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Better lives through livestock
Preventing the next pandemic:
Zoonotic diseases and how to break
the chain of transmission
...
2
Outline
1. Who is ILRI?
2. Crash course infectious disease terminology
3. What are drivers of pandemics?
4. Recommendati...
3
Who is ILRI?
CGIAR global partnership for a food
secure future
Poverty alleviation through agricultural
research
15 rese...
4
Who is ILRI?
Livestock contributes >40% to the global
GDP
At least 1.3 bn people depend on
livestock for their livelihoo...
5
Opportunities and challenges
in the livestock sector
Human health Economies Environment
Opportunities Population growth:...
6
Source: ILRI Flickr
Red Maasai sheep x Dorper for improved helminth resistance
(vegetation) Index-Based Livestock Insura...
7
co-hosted by both the
governments of Ethiopia
and Kenya, with offices in
12 other countries.
approximately 600
permanent...
8
Crash course infectious disease terminology
• Communicable vs.
Non-communicable diseases
• Zoonoses: communicable diseas...
9
When zoonoses become an epidemic.... and a pandemic
Source: Reprinted from The Lancet, Vol.380, Karesh et al., Ecology o...
10
Drivers of
zoonotic disease transmission
July 2020
Preventing the Next Pandemic:
Zoonotic diseases and how to break the...
11
Driver 1: increasing demand for animal protein
Asia: 4.4 bn (60%)
Africa: 1.2 bn (16%)
Europe: 738 Mio (10%)
North Amer...
12
Driver 1: increasing demand for animal protein
http://www.ifpri.org/
13
Driver 2: Unsustainable agricultural intensification
• Genetically
homogenous host
populations
• Crowding
Source: Bloom...
14
Coronaviruses have been around for a while!
post
WWII
Pig
intensif
Wildlife
and
camel
intensif
1920 1930 1940 1950-1970...
15
Driver 3: Increased use and exploitation of wildlife
Change in weight of vertebrate land animals from 10,000 years ago ...
16
Driver 4: Unsustainable use of natural resources
Annual loss
of 10 mio
ha per year
Disturbance of habitats of ticks, mo...
17
Co-evolution effect Dilution effect
Zohdy et al., 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.03.010
Generalists: blue jay,...
18
Driver 5: Travel and transportation
James Horner; Source: YouTube https://youtu.be/yx7_yzypm5w (UMG (on behalf of Vares...
19
© ILRI/Stevie Mann
© ILRI/Ben Lukuyu
© ILRI/Apollo Habtamu
© ILRI/Brad Collins
© ILRI/Stevie Mann © SUA/Fortunate Shija...
20
Driver 7: Climate change
Ixodes ricinus (c) ECDC
Liu-Helmersson et al. 2019. Estimating Past, Present, and
Future Trend...
21
Drivers of disease emergence
1. Increasing demand for animal protein
2. Unsustainable agricultural intensification
3. I...
22
Recommendation
Adopt a One Health approach
• Inter- and transdisciplinary
• Multi-sectoral
• Evidence-based
• Collabora...
23
Prepare
Detect
Respond
United Nations Environment Programme and International Livestock Research Institute (2020).
Prev...
24
1. COVID-19
2. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever
3. Ebola virus disease and Marburg
virus disease
4. Lassa fever
5. Midd...
25
ILRI One Health Research Education and Outreach Center
Gender and socio-economics: incentives, value chains, impacts, l...
ONE-HEALTH INVESTMENT REPORT
REPORT TO BE PUBLISHED BY JULY 2021
SEVEN ‘why it matters’ fact
sheets
Seven messages + 22 Ac...
27
 Biosciences
• Animal Research Facilities:
o Biological Safety Level 2 plus animal containment facility
• High end mol...
28
ILRI’s Kapiti Research Station and
Wildlife Conservancy in Kenya
 Run as a livestock research station, commercial
live...
29
ILRI sequencing and bioinformatics capacity
 Sanger capillary sequencing
 Illumina - two MiSeq and one NextSeq 550
 ...
THANK YOU
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Preventing the next pandemic: Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission

Keynote presentation by Kristina Roesel at the 2021 International Student Week in Ilmenau (ISWI), Ilmenenau, Germany, 31 May 2021.

