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Enhancing farmer engagement in climate policy and COP27


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Enhancing farmer engagement in climate policy and COP27

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Presented by Romy Chevallier at the Virtual Policy and Advocacy Training Workshop, 29 September 2022.
This workshop was co-organised by AICCRA and the Eastern Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) and attended by member organisations from across the EAFF network.

Presented by Romy Chevallier at the Virtual Policy and Advocacy Training Workshop, 29 September 2022.
This workshop was co-organised by AICCRA and the Eastern Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) and attended by member organisations from across the EAFF network.


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Enhancing farmer engagement in climate policy and COP27

  1. 1. Better lives through livestock Enhancing farmer engagement in climate policy and COP27 Romy Chevallier Policy and engagement specialist, AICCRA Eastern Africa Farmers Federation (EAFF) Policy and Advocacy Development Virtual Workshop Online meeting, 29 September 2022
  2. 2. Koronivia Joint Work on Agriculture • Where we are at? • What to look out for at COP27? Enhancing farmer engagement in climate policies • NDCs and Long-term strategies Advocacy tools and approaches
  3. 3. Why does agriculture matter? Land plays an important role in global cycles of GHGs Land use activities can result in emissions of GHGs Land use can contribute to the removal of GHGs from the atmosphere through sustainable management of forests, oceans and ecosystems Measures need to be in place to facilitate adaptation to climate change, especially to ensure food production is not threatened IPCC finds that Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) is responsible for 25% of GHG emissions from deforestation and degradation, agricultural emissions and forest and agricultural burning Reference: D Dhanush, CLIM-EAT
  5. 5. KORONIVIA JOINT WORK ON AGRICULTURE • Agriculture is the only sector with a dedicated ‘joint’ workstream at the climate negotiations • At COP23 in Bonn in 2017 a road map was adopted to address agricultural issues • Decision requests Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and Subsidiary Body for Implementation to address agricultural challenges through workshops & expert meetings covering identified topics • Parties/ observers submit views on each topic which are then discussed at upcoming workshops. Workshops produce recommendations to COP
  6. 6. Koronivia expert meetings and key topics DEC 2018 Methods for implementing the outcomes of Koronivia workshops JUNE 2019 Methods for assessing adaptation and building resilience JUNE 2019 Improving soil health and soil carbon storage, including through improved water management Dec 2019 Improving nutrient use and manure management NOV 2020 Improved livestock management systems NOV 2020 Intersections of the socio- economic and food security dimensions of climate and agriculture 2021 Additional: Intersessional Sustainable land and water management: scaling implementation
  7. 7. The Koronivia timeline NOV 2017 Adoption of the Koronivia decision at COP23 MARCH 2018 Submission of views by Parties and observers on the elements to be included in KJWA APR-MAY 2018 Adoption of the KJWA road map Dec 2018 Integration of Financial Mechanism s in the KJWA process Oct 2018 -Sep 2020 Implementation of the KJWA road map and its workshops NOV 2020 COP postponed due to COVID Final workshops on KJWA held during climate dialogues NOV 2021 Report to COP26 on progress and outcomes of the KJWA NOV 2022 New mandate for KJWA to be achieved at COP27
  8. 8. Negotiators assessed outcomes from previous 3 workshops. Consensus was reached on the following topics: • Soil and nutrient management practices lies at the core of climate-resilient, sustainable food production systems and contributes to global food security. • While livestock management systems are vulnerable to climate change, adopting sustainable production practices and improving animal health contributes to reduced GHG emissions and increases carbon sequestration in pastures and grazing lands. • Need to continue working on agriculture under UNFCCC with a view to adopting a decision at COP27. Parties recognised the impact of the KJWA on financing entities and its potential in aligning international organisations and processes in their work on agriculture and climate change. KJWA and COP26
  9. 9. REACHING CONSENSUS NOT EASY • Vested interests of countries and entities (developed vs. developing) • Disagreement on focus for agriculture: mitigation/ adaptation • Countries/ agriculture stakeholders can be hostile to shift in policies/ rules • UNFCCC negotiators are often foreign ministers/ environment ministers • Absence of resources to support and scale good approaches, as well as to integrate agriculture into existing policies (NDCs) • Lack of finance dedicated specifically to increase food security
  10. 10. • Countries need to agree on a new mandate/ future for the KJWA • OPPORTUNITY to adopt an integrated and holistic approach across the food system, moving beyond sustainable agriculture • Africa focus: Important to ensure a focus on food security. • Way forward: • Focus on mobilising technical and financial resources to support implementation • Develop workplan to incentivise multi-stakeholder partnerships that enhance climate action in agriculture TOWARDS COP27
