed grassy area  Mulches: Provide humidity, shelter for nocturnal predators - Spiders, ground beetles. 56
  56. Information Resources Native Plants to Enhance Beneficial Insects website Guidelines for Purchasing and Using Commercial Natural Enemies and Biopesticides in Florida and Other States, University of Florida, EDIS, Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests, Cornell Extension Pub., 48 pp. (1993) ACORM workshop by Cliff sadof, Bob O’ Neil Scouting for vineyard insect pests and natural enemies by Rufus Isaacs Recognizing and working with natural enemies of insect pest by Whitney Cranshaw An IPM scouting guide for natural enemies of vegetable pest in kentucky 57
  57. LEVEL 3 RESEARCH Organic Insecticides/Tank Mixes
  58. Organic Approved Insecticides
  59. Insecticide Mode of Action (MoA) Physical dessicant – kaolin clay, ash Contact action – vegetable oils, horticultural oils, neem, pyrethrin, insecticidal soap, spinosyn, Beauveria, Metarhizium Stomach action – Bt (Dipel), Chromobacterium Volatile action – Garlic Barrier, Cinnamite
  60. Evaluation of OMRI insecticides as stand-alone treatments and in rotation for managing YMLB Trade name Active ingredient PyGanic® Pyrethrum Aza-Direct® Azadiractin Entrust® Spinosad Novodor® Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis (Btt) MBI-203 (Grandevo) Chromobacteria subtsugae Mycotrol O® Beauveria bassiana strain GHA Tick-Ex Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52 NOFLY™ Paecilomyces fumosoroseus strain FE 9901
  61. Results PyGanic® Entrust® 6 NOFLY™ MBI -203 a Mean (± SE) damage rating per plant 5 Entrust® alternated with NOFLY™ Entrust® alternated with PyGanic® a Control b 4 a b 3 b a 2 c a b ab bc d 1 c b c c 0 10/31 11/1 11/5 11/9 11/13 11/17 11/22
  62. An Evaluation of Reduced Risk Pesticides for Control of Lepidopterous Pests of Cole Crops
  63. An Evaluation of Reduced Risk Pesticides for Control of Lepidopterous Pests of Cole Crops
  64. An Evaluation of Reduced Risk Pesticides for Control of Lepidopterous Pests of Cole Crops c Marketable b ab a a
  65. Evaluation of “Soft” Insecticides for Control of Caterpillar Pests of Crucifer Non-Target Arthropods Sampled pest homopteran 30 non-homoptera 25 Total Number 20 15 10 5 0 Dipel Xentari Xentari + Entrust Untreated Dipel Treatment
  66. Limitations of Organic Insecticides Relatively short persistence Requires frequent applications Mostly contact activity Requires complete coverage and correct timing Not available in small quantities Short shelf life Expensive!!
  67. Tomato fruit protection (Cullman, AL, 2012) Crop: Tomato, planting date: July 9, insecticides applied using C02 sprayer at 40 GPA. Replications = 4. Insecticide treatment dates: Sept. 6, 14, 21. Data indicates percent damaged fruits (10 fruits/plot). Treatments AI Sept. 24 Oct. 4 Range of Average Range of Average damage (%) damage (%) damage (%) damage (%) Xentari Bt 20-60 37.5 10-40 20.0 Pyganic Pyrethrum 20-50 35.0 20-40 32.5 Xentari + Pyganic Tank-mix 20-50 30.0 10-60 27.5 Untreated check 90-100 95.0 40-80 55.0 Tank mix of approved insecticides may improve control effectiveness. Research will continue on evaluating further tank mixes and trap crops. *OMRI-approved for organic vegetable production
  68. Efficacy of SUFFOIL-X & JMS STYLEY-OIL for Two-spotted Spider Mite Control 2012 56 Reduction in mites with JMS Stylet-Oil & Suffoil- X is good but action could be slow! 45 35 34 32 27 Untreated check 23 26 Suffoil-X (0.01%) 18 JMS Stylet-Oil (3 qt) 14 17 11 12 Bifenthrin 5 oz/A 27 Sept. 3 Oct. 12 Oct. 19 Oct. Crop was tomatoes. Location: Chilton REC, Clanton, AL. Numbers indicate spider mites on 40 tomato leaves.
  69. Organic IPM Recommendations • Aphids: – Okra trap crop – Reflective mulch – Release predators – Neem oil, soap, Grandevo? • Thrips: – Grow resistant varieties – Reflective mulch – Remove infected plants – Spinosad, pyrethrin, Grandevo?
  70. Organic IPM Recommendations • Caterpillar complex: – Control weeds – Parasitoids & predators – Insect netting to prevent infestation – Bt (Xentari) + pyrethrin, Spod-X (beet armyworm) – Rotate with spinosad (if needed) • Leaffooted bugs/stink bugs – Control weeds – Trap cropping (staggered, mixed crops, design) – Pyrethrin
  72. Alabama Vegetable Extension IPM Website
  73. Alabama SARE Website
  74. Join Vegetable IPM on Facebook! Advantages: Live updates, interact with researchers, videos and photos, IPM contest
  75. The IPM Communicator (A FREE electronic newsletter) To signup: Email Or sign up today on the sheet provided!
  76. YouTube Channel: ‘IPMNews’ Recorded Live in Field!
  78. Organic Insect Pest Management Presenters: Dr. Ayanava Majumdar Dr. Rammohan Balusu QUESTIONS? Georgia Organics Conference, Atlanta 2013

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. The preferred hosts of the soybean looper are soybean, sweet potato, and peanut. Other hosts include cotton, tomato, crucifers, pea, tobacco, and cocklebur.
  2. Which trap crop you choose depends on the pests you trying trap.