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Preventing the next pandemic: Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission

  1. 1. Better lives through livestock Preventing the next pandemic: Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission Kristina Roesel on behalf of Animal and Human Health program International Livestock Research Institute, Kenya International Student Week in Ilmenau (ISWI) 31 May 2021
  2. 2. 2 Outline 1. Who is ILRI? 2. Crash course infectious disease terminology 3. What are drivers of pandemics? 4. Recommendations to break the chain of transmission 5. ILRI‘s One Health approach
  3. 3. 3 Who is ILRI? CGIAR global partnership for a food secure future Poverty alleviation through agricultural research 15 research centres More than 8,000 scientists, researchers, technicians and support staff https://www.cgiar.org
  4. 4. 4 Who is ILRI? Livestock contributes >40% to the global GDP At least 1.3 bn people depend on livestock for their livelihoods Our impact pathways: (1) securing the assets of the poor, (2) improving smallholder and pastoral productivity, and (3) increasing market participation by the poor. https://www.ilri.org (c) ILRI/Phil Thornton, adapted by Delia Grace
  5. 5. 5 Opportunities and challenges in the livestock sector Human health Economies Environment Opportunities Population growth: food and nutrition security Regional and global demand for livestock products Manure, fertilizer, regenerative energies Challenges overconsumption, food safety, (emerging) zoonoses Equity, urbanization, trans- boundary diseases Land/water degradation, human-wildlife conflict, pollution, GHG emissions Source: ILRI Flickr
  6. 6. 6 Source: ILRI Flickr Red Maasai sheep x Dorper for improved helminth resistance (vegetation) Index-Based Livestock Insurance for resilient pastoralism in drought-prone systems: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0030727019866840 https://www.spiegel.de/ausland/corona-wie-tierforscher-das-virus- bekaempfen-a-41a0e564-c0b6-491e-a71f-16dbdc7ce08d
  7. 7. 7 co-hosted by both the governments of Ethiopia and Kenya, with offices in 12 other countries. approximately 600 permanent staff ILRI offices and staff worldwide Location of program partners Location of projects
  8. 8. 8 Crash course infectious disease terminology • Communicable vs. Non-communicable diseases • Zoonoses: communicable diseases transmitted between vertebrate animals („respect nature“) • The spillover event and the pace of transmission: mutation (“I change”) and virulence factors • Endemic, epidemic, pandemic Source: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
  9. 9. 9 When zoonoses become an epidemic.... and a pandemic Source: Reprinted from The Lancet, Vol.380, Karesh et al., Ecology of zoonoses: natural and unnatural histories, Page 1942, Copyright (2012).
  10. 10. 10 Drivers of zoonotic disease transmission July 2020 Preventing the Next Pandemic: Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/108707 Lead Author: Delia Grace Randolph (NRI & ILRI) Co-Authors: Johannes Refisch (UNEP), Susan MacMillan (ILRI), Caradee Yael Wright (South African Medical Research Council), Bernard Bett (ILRI), Doreen Robinson (UNEP), Bianca Wernecke (South African Medical Research Council), Hu Suk Lee (ILRI), William B. Karesh (EcoHealth Alliance), Catherine Machalaba (EcoHealth Alliance), Amy Fraenkel (Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animal), Marco Barbieri (Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals) and Maarten Kappelle (UNEP).
  11. 11. 11 Driver 1: increasing demand for animal protein Asia: 4.4 bn (60%) Africa: 1.2 bn (16%) Europe: 738 Mio (10%) North America: 358 Mio (4.9%) Ozeania: 39 Mio (0.1%) 1900: 1.6 bn South America and the Caribbean: 634 Mio (9%)
  12. 12. 12 Driver 1: increasing demand for animal protein http://www.ifpri.org/
  13. 13. 13 Driver 2: Unsustainable agricultural intensification • Genetically homogenous host populations • Crowding Source: Bloomberg/Getty Images Source: Afrik21 Source: Afrik21
  14. 14. 14 Coronaviruses have been around for a while! post WWII Pig intensif Wildlife and camel intensif 1920 1930 1940 1950-1970 1980-1990 2000 2010 2020 post WWI Poultry intensif Source: ILRI/UNEP report 2020
  15. 15. 15 Driver 3: Increased use and exploitation of wildlife Change in weight of vertebrate land animals from 10,000 years ago to today. (Source: Optimum Population Trust, Smil 2011 via https://www.savetheearth.info/infographics.html) • Harvesting meat (low input) • Recreational: hunting, status • Trade in live animals: pets, zoos, research/medical testing • decorative, medicinal and other commercial products
  16. 16. 16 Driver 4: Unsustainable use of natural resources Annual loss of 10 mio ha per year Disturbance of habitats of ticks, mosquitoes, bats, monkeys, other wildlife 19th century: 1 bn 21st century: 8 bn Disturbed habitats favor opportunistic /generalist species Dilution effect: more natural virus transmission events within fewer host species More frequent contact Opportunistic/generalist species need to find new habitats for food and shelter More animals, less genetically diverse, crowded Source: ILRI/UNEP report 2020
  17. 17. 17 Co-evolution effect Dilution effect Zohdy et al., 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.03.010 Generalists: blue jay, western scrub jay, common grackle, house finch, American crow, house sparrow and American robin Osfeld RS. Biodiversity loss and the rise of zoonotic pathogens. Clin Microbiol Infect 2009; 15 (Suppl. 1): 40–43
  18. 18. 18 Driver 5: Travel and transportation James Horner; Source: YouTube https://youtu.be/yx7_yzypm5w (UMG (on behalf of Varese Sarabande); ASCAP, Sony ATV Publishing, Polaris Hub AB, and 11 Music Rights Societies)
  19. 19. 19 © ILRI/Stevie Mann © ILRI/Ben Lukuyu © ILRI/Apollo Habtamu © ILRI/Brad Collins © ILRI/Stevie Mann © SUA/Fortunate Shija © ILRI/Dave Elsworth Driver 6: Changes in food supply systems
  20. 20. 20 Driver 7: Climate change Ixodes ricinus (c) ECDC Liu-Helmersson et al. 2019. Estimating Past, Present, and Future Trends in the Global Distribution and Abundance of the Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti Under Climate Change Scenarios. Front. Public Health 7:148. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00148
  21. 21. 21 Drivers of disease emergence 1. Increasing demand for animal protein 2. Unsustainable agricultural intensification 3. Increased use and exploitation of wildlife 4. Unsustainable use of natural resources accelerated by urbanization, land use change and extractive industries 5. Travel and transportation 6. Changes in food supply systems 7. Climate change Predominantly anthropogenic (= made by humans)
  22. 22. 22 Recommendation Adopt a One Health approach • Inter- and transdisciplinary • Multi-sectoral • Evidence-based • Collaborative local, regional, global • Towards a common goal https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kfluP-tFC2k language culture Political system willingne ss KAP language equity Economi c system Time
  23. 23. 23 Prepare Detect Respond United Nations Environment Programme and International Livestock Research Institute (2020). Preventing the Next Pandemic: Zoonotic diseases and how to break the chain of transmission. Nairobi, Kenya. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/108707.