  12. 12. NDC’s and Long-term Strategies • Glasgow Climate Pact called all countries to revise their NDCs in 2022 (instead of in 2025) with more ambitious emission reduction targets for 2030. • Called countries to work towards developing their long-term, low carbon emissions strategies
  13. 13. GLASGOW CLIMATE PACT •COP26 called all countries to revise their NDCs in 2022 (instead of in 2025) with more ambitious emission reduction targets for 2030. •Call countries to develop Long- Term, Low Carbon emissions Strategies to 2050
  14. 14. CLIMATE FINANCE • Address unmet promises: Delivery of USD 100 billion/annum commitment • Increase for mitigation, adaptation, loss and damage (small holder farmer access?) • Betw. 2000- 2018, contributions to agriculture & land use totalled $ 122 bn (26% of climate flows). Bilateral deals/ pledges: • Agriculture Innovation Mission for Climate - support CSA & food systems innovation (2021 – 2025) • World Bank committed $25 billion annually to 2025, focus on agri/food.
  15. 15. • Signed by 110 countries (including Rwanda, DRC, Djibouti and Ethiopia) • Action to reduce global methane emissions by 30% by 2030. • Agriculture contributes 40-53% of anthropogenic methane emissions (70% generated by ruminant livestock, 20% from rice production, 7% from manure). GLOBAL METHANE PLEDGE
  16. 16. LOSS AND DAMAGE • At COP26 the Glasgow Dialogue was launched to discuss funding arrangements for loss and damage. • Countries agreed to strengthen support to vulnerable countries with resources to address climate risk (including loss of income from agricultural production and damage to infrastructure or property).
  17. 17. GLASGOW DECLARATION ON FORESTS AND LAND USE • 144 countries (including Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and DRC) • Committing to end and reverse deforestation and land degradation by 2030 • Implement, redesign and finance agricultural policies and programmes to incentivise sustainable agriculture and promote food security • Financial support to Indigenous Peoples and local communities
  18. 18. POLICY ACTION AGENDA FOR TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE •Provides innovative pathways and actions to support a just transition to sustainable food and agricultural systems. •Supported by 16 countries (Ethiopia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria). •95 companies committed to halting and reversing decline of nature by 2030. •Launch of ‘100 Million Farmers’ to assist farmers with food systems transformation via multi-stakeholder platforms (convened by World Economic Forum)
  19. 19. ARTICLE 6: MARKET MECHANISMS • New agreements and rules for market mechanisms, such as support the transfer of emission reductions (carbon credit trading) between countries • Agricultural carbon offsetting projects only account for 1% of all carbon credits issued, while Forestry and Land Use sector are the largest generators of carbon credits (45%).
  20. 20. COP27 IS COINED ‘IMPLEMENTATION COP’ - Key focus now is how countries will integrate these global commitments and pledges into national level action
  21. 21. ENGAGEMENT AT COP27 • Forest, Agriculture and Commodity Trade Dialogue • Adaptation and Agriculture Day (12 Nov) • Flagship initiative of Egyptian Presidency – Food and Agriculture for Sustainable Transformation • 2 x Food Systems Pavilions • Opportunity for farmers to showcase solutions/ discuss barriers under a number of themes.
  23. 23. Farmer engagement in climate policies – NDCs and Long-Term Strategies
  24. 24. Agriculture in the NDCs of countries in Eastern Africa Key concepts and themes
  25. 25. NDCs as important vehicles to communicate farmer priorities and guide action
  26. 26. • National climate plans to 2030 (mitigation and adaptation) • Bottom-up plans, determined by countries-level • Reviewed every 5 years for • Call for revision in 2022 C Inclusive process Nationally Determined Contributions (2030)
  27. 27. • NDCs serve to guide coordinated responses from all sectors and stakeholders across society. • They set a path for ambitious climate action • Agriculture is a KEY sector to achieve these country goals
  28. 28. NDCs: the building blocks for a long-term vision
  29. 29. The on-going revision process of NDCs opens opportunities for farmer organisations to lobby their governments to ensure that their interests and needs are included as priority areas for climate action. If farmer concerns are not captured within NDCs, it is unlikely resources will be allocated to these areas.
  30. 30. Kenya 2016, 2020 Tanzania (Zanzibar) 2018, 2021 DR Congo 2016, 2021 Rwanda 2016, 2020 South Sudan 2021 Eritrea 2018 Burundi 2017, 2021 Ethiopia 2017, 2020 Uganda 2016, 2021 EAFF member countries and revised/ new NDCs * Official UNFCCC registry (August 2021) Djibouti 2016
  31. 31. • Low emissions, climate- resilient development strategies to be developed in 2020. • All of society and all sectors. • 4 African countries have submitted their LTS’s (South Africa, Benin, Nigeria and Morocco) but many developing them • Opening intervention opportunities for farmers. LONG-TERM STRATEGIES (2050)
  32. 32. • Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs), • National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs), • National Climate Change Strategies/ Climate Bills/ Green Economy Strategies/ sectoral strategies. Besides NDCs and Long-Term Strategies, farmers can also engage other climate strategies and policies to pursue their interests and needs