  24. 24. 24 1. COVID-19 2. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever 3. Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus disease 4. Lassa fever 5. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) 6. Nipah and henipaviral diseases 7. Rift Valley fever 8. Zika virus 9. „Disease X“ Food for thought COVID-19 was a warning sign by mother nature Top 9 infectious diseases with a potential for a pandemic Antimicrobial resistance, a silent pandemic
  25. 25. 25 ILRI One Health Research Education and Outreach Center Gender and socio-economics: incentives, value chains, impacts, livelihoods, etc. Management unit Graduate Fellowships: fellowship program; Science communication Field practitioners: community-based surveillance; value chain actors; lab technicians Policy makers and mitigation agents: simulation exercises (link to international health regulations; action plans, contingency plans, disease control policies EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES NEGLECTED ZOONOTIC DISEASES FOOD SAFETY & INFORMAL MARKETS ANTI MICROBIAL RESISTANCE Thematic areas Applied research Biomedical science: epidemiology, surveillance and diagnostics, disease control, etc. Environment: climate and other environment drivers, animal waste management, etc. Capacity building Integration of thematic areas: Work in common systems, integrated surveillance systems, common tools, environment, strengthening of One Health units, etc. https://www.ilri.org/research/facilities/one-health-centre https://www.ilri.org/one-health
  26. 26. ONE-HEALTH INVESTMENT REPORT REPORT TO BE PUBLISHED BY JULY 2021 SEVEN ‘why it matters’ fact sheets Seven messages + 22 Action Areas ‘what works, what delivers’ case studies One-Health investment report Blogs Op-Eds Podcasts Animation Infographics Stories Presentations Evidence briefs https://whylivestockmatter.org/livestock-pathways-2030-one-health
  27. 27. 27  Biosciences • Animal Research Facilities: o Biological Safety Level 2 plus animal containment facility • High end molecular laboratory facilities, BSL2 & BLS 3 labs for CGIAR researchers and NARS o Azizi liquid nitrogen biorepository  Mazingira environmental research centre • Greenhouse gas emission & climate change studies in crops, livestock and land-use changes in Africa  One Health Centre in Africa • Improving the health of humans, animals and ecosystems o Capacity building o Strengthening local, regional and global networks o Evidence-based policy advice  CGIAR Antimicrobial Resistance Hub • Evidence linking antimicrobial resistance in agriculture and public health outcomes • Development of locally relevant and applicable evidence- based interventions • 66 hectares (167 acres or 660,000 m2) • 116 buildings • 7,342 m2 office space ILRI Nairobi facilities
  28. 28. 28 ILRI’s Kapiti Research Station and Wildlife Conservancy in Kenya  Run as a livestock research station, commercial livestock ranch and wildlife conservancy  13,000 hectares (32,000 acres)  85 km east of Nairobi in Machakos County  Semi-arid lands  3288 cattle, 1474 sheep, 607 goats, 34 camels  Thousands of wildlife species including various species of carnivores and herbivores as well as birds and reptiles  Conservancy plans with Kenya Wildlife Service
  29. 29. 29 ILRI sequencing and bioinformatics capacity  Sanger capillary sequencing  Illumina - two MiSeq and one NextSeq 550  Oxford Nanopore Technology - MinION  High-performance servers • Computer nodes: 11 • Number of CPU cores: 220 • Total RAM: 2.6 TB • Storage capacity: 317 TB  Whole genome sequencing; amplicon sequencing; meta-genomics; RNAseq; single cell; de novo assembly; ref mapping; annotation pipelines;
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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