  33. 33. Strengthening the content and substance of climate policies to reflect farmer interests
  34. 34. The agricultural sector features prominently in national commitments, indicative of the transformative role it can play in climate action and as a driver sustainable development BUT extent, depth and quality of inclusion varies
  35. 35. Research conducted on the agricultural contributions of 162 NDCs found that: • Most NDCs include agricultural mitigation (CA and CSA, soil and crop management, agroforestry and afforestation) • Most countries listed agriculture as a priority for adaptation (livestock and crop management, fisheries/ aquaculture management, irrigation and water management, knowledge transfer, agricultural diversification and soil/ land management). • Almost all countries mention forestry.
  36. 36. NDCs should better reflect farmer interests • References to agriculture are weighed in adaptation and resilience building. • Balance adaptation and mitigation elements of agriculture • Very few set GHG reduction targets specifically for agriculture. • Few make explicit reference to farmers. • While many refer to gender and the inclusion of women, few refer to gender in the context of agriculture/ women farmers. • Few goals and indicators on food loss and waste, post-harvest losses and dietary transitions.
  37. 37. Define financial support needed to implement activities in the agriculture sector, particularly resources targeted for women farmers and their communities. Ie. call for budget allocations to subsidize costs for gadgets and data, digital infrastructure network expansion, climate insurance, capacity building and training etc INCLUDE SPECIFIC CALL FOR implementation support
  38. 38. Include specific technical capacities needs and training requirements, including enhanced capacities to engage decision makers, raise awareness and outreach. Ie. Strengthening the capacities of NFOs to conduct monitoring and reporting so that they can become leaders in accountability for national and international commitments to sustainable and ethical development.
  39. 39. Based on good practice of NDCs elsewhere, the content of NDCs can be improved to reflect farmer interests. Lessons learned can be tailored to different national priorities and contexts.
  42. 42. Strengthen farmer participation in climate policy at multiple levels & through various channels.
  43. 43. • Formal, inclusive multi- stakeholder processes and meetings organised by national government • NFOs must be active in these policy spaces, nominating representatives to deliver key messages to government. • Submit formal statements representing farmer interests. Participation in government-led consultations
  44. 44. Map out key policy processes • Establish the status of updating of the climate policies (ie. NDC timelines, processes, key stakeholder engagement opportunities) • NFOs can try getting linked into the process through other connections (research institutes and consultants already involved).
  45. 45. NFOs should be proactively engaged in the entire policy cycle Know who to engage, how to engage and what strategic options there are for strategic policy intervention. Strengthen legitimacy and ownership of climate policies for farmers in the region.
  46. 46. Strengthen relationships and build trust • NFOs need to identify influential policy makers that can help alert them to policy windows, engagement opportunities, champion an agriculturally sensitive climate advocacy agenda. • Practical ways to go about this - write a letter requesting engagement, active engagement in key meetings and on social media.
  47. 47. Engage other platforms dealing with climate issues • Local and provincial government departments or units have been developing their own climate strategies and plans. • Parliamentary portfolio committees provide an oversight role on all climate change programmes implemented by government. • Representation on Presidential Panels, Inter-governmental Forums etc
  48. 48. Representation on national climate change negotiating teams • NFOs are strategic partners that represent broader farmer constituencies at COP. • NFOs should advocate for representation on negotiating teams, as well as for financial support to participate.
  49. 49. Use social media and communication tools • Social media, blogs and advocacy chatrooms can broadcast climate advocacy campaigns, pitch a persuasive statement, and expand collaborations with other climate advocacy networks. • Social media and online chat facilities can bridge this gap and support the engagement of farmers with policy makers.
  50. 50. Organised, representative, informed farmer engagement • Effective engagement is more likely through alliances and network groups that represent broader farmer groupings. • A common voice of NFOs, one which is recognized by government and with which government can liaise. • NFOs must remain committed to its objectives over a longer period.
  51. 51. Strengthening farmers agency for engagement in climate policy
  52. 52. Engage on farmer platforms to strengthen awareness, technical and advisory capacities Take advantage of training and capacity building programmes on climate policy and negotiations Expand peer learning amongst NFOs Build partnerships with like minded, supportive stakeholders Policy capacity and engagement knowledge. Technical, human, and financial resources to effectively engage policy makers on a sustained basis, especially considering the drawn-out nature of the policy process.
  53. 53. THANK YOU